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Paul Richards

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Helen M. Strudwick, Claude Vandersleyen, Dimitris Plantzos, William A. Ward, William H. Peck, Dominic Montserrat, John Baines, Gay Robins, J. Ruffle, Lise Manniche, Rosemarie Klemm, Jean-Luc Chappaz, Joachim Śliwa, Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood, Ann Bomann, R. G. Morkot, Peter Lacovara, Delia Pemberton, Rita E. Freed, Philip J. Watson, Robert S. Bianchi, Henry G. Fischer, Jaromir Malek, S. Curto, Nadine Cherpion, James F. Romano, Karol Mysliwiec, Richard A. Fazzini, Edna R. Russmann, Eleni Vassilika, updated by Dimitris Plantzos, Edda Bresciani, Claude Traunecker, T. G. H. James, W. J. Tait, J. H. Taylor, Dorothea Arnold, Jack Ogden, Jean Vercoutter, Carol Andrews, Donald P. Ryan, E. Finkenstaedt, Paul T. Nicholson, Rosemarie Drenkhahn, Willemina Z. Wendrich, Robert Anderson, Barbara G. Aston and Morris Bierbrier

In 

Article

Helen M. Strudwick, Claude Vandersleyen, Dimitris Plantzos, William A. Ward, William H. Peck, Dominic Montserrat, John Baines, Gay Robins, J. Ruffle, Lise Manniche, Rosemarie Klemm, Jean-Luc Chappaz, Joachim Śliwa, Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood, Ann Bomann, R. G. Morkot, Peter Lacovara, Delia Pemberton, Rita E. Freed, Philip J. Watson, Robert S. Bianchi, Henry G. Fischer, Jaromir Malek, S. Curto, Nadine Cherpion, James F. Romano, Karol Mysliwiec, Richard A. Fazzini, Edna R. Russmann, Eleni Vassilika, updated by Dimitris Plantzos, Edda Bresciani, Claude Traunecker, T. G. H. James, W. J. Tait, J. H. Taylor, Dorothea Arnold, Jack Ogden, Jean Vercoutter, Carol Andrews, Donald P. Ryan, E. Finkenstaedt, Paul T. Nicholson, Rosemarie Drenkhahn, Willemina Z. Wendrich, Robert Anderson, Barbara G. Aston and Morris Bierbrier

In 

Article

Article

Helen M. Strudwick, Claude Vandersleyen, Dimitris Plantzos, William A. Ward, William H. Peck, Dominic Montserrat, John Baines, Gay Robins, J. Ruffle, Lise Manniche, Rosemarie Klemm, Jean-Luc Chappaz, Joachim Śliwa, Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood, Ann Bomann, R. G. Morkot, Peter Lacovara, Delia Pemberton, Rita E. Freed, Philip J. Watson, Robert S. Bianchi, Henry G. Fischer, Jaromir Malek, S. Curto, Nadine Cherpion, James F. Romano, Karol Mysliwiec, Richard A. Fazzini, Edna R. Russmann, Eleni Vassilika, updated by Dimitris Plantzos, Edda Bresciani, Claude Traunecker, T. G. H. James, W. J. Tait, J. H. Taylor, Dorothea Arnold, Jack Ogden, Jean Vercoutter, Carol Andrews, Donald P. Ryan, E. Finkenstaedt, Paul T. Nicholson, Rosemarie Drenkhahn, Willemina Z. Wendrich, Robert Anderson, Barbara G. Aston and Morris Bierbrier

In 

Article

Helen M. Strudwick, Claude Vandersleyen, Dimitris Plantzos, William A. Ward, William H. Peck, Dominic Montserrat, John Baines, Gay Robins, J. Ruffle, Lise Manniche, Rosemarie Klemm, Jean-Luc Chappaz, Joachim Śliwa, Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood, Ann Bomann, R. G. Morkot, Peter Lacovara, Delia Pemberton, Rita E. Freed, Philip J. Watson, Robert S. Bianchi, Henry G. Fischer, Jaromir Malek, S. Curto, Nadine Cherpion, James F. Romano, Karol Mysliwiec, Richard A. Fazzini, Edna R. Russmann, Eleni Vassilika, updated by Dimitris Plantzos, Edda Bresciani, Claude Traunecker, T. G. H. James, W. J. Tait, J. H. Taylor, Dorothea Arnold, Jack Ogden, Jean Vercoutter, Carol Andrews, Donald P. Ryan, E. Finkenstaedt, Paul T. Nicholson, Rosemarie Drenkhahn, Willemina Z. Wendrich, Robert Anderson, Barbara G. Aston and Morris Bierbrier

