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Leila Krogh

(b Copenhagen, Sept 7, 1863; d Cannes, April 4, 1958).

Danish painter, printmaker, sculptor, ceramicist, architect and collector. He studied from 1881 at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen and in 1886 at Peder Severin Krøyer’s Frie Skole there. His style changed radically during his travels in France and Spain (1888–9) and during a stay in France, where he met and exhibited with French artists, including Paul Gauguin. In Brittany he painted several scenes of local people, similar to Gauguin’s work of this period, for example Two Women Walking, Brittany (1890; Frederikssund, Willumsens Mus.). In such works Willumsen emphasized the element of vigorous movement. From the start of his career Willumsen also made prints (etchings from 1885, lithographs from 1910 and woodcuts from 1920): early, more realistic works, such as the Copenhagen townscape of Woman Out for a Walk (1889) soon gave way to a bolder, more Symbolist approach, as in Fertility (1891), which showed his wife Juliette in an advanced stage of pregnancy and raised a storm of protest when exhibited at the Copenhagen Frie Udstilling (Free Exhibition), which Willumsen and others had founded. His major work from this period is ...


John Christian

(b ?London, 1790; d ?London, 1867).

English patron . He belonged to a long-established family firm of coachmakers; he was also a director of Globe Insurance and patented a medicine for children called ‘Godfrey’s Cordial’. He began to collect watercolours by J. M. W. Turner about 1820 and by the late 1830s had amassed some two hundred, including the largest single group of the Picturesque Views in England and Wales series. John Ruskin knew the collection well, describing it as ‘for me, the means of writing Modern Painters’; and it was at Windus’s house on Tottenham Green, London, that Turner first thanked Ruskin for his defence. Windus’s library, lined with elaborately framed Turner watercolours, was painted by John Scarlett Davis (1835; London, BM).

Windus’s large and miscellaneous collection of English paintings and drawings also included works by Henry Fuseli, William Etty, Richard Parkes Bonington, Thomas Girtin, Daniel Maclise and John Frederick Lewis, important groups of drawings by ...


Dieter J. Weiss, Gregor M. Lechner, Doris Kutschbach, Jeffrey Chipps Smith, Josef Strasser, Andrea M. Kluxen, Jürgen Zimmer, Martina Sitt, Ingrid Sattel Bernardini, Hans Ottomeyer and Eberhard Ruhmer

Dynasty of German rulers, patrons, and collectors. The Bavarian branch of the family (see §I below) was helped in its rise to power by an alliance with the House of Hohenstaufen. The acquisition by marriage of the Rhineland Palatinate in the early 13th century brought division of the inheritance (see §II below). However, the division gave rise to cultural diversity by scattering a number of residences throughout the country. In 1329 the dynastic treaty of Pavia with the Palatinate branch provided for reciprocal inheritance and (until 1356) the alternation of the electorship between the lines. Following a decree on primogeniture (1506) by Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria (reg 1463–1508), Bavaria remained undivided. The Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld branch (see §III below) was a collateral line. On the extinction of the Bavarian and Palatinate branches in the 18th century, however, the Zweibrücken house provided the last kings of Bavaria....



Catherine King and Dianne Sachko Macleod

Women have been influential in shaping the development of the visual arts as patrons and collectors throughout Western and non-Western cultural history. The early modern time span has been more extensively studied with reference to Western European traditions, so it has been possible to make some generalizations concerning patterns of gendered behaviour. By the beginning of the 16th century, the importance of female convent patronage waned, as did the influence of women considered to be candidates for canonization. In the years that followed, the scope of ruling women also shifted as sovereign government was curbed by constitutional power. In the 18th and 19th centuries, aristocratic female patrons were outnumbered by women whose fortunes stemmed from industry and commerce. Expected to adhere to their socially constructed roles as submissive helpmates of men, women were charged with beautifying the home and bolstering the family’s social status. Initially women focused on acquiring decorative arts—furniture, tapestries, porcelain, glassware and delicate objets d’art–which they displayed throughout the home, rather than in separate purpose-built cabinets or galleries favoured by male collectors who were consciously creating an art collection. As women gained confidence in their role as cultural consumers, they ventured further afield, visiting exhibitions, galleries, dealers and showrooms, and participating in arts organizations. Changes in the law granted women more control over their inheritance and income, as well as the right to divorce, resulting in their increased independence. Greater access to education eventually led to women becoming professional earners, commissioning works of art and founding museums, female colleges and universities. Empowered by their engagement with art, women patrons enriched the cultural and social life of their communities....


Harley Preston

(b 1780; d 1853).

