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Ingeborg Schemper-Sparholz

(b Untervalpatann, Tyrol, July 5, 1746; d Vienna, March 3, 1822).

Austrian sculptor and teacher . He trained initially under the sculptor Balthasar Horer, a relation on his mother’s side, and under Josef Deutschmann in Passau. Subsequent academic tuition in Vienna, from Jakob Schletterer (1699–1774) and Wilhelm Bayer, however, was a decisive influence on him. Zauner’s first official commission in Vienna, received through his patron, Wenzel Anton, Prince Kaunitz-Rietburg, was for a sandstone fountain with the figures of The Danube and The Enns for the Ehrenhof at Schönbrunn (1775; in situ): here Zauner’s work was still strongly reminiscent of the Baroque classicism of Georg Raffael Donner. Even so, it contrasted with its counterpart at Schönbrunn by the older sculptor Johann Baptist Hagenauer, by virtue of its clearly arranged figure-composition, which Zauner directed towards one principal viewpoint. Zauner’s fuller adoption of a strict classicism occurred in Rome, where he stayed from 1776 to 1781, along with the painter, Heinrich Füger, as an Imperial–Royal pensioner. In Rome, Zauner was a member of the private academy of the Swiss sculptor ...



Muslim dynasty that ruled in parts of the Yemen from the late 9th century ad to the 20th. The Zaydi imams traced their descent to the Prophet Muhammad and took their name from Zayd (d ad 740), the son of the fourth Shi‛ite imam. The Zaydi imamate in the Yemen was established by Yahya al-Hadi (854–911) who arrived there in 889, but his austere code of behaviour initially won little success and he was forced to leave. He returned in 896 and established his seat at Sa‛da, to the north of San‛a’. He won the allegiance of several tribes by acting as a mediator in tribal disputes, but his influence remained precarious. After his death his followers remained in the Yemen, and the Zaydi imamate continued to claim authority by divine right, although there was no strict dynastic criterion for the election of imams. Based in the north of the country, the power of the Zaydi imams varied over the centuries; occasionally it reached as far as San‛a’. The movement was forced underground by the advent of the ...


Molly Rogers


(b Beaufort County, SC, Oct 8, 1814; d Social Circle, GA, Dec 13, 1892).

American daguerreotypist. He specialized in studio portraits but is now known for his images of enslaved men and women intended to support an early theory of race formation. He became an itinerant daguerreotypist in the early 1840s and in 1846, at the request of local citizens, opened a photographic portrait studio in Columbia, SC, the first establishment of its kind in that city. The success of his business as a portrait photographer is apparent from period advertisements, in which he touts the latest techniques and materials, and from the regular appearance of his name in the editorials of photographic trade journals. His customers considered him to be ‘the best artist in the up country’ (Louis Foster Perrin to his sister, 16 Oct 1856, James Rion McKissick Collection, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina). Success enabled him to become a respectable member of his community, joining the Freemasons and owning slaves....



Roman Prahl

(b Prague, May 25, 1849; d Prague, Nov 15, 1916).

Bohemian painter . From 1863 to 1877 he studied at the Prague Academy of Visual Arts and the Vienna Akademie der Bildenden Künste under Eduard Engerth (1818–97), Josef Mathias von Trenkwald (1824–97) and Jan Swerts (1820–79). He assisted Trenkwald and Swerts on large-scale decorative schemes (Trenkwald’s wall paintings in the Votivskirche, Vienna, and Swerts’s Hôtel de Ville, Courtrai, Belgium), which launched his successful career as a mural painter. His most important commission was the decoration of the National Theatre in Prague (1880–83), on which he worked partly with Mikoláš Aleš. Ženíšek’s principal works were both the first curtain of the theatre and the main hall’s ceiling decoration.

Ženíšek’s work draws on the idea of a national style, originated by Josef Mánes. A capable draughtsman with a smooth and elegant manner, he was active in many branches of art and became one of the principal official Czech painters of his time. His paintings of subjects from early Bohemian history won great acclaim, and he was also an outstanding portrait painter (the ...


Mark H. Sandler

[Junzō; Koma; Reisai; Tairyūkyo; Tanzen]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1807; d Tokyo, July 13, 1891).