In 

Article

Helen M. Strudwick, Claude Vandersleyen, Dimitris Plantzos, William A. Ward, William H. Peck, Dominic Montserrat, John Baines, Gay Robins, J. Ruffle, Lise Manniche, Rosemarie Klemm, Jean-Luc Chappaz, Joachim Śliwa, Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood, Ann Bomann, R. G. Morkot, Peter Lacovara, Delia Pemberton, Rita E. Freed, Philip J. Watson, Robert S. Bianchi, Henry G. Fischer, Jaromir Malek, S. Curto, Nadine Cherpion, James F. Romano, Karol Mysliwiec, Richard A. Fazzini, Edna R. Russmann, Eleni Vassilika, updated by Dimitris Plantzos, Edda Bresciani, Claude Traunecker, T. G. H. James, W. J. Tait, J. H. Taylor, Dorothea Arnold, Jack Ogden, Jean Vercoutter, Carol Andrews, Donald P. Ryan, E. Finkenstaedt, Paul T. Nicholson, Rosemarie Drenkhahn, Willemina Z. Wendrich, Robert Anderson, Barbara G. Aston and Morris Bierbrier

In 

Article

John Baines, Morris Bierbrier, Peter Lacovara and Jaromir Malek

In 

Article

Helen M. Strudwick, Claude Vandersleyen, Dimitris Plantzos, William A. Ward, William H. Peck, Dominic Montserrat, John Baines, Gay Robins, J. Ruffle, Lise Manniche, Rosemarie Klemm, Jean-Luc Chappaz, Joachim Śliwa, Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood, Ann Bomann, R. G. Morkot, Peter Lacovara, Delia Pemberton, Rita E. Freed, Philip J. Watson, Robert S. Bianchi, Henry G. Fischer, Jaromir Malek, S. Curto, Nadine Cherpion, James F. Romano, Karol Mysliwiec, Richard A. Fazzini, Edna R. Russmann, Eleni Vassilika, updated by Dimitris Plantzos, Edda Bresciani, Claude Traunecker, T. G. H. James, W. J. Tait, J. H. Taylor, Dorothea Arnold, Jack Ogden, Jean Vercoutter, Carol Andrews, Donald P. Ryan, E. Finkenstaedt, Paul T. Nicholson, Rosemarie Drenkhahn, Willemina Z. Wendrich, Robert Anderson, Barbara G. Aston and Morris Bierbrier

In 

Article

Helen M. Strudwick, Claude Vandersleyen, Dimitris Plantzos, William A. Ward, William H. Peck, Dominic Montserrat, John Baines, Gay Robins, J. Ruffle, Lise Manniche, Rosemarie Klemm, Jean-Luc Chappaz, Joachim Śliwa, Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood, Ann Bomann, R. G. Morkot, Peter Lacovara, Delia Pemberton, Rita E. Freed, Philip J. Watson, Robert S. Bianchi, Henry G. Fischer, Jaromir Malek, S. Curto, Nadine Cherpion, James F. Romano, Karol Mysliwiec, Richard A. Fazzini, Edna R. Russmann, Eleni Vassilika, updated by Dimitris Plantzos, Edda Bresciani, Claude Traunecker, T. G. H. James, W. J. Tait, J. H. Taylor, Dorothea Arnold, Jack Ogden, Jean Vercoutter, Carol Andrews, Donald P. Ryan, E. Finkenstaedt, Paul T. Nicholson, Rosemarie Drenkhahn, Willemina Z. Wendrich, Robert Anderson, Barbara G. Aston and Morris Bierbrier

In 

Article

Eleni Vassilika

In 

Article

Ann Bomann

[Yahoudeh; Yahûdîyeh; Yahoudiyé; Yehūdīyah], Tell el- [Arab.: ‘Mound of the Jews’; Egyp. Nay-ta-hut; Gr. Leontopolis]

