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John-Paul Stonard

(b Planegg, Bavaria, Nov 6, 1948).

German painter. He studied Philosophy and Comparative Religion at the Freie Universität in Berlin (1973–9). In May 1977 he was involved in the founding of the Galerie am Moritzplatz in West Berlin, where later that year he had his first solo exhibition, Flut. He was associated at this time with the 'Neue Wilden' painters, including Rainer Fetting, Helmut Middendorf and Salomé, whose works were shown to a wide public for the first time in the exhibition Heftige Malerei (Berlin, Haus Waldsee). He was awarded the Karl-Schmidt-Rottluff Stipend for 1979–81 and later completed residencies in Rome (1982–4) and Rapallo (1987–8). Through his richly coloured, gestural paintings Zimmer consistently explored aspects of nature and landscape. In series of paintings dealing with types of landscapes or elemental aspects of nature he often referred to journeys that he had made, as in the Wüstenbilder (‘desert paintings’) series (...


Christina Thon

German family of artists. (1) Johann Baptist Zimmermann and (2) Dominikus Zimmermann were the sons of Elias Zimmermann (1656–95), a stuccoworker and mason from Wessobrunn, whose work is known only from documentary sources. It is almost certain that they learnt their craft as stuccoists in the Wessobrunn school ( see Stucco and plasterwork §III 10., (i), (e) ). While Dominikus was almost exclusively associated with Bavarian and Swabian religious architecture, Johann Baptist became the leading representative of 18th-century interior decoration at the Bavarian court. Their collaboration was very influential on the development of Bavarian Rococo ( see Rococo §III ). Their extensive output required a large studio or workshop: among Johann Baptist’s assistants were his sons Johann Joseph Zimmermann (1707–43) and Franz Michael Zimmermann (1709–84), who were both painters and stuccoists and contributed to the frescoes of the pilgrimage church at Steinhausen, near Schussenried, and the stuccowork at Seligenthal Abbey, Landshut (see below). Franz Michael succeeded his father as court stuccoist to the Elector. Dominikus’s son, ...


Tabitha Barber

(b Dresden, 1683–5; d London, March 24, 1767).

German painter, active in England. He was the son of a Dresden goldsmith and trained in that profession, but he also studied with the portrait painter Heinrich-Christoph Fehling. In 1706 he moved to England on the invitation of the Swedish enamellist Charles Boit, to collaborate on a very large enamel commemorating the Battle of Blenheim, a project that was never completed. Zincke continued as Boit’s pupil but soon outstripped his master and at some time after 1714 set up on his own as a miniaturist. Promoted by Godfrey Kneller, he won himself a distinguished clientele and royal patronage, culminating in his appointment in 1732 as Cabinet Painter to Frederick, Prince of Wales. Vertue, the main source for Zincke’s life, wrote that at this time he ‘was so fully employed that for some years he has had more persons of distinction sitting to him than any other Painter living’. His prodigious output meant that not all his miniatures were of equal quality; even in his heyday he was criticized for portraits that were too much alike. Failing eyesight and a need to cut productivity caused him in ...


Sergey Kuznetsov

[ Zhmuydzinavichyus, Antanas ( Ionasovich )]

(b Seiriai, Seinai region, Oct 31, 1876; d Kaunas, Aug 9, 1966).

Lithuanian painter, administrator and writer. He qualified as a drawing teacher at the St Petersburg Academy of Arts and taught at the Warsaw Commercial College (1899–1905) while continuing his studies. He also studied in Paris (from 1905), Munich (1908–9) and Hamburg (1912). During a short stay in Vilnius in 1906–7 he became close to Petras Rimša and Mikalojus Čiurlionis, founding the Lithuanian Art Society, which combined two trends in Lithuanian art: realist (Žmuidzinavičius, Petras Kalpokas, Rimša) and Symbolist (Čiurlionis). He was the initiator of the first Lithuanian Art Exhibition, held in Vilnius in 1907, at which he showed 35 paintings, among them Peasant Kitchen (1905; Kaunas, A. Žmuidzinavičius Mem. Mus.). During these years Žmuidzinavičius was influenced by the work of the Symbolists, as evident in Horseman (1910–12; Kaunas, A. Žmuidzinavičius Mem. Mus.). His essays on art were published in periodicals and newspapers in Vilnius, Kaunas and Warsaw in the first two decades of the 20th century. He maintained contact with Lithuanian emigrés in the USA, which he visited in ...