Japanese lacquer artist, painter and ukiyoe woodblock print designer. Zeshin was the most important Japanese artist working in lacquer in the 19th century (see Japan, §XI). He was also an accomplished master of the Shijō school of painting (see Japan, §VI, 4, (viii)) and a successful designer of surimono (‘printed object’, deluxe woodblock prints; see Japan, §X, 3, (iii), (f)). Zeshin came from a line of skilled woodworkers from Echigo Province (now Niigata Prefect.). His father, Junzō I, was trained as an architectural wood-carver and briefly studied ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) painting with the printmaker and painter Katsukawa Shunshō (see Katsukawa family, §1). Zeshin’s mother was said to have been a geisha in her youth. Thus, Zeshin was born and brought up in the heart of the urban merchant artisan classes of Edo, the social milieu which both inspired and supported his life’s work....


(b Lidköping, Nov 21, 1831; d Stockholm, 1907).

Swedish architect and restorer . After gaining early experience as a builder, he studied at the Academy of Arts from 1853 to 1859 and then worked for his former teacher F. W. Scholander. In 1860 Zettervall was appointed cathedral architect at Lund, where he remained in charge of the restoration works for the following 20 years. The restoration of the Romanesque cathedral at Lund necessitated the structural rebuilding of large parts of the edifice, especially the west front, with its twin towers. Zettervall followed the fashion of the time in valuing stylistic accuracy and uniformity above archaeological considerations. From a historical perspective his work was destructive, but as architecture Lund Cathedral is a tour de force. In the 1880s and 1890s the Gothic cathedrals of Skara and Uppsala were restored along the same lines, the interiors being particularly successful. Despite his involvement in these projects, Zettervall was not a true ecclesiologist so much as a gifted and versatile architect. While he was working at Lund, for example, he also designed a series of new or rebuilt churches and public buildings. For the complete rebuilding of Malmö Town Hall (...


Cornelia Bauer

(b Zurich, Jan 11, 1812; d Zurich, Dec 16, 1866).

Swiss architect . He served his architectural apprenticeship in Neuenburg c. 1830 and then probably went to Paris. He worked in Birmingham (1833–5) under Thomas Rickman before moving to Zurich, where most of his buildings were executed. They include the city’s first large shops, in Hechtplatz (1835), as well as the first large residential buildings, including the Escherhaüser (1836–40). The influence of English buildings, particularly St Pancras New Church (1819–22), London, by William Inwood and Henry William Inwood, is evident in Zeugheer’s church at Neumünster (1837–8), which is regarded as the most important Neo-classical church in Zurich. From the 1830s he was the most fashionable architect in Zurich, until he was superseded in the late 1850s by Gottfried Semper. In Zeugheer’s domestic work, he first produced simple Neo-classical cubic structures, such as the Villa Rosenbühl (1837), and then designed the first Renaissance Revival villas in Zurich, which were enlivened with verandahs and pergolas, such as Zur Seeburg (...


Elizabeth F. Bennett

[Lo Chen-yü; zi Xuetang; hao Chensuntang]

(b Huaian, Jiangsu Province, Aug 3, 1866; d Lüshun, Liaoning Province, June 19, 1940).

Chinese writer, collector and calligrapher. He is particularly well known for his studies of oracle bone script (jiagu wen), the earliest Chinese writing, so called because it was found on animal bones and shells used for divination (see China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (i), (a)). Luo’s friend Wang Yirong (1845–1900) and Liu E (1857–1909) were the first to collect the bones, which they discovered and rescued from pharmacists, who ground them up for medical prescriptions. The importance of oracle bones for early Chinese history was more widely recognized in 1899 after large quantities of them were unearthed at the Yinxu site in Anyang, Henan Province. Sun Yirang (1848–1908), Wang Guowei (1867–1927) and Luo investigated the texts on the oracle bones, and Luo dated them to the latter part of the Shang period (c. 1600–c. 1050...


Elizabeth F. Bennett

[ Chao Chih-ch’ien ; zi Huishu ; hao Beian ]

(b Kuaiji, Zhejiang Province, Aug 8, 1829; d Nancheng, Jiangxi Province, Nov 18, 1884).