Egyptian site 31 km north of Cairo near Shibin el-Qanatir in the Nile Delta. It was excavated by Heinrich Brugsch, Edouard Naville, F. Ll. Griffith and Flinders Petrie in the late 19th century and early 20th, and by Shehata Adam in the 1950s. Although occupation of the site may have commenced during the Early Dynastic Period (c. 2925–c. 2575 bc), the earliest evidence dates from the Middle Kingdom (c. 2008–c. 1630 bc) and the Second Intermediate Period (c. 1630–c. 1540 bc). Two cemeteries include graves dating from the 12th Dynasty (c. 1938–c. 1756 bc) to the Greco-Roman Period (332 bcad 395). The ‘Hyksos Camp’ is a rectangular earth enclosure with rounded ends measuring c. 515×490 m, with a gateway in the eastern face. This enclosure consists of an inner vertical mud-brick wall, faced on the exterior by an inclined bank, or glacis, of plastered sand with a ditch beyond; no wall surmounted the bank. One theory is that, because of its similarity to Syro-Palestinian fortifications of the period, it was built by Near Eastern immigrants for military purposes. However, a more accepted interpretation is that it had a religious function, owing to certain parallels with cultic earthworks at Heliopolis and Mendes. Inside the enclosure on the north-east, the existence of a temple of ...

Article

Yaka  

A. P. Bourgeois

Bantu-speaking people inhabiting Popokabaka, Kenge and Kasongo Lunda sectors of Bandundu Province, south-western Zaïre, and Uige Province of northern Angola; they number c. 245,000. The Yaka are bordered to the west by various groups of the Kongo ethnic complex, to the north by the Teke-Mfinu and Mbala peoples, to the east by the Suku and to the south by the Holo, Southern Suku and Chokwe. Reference to Suku art in particular is made here. Yaka ethnicity is complex. They are ruled by Luwa lords of Lunda origin and encompass enclaves of Tsaamba and Suku as well as such political splinter groups as the Pelende. European penetration of the region began in the 1880s, since when there has been a gradual decline in the demand for art objects and in standards of craftsmanship. Some traditions of masking and figure carving persisted into the late 20th century. Yaka masks function as personalized extensions of charm specialists, protecting the fertility of the young against harmful influences. The ...

Article

[ Zerihun ]

(b Addis Ababa 1941).

Ethiopian sculptor and painter. He first studied at Empress Manan Handicraft School and later attended the Fine Arts School, Addis Ababa (1963–8), where Gebre Krestos Desta, Skunder and Hansen-Bahia (b 1915; see Ethiopia and Eritrea §II 2., (iv) ), a German wood-engraver who taught graphic arts (1963–6), were among his teachers. He is a talented wood-engraver but worked mainly with mixed media after 1970, using carved and painted wood as a frame and as part of the painting itself, along with bamboo strips, looms, parchment and canvas. Initially strongly influenced by Skunder, he uses magic scrolls as central motifs in many of his works, as seen in Research from the Art of Magic (mixed media on bamboo strips, 1105 x 640 mm, 1988; Zurich, U. Zurich, Vlkerkndmus). Along with Orthodox symbols, Biblical images and African masks populate his compositions as vehicles through which he explores social issues, for example his concern with African unity and Ethiopia’s links to the rest of the continent. He was the grand prize winner at Dak’Art ’92. Since the 1970s he has taught graphic arts at the Addis Ababa Fine Arts School while continuing to exhibit his work in Ethiopia, Kenya, Senegal, Cuba, the US and Switzerland....

Article

Yoruba  

H. J. Drewal

Term of 19th-century European invention designating various Yoruba-speaking peoples who often claim a common origin at the city of Ife in modern Nigeria and who share, in varying degrees, language, art forms, socio-political institutions, and religious beliefs and practices. Yoruba artistic traditions may be counted among the richest in Africa. Major collections of Yoruba art are preserved in Nigeria (Lagos, N. Mus.), Europe (London, BM; Paris, Mus. Homme; Berlin, Mus. Vlkerknd.; Frankfurt am Main, Mus. Vlkerknd; Munich, Staatl. Mus. Vlkerknd.; Leipzig, Mus. Vlkerknd.; and Dresden, Mus. Vlkerknd), and the USA (Los Angeles, UCLA, Fowler Mus. Cult. Hist.; New York, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.; Seattle, WA, A. Mus.). Smaller numbers of Yoruba art works are held by virtually every museum with a collection of African art. Yoruba art has also been widely illustrated (see bibliography).

The Yoruba people number more than 25 million in their homeland in south-western Nigeria and south-eastern ...

Article

J. H. Taylor

Small, undecorated tomb of an Egyptian noble and his wife. It was discovered in the Valley of Kings (KV 46) at Thebes in 1905. The tomb had suffered superficial plundering but most of the contents were recovered intact (Cairo, Egyp. Mus., and New York, Met.). The collection is important for the light it throws on the funerary equipment of the nobility at the height of the New Kingdom (c. 1540–c. 1075 bc) and the styles of furniture and decorative art current at that time.