Pilar Benito

(b Manila, Aug 27, 1924; d Rome, June 2, 1984).

Spanish painter, printmaker and collector of Philippine birth. He was born into a wealthy family and was never in financial need, which allowed him to devote himself to painting without suffering any kind of setback. He had a cosmopolitan education, graduating in philosophy and arts and completing his degree with a thesis on the theatre of Federico Garcia Lorca at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, in 1949. While living there he met painters from the Boston area, notably Reed Champion Pfeufer and Hyman Bloom, and began to paint under the influence of their symbolic and romantic expressionism, which was superficially similar to Abstract Expressionism. At this time he tried out a variety of printmaking processes including etching, wood-engraving and woodcut.

In 1951 Zóbel returned to Manila, holding his first one-man exhibition there at the Philippine Art Gallery in 1952: the works he showed were representational paintings of Philippine customs. During 1954...


Emilio Negro

(b Modena, May 23, 1681; d Rome, Feb 22, 1767).

Italian painter. He was a pupil in Modena of Francesco Stringa, a native of the city, with whom Zoboli was to work in 1708 on a number of wall paintings (destr.) in the Palazzo Ducale in Modena. After Stringa’s death in 1709, Zoboli moved to Bologna, to the workshop of Giovanni Gioseffo dal Sole, where he remained until 1715, dividing his time between his apprenticeship and the creation of a number of canvases for clients in Modena. In 1714 he executed his first documented work, an altarpiece of the Virgin and Child amidst Angels Being Worshipped by SS Geminian and Antony, for the confraternity of S Maria degli Angeli at Spilamberto. In the spring of 1715 Zoboli moved to Rome, where, ten years later, he became a member of the Accademia di S Luca. In Rome he carried out a number of important commissions for the Jesuits, the King of Portugal and the Polish court, while painting several canvases for churches and private families in Modena. The paintings created during the period of Zoboli’s maturity (from the 1720s to the late 1740s) can be divided into two distinct categories. The first comprises commissions of a religious nature, including altarpieces that show clear links with the painting of Carlo Maratti and the works of Emilian artists active in Rome during the previous century, including Reni, Francesco Albani and Domenichino. The second category contains works of extraordinary modernity, which were created for a sophisticated clientele who commissioned numerous versions of the ...


(b nr Florence, 1711 or 1717; d Florence, May 1767).

Italian painter and printmaker. He began his training in Florence. The Marchese Andrea Gerini took him under his protection from an early age, sending him to Rome, Bologna, Milan and Venice to continue his studies. In Venice Zocchi saw engravings of views by Michele Marieschi and Bernardo Bellotto and painted a small oval portrait of Andrea Gerini and Antonio Maria Zanetti (1750 or 1751; Venice, Correr). Zanetti was a Venetian connoisseur and a friend of Gerini.

Zocchi is especially noted for two series of etched views of Florence and its environs: Scelta di XXIV vedute delle principali contrade, piazze, chiese e palazzi della città di Firenze and Vedute delle ville e d’altri luoghi della Toscana (Florence, 1744). Commissioned by the Marchese Gerini to provide visitors to Florence with a memento of their stay, they were both reissued in 1754, and the Vedute delle ville again in 1757. Zocchi’s preparatory drawings for both volumes have survived (New York, Pierpont Morgan Lib.). ...


Geoffrey Ashton and Lin Barton

(Joseph ) [Johannes Josephus ; John ]

(b nr Frankfurt am Main, March 13, 1733; d Strand-on-the-Green, nr Kew, London, Nov 11, 1810).

German painter, active in England. Born Johannes Josephus Zauffaly, he was the son of Anton Franz Zauffaly (1699–1771), Court Cabinetmaker and Architect in Regensburg to Alexander Ferdinand, Prince of Thurn and Taxis. After an apprenticeship in Regensburg under the painter and engraver Martin Speer (c. 1702–65), a pupil of Francesco Solimena, Zoffany left in 1750 for Rome, where he studied under the portrait painter Agostino Masucci and came into contact with Anton Raphael Mengs. By 1757 and after a second trip to Rome, Zoffany was commissioned by Clemens August, Prince-Archbishop and Elector of Trier, to produce frescoes and paintings for his new palace at Trier and the palace of Ehrenbreitstein at Koblenz. All Zoffany’s early work at Ehrenbreitstein and Trier has been destroyed, but it may have been in the German Rococo manner of Cosmas Damian Asam and Johann Baptist Zimmermann. A number of small easel paintings such as ...