Chinese calligrapher, seal-carver, painter and scholar . After his example, it became common for artists to attempt to be competent in painting, calligraphy and seal-carving rather than to specialize in a single discipline. Zhao was one of the greatest artists of the late Qing period (1644–1911), although much of his work displays a disquiet and unbalanced awkwardness that conflicted with Chinese aesthetic values of the time.

As a painter, Zhao specialized in plant life. His early work is characterized by soft, detailed brushwork and brilliant, translucent colours. Plants of Zhejiang (1861; Tokyo N. Mus., see Tokyo kukuritsu, p. 162), a set of four hanging scrolls, is one of his early masterpieces: each scroll shows an unusual choice of plants and flowers and an immense range of colours and techniques. In one of the scrolls, the clublike arms of a prickly pear cactus are drawn in wet colour, with thistles added in ink while the paint was still wet; next to this is a complicated web of arched oleander leaves. Against this manipulation of wet colour, with its subtly vibrating edges, the pink and white oleander flowers are opaque. The fact that each composition is cut by the border of the scroll and that many elements within the paintings are interwoven gives a sense that the plants are reaching beyond their confines and enhances the vitality of the work. In contrast, the colours in Zhao’s later paintings are muted; there is an increased use of ink, and the brushwork is more exaggerated. ...


V. S. Turchin

( Andreyevich )

(b nr Tula, Jan 26, 1783; d March 12, 1852).

Russian critic and poet . Well known for his ballads ‘Lyudmila’ and ‘Svetlana’ and his translations of Homer and Schiller, he edited the journal Vestnik Yevropy (1808–14), was on friendly terms with many Russian poets and painters, and himself studied drawing. He visited Germany for the first time shortly before 1820 and became a friend of the artist Caspar David Friedrich. Their surviving correspondence shows that their aim was to combine painting with poetry. Although few of Zhukovsky’s articles on literature and art theory were published, his manuscripts and letters were circulated by hand and many people in St Petersburg and Moscow knew his work, which exerted considerable influence as a result. A typical article is ‘Raphael’s Madonna’, published in 1824 in the journal Polyarnaya zvezda, which offers another romantic interpretation of the Sistine Madonna (Dresden, Gemäldegal. Alte Meister). The author saw in the painting a ‘mystery’, a ‘sense of infinity’, ‘a vision’. In another article, ‘On the Fine Arts’, he stated that ‘art is poetry in various forms’ and its aim is ‘to get closer to God, to the truth’. He attempted to raise the level of criticism in Russia, stating that there were as few good critics in Russia as there were good artists. His theoretical views embraced romantic historicism, the need for artistic freedom, the affirmation of the variety of forms of art, an awareness of higher forms of existence, and reverie...


Katalin Gellér

(b Zala, Oct 14, 1827; d St Petersburg, Feb 28, 1906).

Hungarian painter, draughtsman and printmaker . He studied under Giacomo [Jakab] Marastoni (1804–60) in Pest, then under Ferdinand Waldmüller in Vienna. From 1847 he lived mainly in Russia, in the service of the Tsar at the imperial court at St Petersburg. Between 1874 and 1879 he lived in Paris, where he was active in the Hungarian Association, a charitable cultural institution. In 1880 he travelled to Hungary, Vienna and Venice and the following year (1881–2) he spent some time in the Caucasus before resettling in St Petersburg. Zichy was influenced primarily by Viennese Biedermeier painting and the French Romantic masters, although in some of his work he approached the Russian Realists. His paintings are conservative both in subject and in method of execution. He favoured an anecdotal approach and compositions designed to be representative, effective and dramatic. In his works a literary or political message often takes precedence, and Zichy frequently resorted to the use of allegory. He was highly important as an illustrator, his graphic style being noted for its dynamism....


Erich Schneider

German family of painters . They worked for over five generations in the 18th and 19th centuries in Upper Bavaria, Swabia, Franconia and the Rhineland. (1) Johann Zick and his son (2) Januarius Zick were primarily fresco painters, though the latter also did many panel paintings. Their direct descendants, Konrad Zick (b Ehrenbreitstein, 1773; d Koblenz, 1836), Gustav Zick (b Koblenz, 1809; d Koblenz, 1886) and Alexander Zick (b Koblenz, 1845; d Berlin, 1907), while relatively minor figures, all shared a gift for portrait painting.