Yuya and Tuya were the parents of Queen Tiye, the wife of Amenophis III (reg c. 1390–c. 1353 bc). Yuya, perhaps of Asiatic extraction, came from Akhmim in Upper Egypt, where he held important religious offices. He was also God’s Father (i.e. father-in-law of the pharaoh), Master of the Horse and King’s Lieutenant of Chariotry. His wife Tuya was in charge of the female personnel of the temples of Amun and Min....

Article

J.-A. Cornet and Lema Gwete

[République du Zaïre ; formerly Congo Free State, Belgian Congo]

Central African country, with a short Atlantic coastline to the west, bordered by the Central African Republic and Sudan to the north; by Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania to the east; by Zambia and Angola to the south; and by the Democratic Republic of Congo to the west. Zaïre is the third largest country in Africa, with a total area of 2,345,409 sq. km. It is dominated topographically by the Zaïre River and is extremely rich in natural resources, including minerals. Its population totals 34,491,000 (UN estimate, 1989) and consists of c. 250 different ethnic groups, nearly all of which are Bantu-speaking. French is the language of administration. The capital is Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville).

Although what is now Zaïre was politically decentralized until colonial times, a number of kingdoms developed in the southern savannah region from c. ad 1500, and one of these, the Kongo kingdom, established and maintained diplomatic relations with the Portuguese between the 16th and 18th centuries. Such kingdoms as the Kuba, Lunda and Luba engaged in long-distance trade. In the 19th century the area was subject to more thorough European explorations, and by ...

Article

David Simpson

[formerly Northern Rhodesia]

Country in Southern Africa. Covering 752,614 sq. km, it is bordered by Zaïre to the north, by Malawi and Mozambique to the east, by Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south and by Angola to the west. The capital is Lusaka. Zambia gained independence in 1964. Most of the country is more than 1000 m above sea-level, with moderate temperatures and a natural vegetation of open woodland. National languages include English, Bemba, Tonga, Nyanja and Lozi. Most of the population practised subsistence agriculture until the 1950s, when commercial farming was encouraged. Zambia is comparatively industrialized and urbanized, with 40% of the population (7,804,000; UN estimate, 1989) living in urban areas; the economy went into depression in the mid-1970s following a decline in world copper prices, rising oil prices and a reduction of trade, the result of Zambia’s opposition to white minority rule in what was then Rhodesia. This entry covers the art produced in Zambia since colonial times. For art of the region in earlier periods, including rock art, ...

Article

Zande  

John Mack

[Azande]

Central Sudanic-speaking people, about one million in number, occupying the borderlands of Zaïre, the southern Sudan and the Central African Republic. Essentially agriculturalists, they formerly relied heavily on hunting and fishing for subsistence. The highly mixed ancestry of the Zande partly explains the diversity of their arts. They began to emerge during the 18th century from groups who were expanding from the west and exploiting the resources along the northern fringes of the forests. These groups fell under the leadership of the Avongara, the aristocratic clan of the Zande, whose princes and governors ruled the various Zande provinces. Conquered peoples were incorporated into Zande society as subjects, gradually losing their language and separate identity, but contributing their own skills to Zande culture. In addition to trade, a complex system of tribute ensured a constant circulation of goods from distant areas of Zande influence and a wide dispersal of the specialist artistic products of individual regions. Examples of Zande art are to be found, for example, in Tervuren, Koninklijk Museum voor Midden-Afrika (Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale); London, British Museum; Birchington, Powell-Cotton Museum; and Oxford, Pitt Rivers Museum, as well as many other European and North American museums. Published illustrations are also very common (...

Article

Margaret Graves

Archipelago 25 km off the east coast of Tanzania in east Africa, with ancient links to Arabia as well as the African mainland. The majority of the population (1,000,000; 2004 estimate) is Muslim. From 1698 Zanzibar was under the control of the sultans of Oman, Sultanate of , becoming a British protectorate in 1890. It became independent in 1963, merging with Tanganyika to form Tanzania, United Republic of in 1964. Following independence, ministers for culture were assigned to find and revive traditional customs.

The ancient stone town of Zanzibar was restored in the 1980s by the Conservation of Historical Monuments Society, and further private investment has been poured into the rehabilitation of the old houses with elaborate carved wooden balconies and doors bearing pre-Islamic motifs such as date palms and lotuses. Specific bodies offering patronage include the National Art Council of Tanzania, responsible for the development and promotion of traditional arts, and the National Cottage Industries Corporation (NCIC), formed in ...