Juliana Nedeva-Wegener

( Khristovich )

(b Samokov, 1810; d Samokov, July 14, 1853).

Bulgarian painter and draughtsman . He is the best-known artist of the ‘Bulgarian Renaissance’ and was the first to introduce secular elements into the religious paintings of the Samokov school , founded by his father, Khristo Dimitrov (d 1819). His evangelical scenes are spiritually pure, bright images, illuminated by an inner nobility; they also, however, contain contemporary imagery and elements of social criticism. He came from a family of artists and studied iconography with his father and elder brother, Dimitar Zograph (1796–1860). From 1831 he began to work independently and to date his icons, such as the ones in SS Constantine and Helen in Plovdiv (e.g. St John the Baptist). In 1840–41 he executed frescoes (e.g. the Last Judgement and Life of Christ) in St Nicholas at Bachkovo Monastery, south of Plovdiv, painting his portrait above the sacred scenes. This was the first instance in Bulgarian painting of an artist’s own features being incorporated into a religious setting. In the ...


Torsten Gunnarsson

( Christoffer )

(b Hyllie parish, Skåne, Sept 20, 1818; d Stjerarps farm, Halland, Nov 9, 1860).

Swedish painter . He started his education at the Konstakademi in Stockholm in 1836, with Fredric Westin, Per Krafft the younger (1777–1863) and Carl Johan Fahlcrantz as his teachers. At the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen (1845–6), Zoll was impressed by the clear, realistic pictures of everyday objects by C. W. Eckersberg and his pupils. Partly because of this Zoll came to differ from the other Swedish Düsseldorf painters, both in his use of colours and figure style. From 1852 to 1855 Zoll resided in Düsseldorf, where he was a pupil of F. T. Hildebrandt (1804–74) and the Norwegian Adolph Tidemand, returning during the winter of 1858–9.

Zoll primarily portrayed scenes from Swedish country life, for example Midsummer Dance in Rättvik (1851, priv. col.; smaller version, Stockholm, Nmus.). He drew his inspiration from long walks through different parts of the country. Zoll’s portrayal of people was characterized by an intimacy and frank naivety, which sometimes turned into sentimentality. He was an outstanding painter of children, and some of his most popular and original pictures were in this genre: for example ...


Dario Succi

(b Nervesa, Treviso, Sept 24, 1700; d Venice, May 20, 1778).

Italian painter and engraver . He studied when very young with Nicolò Bambini (1651–1736), and later became a follower of Sebastiano Ricci. Before 1733 he executed a series of frescoes for S Nicolò da Tolentino, Venice, which included the Four Evangelists on the pendentives, Old Testament scenes on the drum, and, in the dome, the Holy Trinity. Of another early fresco cycle, in the church of the Servi at Gradisca, near Gorizia, only the vault fresco, the Apparition of the Blessed Virgin in Glory, survives. Zompini’s most considerable work as a history painter was a series of eight dramatic canvases, in a style reminiscent of Ricci and Giambattista Tiepolo, of scenes from Homer and Virgil, and seven monochrome overdoors representing Olympian deities, on a gold background, painted for the Palazzo Zinelli, Venice (all 1736; Moschen Castle, near Kujau, Silesia, Tiele-Winckler priv. col.)

In 1737 Zompini made drawings for the illustrations for ...


Thomas Tolley

[ Marco di Ruggero ; Lo Zoppo ]

(b Cento, nr Bologna, ?1432; d Venice, ?1478).

Italian painter .

The earliest dated notice of Zoppo is an agreement of 24 May 1455 concerning his legal adoption by the Paduan painter Francesco Squarcione. The document indicates that at the time it was drawn up Zoppo had been living in Squarcione’s house for about two years and at 23 years old was already recognized as a painter of considerable ability. According to the agreement, Squarcione, who was childless and had recently become a widower, acknowledged Zoppo as his sole heir in return for Zoppo’s work in painting.

The contract, however, was short-lived. By October of the same year, Zoppo had left Squarcione and was living in Venice. Two documents record the terms by which the adoption agreement was to be annulled and the arrangements drawn up not only to compensate Zoppo for work he had executed for which Squarcione had received payment, but also to cover Squarcione’s costs for having provided Zoppo with lodging and artists’ materials. Clearly Zoppo quickly discovered that the conditions placed on him by Squarcione were not to his advantage. Like other young artists who came into contact with Squarcione, most notably Andrea Mantegna, who had a similar experience in the late 1440s, Zoppo soon realized that his success as an artist rested on gaining his freedom, even though this could be achieved only by relinquishing his rights to Squarcione’s substantial estate....