A. Feulner: Die Zick (Munich, 1920) Johann und Januarius Zick (exh. cat., Koblenz, Mittelrhein-Mus.; Munich, Bayer. Staatsgemäldesammlungen; 1984)

(b Lachen, Jan 10, 1702; d Würzburg, March 4, 1762).

After completing his apprenticeship with Jakob Karl Stauder, probably between 1721 and 1724, he painted the Mariahilfkirche in Munich (destr. 1840). Andreas Felix Oefele, Zick’s biographer, claims this was followed by a three-year visit to Giovanni Battista Piazzetta in Venice, but this must be based on legend. In ...


Kathleen Curran

(b Regensburg, Feb 7, 1800; d Munich, July 24, 1873).

Bavarian architect and painter. After working with the stage designer Domenico Quaglio II he studied at the Königliche Akademie der bildenden Künste in Munich under the Neo-classical architect Karl von Fischer. Following Fischer’s death, Ziebland completed many of his projects, including the Hof- und Nationaltheater (1811–18) in Munich. An exhibition of Ziebland’s paintings brought him to the attention of Ludwig I, King of Bavaria ( see Wittelsbach, House of family §III, (3) ). In his quest to transform Munich into a museum of architecture, Ludwig sent Ziebland to Italy to study Early Christian basilicas, so that he could design one for Munich. After two years in Italy (1827–9) Ziebland was commissioned to design an Early Christian-style basilica with an adjacent Benedictine monastery. The Bonifaziusbasilika (1835–40), Munich, is the best known of Ziebland’s works. A brick, five-aisled basilica with a sumptuous interior, St Boniface was hailed as one of Ludwig’s greatest building projects. Its monastery is attached to his exhibition building, the ...


Annie Scottez-De Wambrechies

(b Langres, Haute-Marne, March 16, 1804; d Paris, Dec 25, 1856).

French painter, ceramicist, writer and lithographer. He first studied in Paris under Ingres and François-Joseph Heim. In 1830 he toured Italy, spending time in Venice especially, and then went to Munich, where he learnt the technique of fresco painting from Peter Cornelius. After spending some time in Belgium, he returned to Paris and illustrated such Romantic pieces of literature as E. T. A. Hoffmann’s Contes fantastiques. At the Salon of 1831 he exhibited paintings based on his travels, including View of Venice (Nantes, Mus. B.-A.) and Souvenir of Germany. In 1833 he established his reputation as a history painter by showing at the Salon two works that were based on medieval sources: Giotto in Cimabue’s Studio (Bordeaux, Mus. B.-A.), bought by the State for the Musée du Luxembourg, and the Death of Foscari (Arras, Mus. B.-A.). At the Salon of 1835 he was awarded medals for portraits of Connétable, Comte de Sancerre...


(b Beaune, Feb 21, 1821; d Paris, Feb 11, 1911).

French painter. He studied architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Dijon until he was expelled in 1838 for unruly behaviour. In 1839 he left for Marseille, where he was Clerk of Works on the construction of the Marseille canal. In November 1839 he was noticed by Ferdinand Philippe, Duc d’Orléans, who accepted two watercolours that Ziem presented to him and commissioned a further six. This first success decided Ziem’s vocation, and he started a drawing class that was attended by Louis Auguste Laurent Aiguier (1819–65) and Adolphe Monticelli. During this period he also encountered the Provençal artists Emile Loubon (1809–63), Prosper Grésy (1804–74) and Gustave Ricard.

In 1842 Ziem left for Nice, where he came into contact with members of the European aristocracy, with whom, thanks to his talent and his charm, he was soon on familiar terms. During the following years he travelled widely. Sophie, the Grand Duchess of Baden, invited him to Baden in ...


(b Amsterdam, 1762; d The Hague, May 1, 1820).