English dealer and collector . He was assisted at his premises at 112 St Martin’s Lane, London, by his brothers Allen Woodburn, Henry Woodburn and, more actively, by William Woodburn. His reputation for expert judgement and professional integrity was universal, and he was instrumental in creating several important public and private collections in Britain and on the Continent, including those of Thomas Dimsdale, Mark Sykes and Alexander Hamilton, 10th Duke of Hamilton. Early sources state that he assisted Richard Fitzwilliam, 7th Viscount Fitzwilliam, who is said to have bequeathed him an annuity of £100. English institutions he supplied included the British Museum and the National Gallery, London, for which he made major purchases (e.g. Cephalus Carried off by Aurora in her Chariot, c.. 1600; Woman Borne off by a Sea God, both by Agostino Carracci, London, N.G.); he sold some more modest paintings to John Bowes, founder of the Bowes Museum, Co. Durham. He brought to London the collections of drawings of ...


Gerard Vaughan

(b Appuldurcombe, Isle of Wight, March 17, 1751; d Wroxall, Isle of Wight, Aug 8, 1805).

English collector . His seat was Appuldurcombe House (partly destr.) on the Isle of Wight, and he was variously MP for Newport and Newtown. After a notorious scandal involving his wife and Charles Henry Mordaunt, 5th Earl of Peterborough, Worsley chose to dedicate himself to collecting and travel, undertaking a long journey in the Levant, including Egypt and the Crimean peninsula, accompanied by Willey Reveley (d 1799) as draughtsman. He left Rome in February 1785, reaching Athens in May; he was in Asia Minor in the spring of 1786, returning to Rome in April 1787. Worsley collected many original Greek sculptures, principally reliefs, and in so doing he can be distinguished from most contemporary British collectors of antiquities. In Rome he was in touch with Thomas Jenkins and purchased gems from Sir William Hamilton (i). Worsley’s plan to publish a sumptuous illustrated catalogue of his collection was developed in Rome, where he employed ...


Oxana Cleminson

Russian family of collectors , of Tatar royal descent. In 1556 the Yusupov family ancestors, the sons of Yusuf (who had been killed by his own brother), were sent to the Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible, and their descendants were baptized in the last years of Tsar Alexis (Aleksey Mikhaylovich; reg 1645–76). From the end of the 17th century the male members adopted the title Prince (Knyaz’) Yusupov. The most important member of the family was (1) Prince Nikolay (Borisovich) Yusupov the elder, the instigator of the collection. His son, Prince Boris (Nikolayevich) Yusupov (b 1794; d 1849), bought, rebuilt and decorated the house on the Moyka River in St Petersburg (now the Yusupov Palace, Moyka Embankment 94), to which he transferred much of his father’s collection from Moscow and from the country estate at Arkhangel’skoye. In 1839 he published the catalogue of his gallery in French. His son, Prince ...



Muslim dynasty that ruled in parts of the Yemen from the late 9th century ad to the 20th. The Zaydi imams traced their descent to the Prophet Muhammad and took their name from Zayd (d ad 740), the son of the fourth Shi‛ite imam. The Zaydi imamate in the Yemen was established by Yahya al-Hadi (854–911) who arrived there in 889, but his austere code of behaviour initially won little success and he was forced to leave. He returned in 896 and established his seat at Sa‛da, to the north of San‛a’. He won the allegiance of several tribes by acting as a mediator in tribal disputes, but his influence remained precarious. After his death his followers remained in the Yemen, and the Zaydi imamate continued to claim authority by divine right, although there was no strict dynastic criterion for the election of imams. Based in the north of the country, the power of the Zaydi imams varied over the centuries; occasionally it reached as far as San‛a’. The movement was forced underground by the advent of the ...


Elizabeth F. Bennett

[Lo Chen-yü; zi Xuetang; hao Chensuntang]

(b Huaian, Jiangsu Province, Aug 3, 1866; d Lüshun, Liaoning Province, June 19, 1940).

Chinese writer, collector and calligrapher. He is particularly well known for his studies of oracle bone script (jiagu wen), the earliest Chinese writing, so called because it was found on animal bones and shells used for divination (see China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (i), (a)). Luo’s friend Wang Yirong (1845–1900) and Liu E (1857–1909) were the first to collect the bones, which they discovered and rescued from pharmacists, who ground them up for medical prescriptions. The importance of oracle bones for early Chinese history was more widely recognized in 1899 after large quantities of them were unearthed at the Yinxu site in Anyang, Henan Province. Sun Yirang (1848–1908), Wang Guowei (1867–1927) and Luo investigated the texts on the oracle bones, and Luo dated them to the latter part of the Shang period (c. 1600–c. 1050...