Pontus Grate

( Leonard )

(b Mora, Feb 18, 1860; d Mora, Aug 22, 1920).

Swedish painter, etcher and sculptor . He was brought up by his grandparents at Mora. As he displayed a precocious talent for drawing he was admitted to the preparatory class of the Kungliga Akademi för de Fria Konsterna, Stockholm, at the age of 15. Dissatisfied with the outdated teaching and discipline of the Academy and encouraged by his early success as a painter of watercolour portraits and genre scenes (e.g. Old Woman from Mora, 1879; Mora, Zornmus.) Zorn left the Academy in 1881 to try to establish an international career. He later resided mainly in London but also travelled extensively in Italy, France, Spain, Algeria and the Balkans and visited Constantinople. However, he continued to spend most of his summers in Sweden.

In 1887–8 Zorn more or less abandoned watercolour and turned to oil painting, and he settled in Paris, where he remained until 1896. Here he began to gain international recognition thanks partly to his portraits and partly to his pictures of nudes (e.g. ...


Lenka Bydžovská

(b Vadin, near Havlíčkův Brod, Nov 5, 1890; d Prague, Oct 12, 1977).

Czech painter and illustrator . He studied painting in Prague, first in private schools, then at the School of Applied Art (1907–9). In autumn 1907 he made his first, brief visit to Paris. Shortly after his return he succeeded for the first time in expressing his own inner world, infused with a new melancholy, in a small pastel Valley of Sadness (1907; painted version, 1908; both Prague, N.G.), which he looked upon as his talisman throughout his life. His early work ranged from flat and linear painting in the Gauguin tradition, via remarkable collages made from coloured foil, to rhapsodic Expressionism, as in Antichrist (1909; Prague, N.G.). Several self-portraits of 1908–9 bear witness to his quest for himself and to his penchant for self-stylization.

Zrzavý’s emphasis on the symbolic and psychic roots of his artistic work brought him into the Sursum group, which in 1910–12 attracted the second Symbolist generation in Bohemia, including ...


Heinrich Geissler

(b Heidelberg, 1556; d Tübingen, 1607).

German painter and woodcut designer . His training appears Swiss, but he is first documented in 1579 in Wildberg, in the duchy of Württemberg, painting an organ front. Shortly afterwards he was mentioned as the painter of epitaph pictures in Herrenberg (Stiftskirche) and in the vicinity of Tübingen (Derendingen). By 1583 at the latest he was connected with the court at Stuttgart. In 1586 he married the widow of the painter Hans Schickhardt (1512–85) in Tübingen, thereby acquiring a workshop and the rights and privileges of a painter. In Stuttgart he worked first as an illuminator, imaginatively creating richly decorated title pages for manuscripts, using ornamentation reminiscent of the decoration on Swiss painted glass. He was probably also employed in illustrating family record books, an art form that was flourishing in university towns at the time. Although he was not a salaried official of the court at Stuttgart, he was engaged for various specific tasks, mainly of a decorative nature. Between ...


Shearer West

(b Pitigliano, Umbria, Aug 15, 1702; d Florence, Dec 30, 1788).

Italian painter and draughtsman, active in England.

Zuccarelli’s training began in Florence, where he engraved the frescoes by Andrea del Sarto in SS Annunziata. He then studied in Rome under Paolo Anesi and learnt figure drawing from Giovanni Maria Morandi (1622–1717), although in this he never acquired any great skill. His earliest recorded paintings were Mary Magdalene and St Jerome (both untraced), which he contributed to the exhibition of the feast of St Luke in Florence in 1729. He also painted portraits. Around 1730 he moved to Venice and began painting landscapes exclusively. His interest in this field may have led to his becoming acquainted with the Welsh landscape painter Richard Wilson in 1750–51. Wilson painted a lively portrait of him (1751; London, Tate) in exchange for one of Zuccarelli’s landscapes. Zuccarelli avoided both the topographical type of Venetian view developed by Canaletto and the stormier landscapes of Marco Ricci, adopting instead a decorative landscape style of idealized Italian countryside. His subject-matter was usually unspecific rather than recognizably historical, biblical or mythological. For example, in the early 1740s he executed six paintings purporting to be scenes from the story of Jacob, but the paintings themselves bear few references to it (e.g. ...