Dutch architect. He trained as a sculptor at the Stadtstekenacademie in Amsterdam, where his father Antonz Ziesenis (1731–1801), an architect and sculptor, was one of the directors, but after a few years he decided to concentrate on architecture. Having finished his training, he visited England, where he appears to have studied work by Robert Adam, although his stay in England is extremely badly documented. In 1792 he returned to Amsterdam, where he was later appointed assistant (1797) to the City Architect Abraham van der Harte. In 1807 he joined the architects who executed works for Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland under the supervision of the royal architect Jean Thomas Thibault (1757–1826). In this capacity he remodelled the interior of Amsterdam’s town hall during its conversion into a royal palace ( see Amsterdam §V 2. ). He spared Jacob van Campen’s 17th-century interior by dividing the large Burgerzaal and adjoining galleries into small rooms with drapery and wooden panelling in a sober, Neo-classical style, thus allowing a full restoration of the original work during the 1930s. Ziesenis received some minor government commissions after the restoration of King William I in ...


G. Jansen

(b Kralingen, June 13, 1866; d Bussum, Jan 8, 1947).

Dutch sculptor. He received his first artistic training in Amsterdam, first in the form of drawing lessons from painter and illustrator Bernard Willem Wierink (1856–1939) and later at the Quellinusschool under the direction of engineer Emmanuel Constant Edouard Colinet (1840–90) and at the School for Applied Arts. There he became friendly with, among others, Joseph Mendes da Costa; through the society Labor et Ars he met Gerrit Willem Dijsselhof, Jan Eisenlöffel, H. P. Berlage, K. P. C. de Bazel and J. L. Mathieu Lauweriks. In the company of these young artists, who disliked the traditional styles, his attention was directed particularly to ancient Egyptian and Assyrian art.

In 1893 Zijl was invited by Berlage to collaborate on his building (destr. 1964) for De Algemeene life insurance company on the Damrak, Amsterdam. For this building and particularly for the Koopmansbeurs (1898–1903), Amsterdam, also by Berlage, he developed a style that can be seen as the high point of his career. This so-called ‘architecture sculpture’ is always considered as a subsidiary to the architectural concept of the whole, therefore contributing to the ...


[ Philippe ]

(b The Hague, April 20, 1857; d Villefranche, Oct 3, 1930).

Dutch printmaker, painter and writer. He went to the drawing academy in The Hague, where he was taught by J. C. K. Klinkenberg (1852–1924) and Anton Mauve. He was a painter and draughtsman as well as an etcher, engraver and lithographer, and depicted landscapes, townscapes and still-lifes. He lived and worked mainly in The Hague, belonging to both the Amsterdam society Arti et Amicitiae and the Pulchri Studio there. As a graphic artist he achieved considerable fame, especially through his reproductive etchings of works by painters of the Hague school (J. Israëls, the Maris brothers and Weissenbruch) and 17th-century masters such as Vermeer.

In 1885 Zilcken was involved in setting up the Dutch Etching Club (Nederlandsche Etsclub). As an editor of Elsevier’s Geïllustreerd Maandschrift from 1896 to 1905, he became a well-known writer on art. With his etchings of exceptional quality and his publications about graphic art, he contributed towards the revival of Dutch etching. He also did much to publicize the Hague school, particularly in America, where he had many connections with collectors and museum officials. Zilcken had about ten pupils, among them his daughter ...


(b Radeburg, nr Dresden, Jan 10, 1858; d Berlin, Aug 9, 1929).

German draughtsman, printmaker, photographer and film maker. He attended evening classes at the Hochschule für Bildende Künste, Berlin, while serving a lithography apprenticeship (1872–5). He subsequently worked for an art printing company, where he learned the techniques of etching and aquatint. His first drawings were exhibited at the Berlin Secession in 1901, where he exhibited regularly thereafter. His work also appeared in Jugend: Illustrierte Wochenschrift für Kunst und Leben and Lustige Blätter. Zille’s sympathetic depictions of impoverished workers, children and prostitutes in Berlin are in a humourous vein but with serious undertones, and carry captions in Berlin slang; his photographs of Berlin street scenes also provide rare documents of everyday life. In 1926 he made the film Die da Unten

Zille, Heinrich Kinder der Strasse (Berlin, 1908) L. Fischer: Heinrich Zille in Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumenten (Reinbek bei Hamburg, 1979) W. G. Oschilewski: Heinrich Zille Bibliographie (Hannover, 1979)...