S. J. Turner

(b Florence, c. 1540; d Rome, before April 3, 1596).

Italian painter and draughtsman . He was trained in the studio of Vasari, whom he assisted in the decoration of the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, as early as 1557. He accompanied Vasari to Pisa in 1561, from when dates his earliest known drawing, Aesculapius (London, BM). Between 1563 and 1565 he was again in Florence and is documented working with Vasari, Joannes Stradanus and Giovan Battista Naldini on the ceiling of the Sala Grande (Salone dei Cinquecento) in the Palazzo Vecchio; a drawing of an Allegory of Pistoia (Florence, Uffizi) is related to the ceiling allegories of Tuscan cities. In 1564 Zucchi entered the Accademia del Disegno and contributed to the decorations erected for the funeral of Michelangelo. He travelled to Rome with Vasari and was his chief assistant on decorations in the Vatican in 1567 and 1572, where he executed frescoes of scenes from the Life of St Peter Martyr in the chaptel of S Pio V....


M. Dolores Jiménez-Blanco

(b Eibar, Guipúzcoa, July 26, 1870; d Madrid, Oct 31, 1945).

Spanish Basque painter . He studied in Paris in 1891, coming under the influence of Impressionism and of the group of Catalan painters around Santiago Rusiñol. His visit to Andalusia in 1892 provided the key to his later work, leading him to replace the grey tonalities of his Paris paintings with more brightly coloured images of Spanish folkloric subjects and of male or female figures in regional dress, for example Merceditas (1911/13; Washington, DC, N.G.A.). Zuloaga turned to Castilian subjects in works such as Segoviano and Toreros de Pueblo (both 1906; both Madrid, Mus. A. Contemp.) after the defeat suffered by Spain in the Spanish-American War of 1898; like the group of writers known as the ‘Generation of ’98’, with whom he was associated and who were among his most articulate supporters, he sought to encourage the regeneration of his country’s culture but with a critical spirit.

Zuloaga began to enjoy considerable international success in ...


Edwin Lachnit

(b Vienna, March 15, 1883; d Vienna, Feb 26, 1963).

Austrian designer and painter . He studied design at the Allgemeine Zeichenschule (1901–2) and at the Graphische Lehr- und Versuchsanstalt (1902–3) in Vienna and was briefly a guest attendant at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste. Thereafter he studied at the Kunstgewerbeschule until 1906 and in 1908 he joined the Vienna Secession. He was able to take an extended journey through western Europe in 1912 through receiving a travel scholarship from John II, Prince of Liechtenstein (1840–1929). He was in military service from 1915 to 1919 and was also a prisoner of war in Italy. He was a teacher at the Schleiss ceramic workshops in Gmunden between 1920 and 1922. From 1922 onwards he lived alternately in Vienna and Upper Austria and took many trips abroad. In 1949 he began teaching at the Kunstschule in Linz.

Zülow’s art was influenced by the ideals of the Vienna Secession and the Wiener Werkstätte. He was active in many areas of the applied arts and made picture books, calendar pages, graphic cycles and also wall paintings and tapestries (e.g. cartoon for the tapestry ...


Franz Zelger

(b Lucerne, May 3, 1827; d Lucerne, Jan 15, 1909).

Swiss painter . He trained with Jakob Schwegler (1793–1866) and Joseph Zelger (1812–85), whom he accompanied on a study visit to the Engadine. Zelger encouraged him to go to Geneva in 1848. There he was a pupil first of François Diday and then of Alexandre Calame, who influenced his early work. However, while Calame painted dramatic mountain scenes, Zünd preferred the idyllic, tranquil region of the Alpine foothills. In 1851 he moved to Munich, where he met the Swiss painter Rudolf Koller, who remained a close friend. From 1852 he often stayed in Paris. He studied paintings by 17th-century Dutch and French artists in the Louvre and became acquainted with Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps, Louis Français, Louis Cabat, Frank Buchser and Albert Anker.

In 1860 Zünd travelled to Dresden to copy Dutch landscapes in the Gemäldegalerie. In 1863 he settled in the outskirts of Lucerne and looked for subject-matter principally in the landscape around the city. However detailed his scrutiny, he never lost sight of magnitude and breadth, as in ...