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Richard Louis Edmonds, Bonnie Abiko, F. G. Notehelfer, Christine M. E. Guth, William Samonides, Sylvan Barnet, H. Byron Earhart, William H. Coaldrake, Mary Neighbour Parent, H. Mack Horton, J. Edward Kidder jr, Eizo Inagaki, Nobuo Ito, Lucie R. Weinstein, Anne Nishimura Morse, Donald F. McCallum, Samuel C. Morse, Hiromichi Soejima, Chie Ishibashi, Tamon Miki, Kyotaro Nishikawa, John Winter, Elizabeth ten Grotenhuis, Kōzō Sasaki, Karen L. Brock, Joan H. O’Mara, Ken Brown, Richard P. Stanley-Baker, Carolyn Wheelwright, Shugo Asano, Richard L. Wilson, Mitsuro Sakamoto, Carol Morland, Stephen Addiss, Sadako Ohki, Motoaki Kono, Michiyo Morioka, Ellen Conant, Shigeo Chiba, Claire Illouz, Audrey Yoshiko Seo, John T. Carpenter, Fumiko E. Cranston, Helmut Brinker, Irmtraud Schaarschmidt-Richter, Masaaki Arakawa, Richard L. Mellott, Gina L. Barnes, Rupert Faulkner, David Hale, Andrew Maske, Hiroko Nishida, Frederick Baekeland, Matthi Forrer, Amy Reigle Stephens, Ellis Tinios, Richard Kruml, Lawrence Smith, Ann Yonemura, Monica Bethe, Kazutoshi Harada, Thomas Leims, Victor Hauge, Takako Hauge, Terry Hiener, Patricia J. Graham, Jerald P. Stowell, Joe Cribb, Lea Baten, George Kuwayama, Elizabeth Palmer, David Waterhouse, Kazuko Koizumi, Tal Streeter, Raymond Bushell, B. Hickman, Henryk Jurkowski, Norihisa Mizuta, Willem van Gulik, Peter Bleed and Laurance P. Roberts

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Richard Louis Edmonds, Bonnie Abiko, F. G. Notehelfer, Christine M. E. Guth, William Samonides, Sylvan Barnet, H. Byron Earhart, William H. Coaldrake, Mary Neighbour Parent, H. Mack Horton, J. Edward Kidder jr, Eizo Inagaki, Nobuo Ito, Lucie R. Weinstein, Anne Nishimura Morse, Donald F. McCallum, Samuel C. Morse, Hiromichi Soejima, Chie Ishibashi, Tamon Miki, Kyotaro Nishikawa, John Winter, Elizabeth ten Grotenhuis, Kōzō Sasaki, Karen L. Brock, Joan H. O’Mara, Ken Brown, Richard P. Stanley-Baker, Carolyn Wheelwright, Shugo Asano, Richard L. Wilson, Mitsuro Sakamoto, Carol Morland, Stephen Addiss, Sadako Ohki, Motoaki Kono, Michiyo Morioka, Ellen Conant, Shigeo Chiba, Claire Illouz, Audrey Yoshiko Seo, John T. Carpenter, Fumiko E. Cranston, Helmut Brinker, Irmtraud Schaarschmidt-Richter, Masaaki Arakawa, Richard L. Mellott, Gina L. Barnes, Rupert Faulkner, David Hale, Andrew Maske, Hiroko Nishida, Frederick Baekeland, Matthi Forrer, Amy Reigle Stephens, Ellis Tinios, Richard Kruml, Lawrence Smith, Ann Yonemura, Monica Bethe, Kazutoshi Harada, Thomas Leims, Victor Hauge, Takako Hauge, Terry Hiener, Patricia J. Graham, Jerald P. Stowell, Joe Cribb, Lea Baten, George Kuwayama, Elizabeth Palmer, David Waterhouse, Kazuko Koizumi, Tal Streeter, Raymond Bushell, B. Hickman, Henryk Jurkowski, Norihisa Mizuta, Willem van Gulik, Peter Bleed and Laurance P. Roberts

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Richard Louis Edmonds, Bonnie Abiko, F. G. Notehelfer, Christine M. E. Guth, William Samonides, Sylvan Barnet, H. Byron Earhart, William H. Coaldrake, Mary Neighbour Parent, H. Mack Horton, J. Edward Kidder jr, Eizo Inagaki, Nobuo Ito, Lucie R. Weinstein, Anne Nishimura Morse, Donald F. McCallum, Samuel C. Morse, Hiromichi Soejima, Chie Ishibashi, Tamon Miki, Kyotaro Nishikawa, John Winter, Elizabeth ten Grotenhuis, Kōzō Sasaki, Karen L. Brock, Joan H. O’Mara, Ken Brown, Richard P. Stanley-Baker, Carolyn Wheelwright, Shugo Asano, Richard L. Wilson, Mitsuro Sakamoto, Carol Morland, Stephen Addiss, Sadako Ohki, Motoaki Kono, Michiyo Morioka, Ellen Conant, Shigeo Chiba, Claire Illouz, Audrey Yoshiko Seo, John T. Carpenter, Fumiko E. Cranston, Helmut Brinker, Irmtraud Schaarschmidt-Richter, Masaaki Arakawa, Richard L. Mellott, Gina L. Barnes, Rupert Faulkner, David Hale, Andrew Maske, Hiroko Nishida, Frederick Baekeland, Matthi Forrer, Amy Reigle Stephens, Ellis Tinios, Richard Kruml, Lawrence Smith, Ann Yonemura, Monica Bethe, Kazutoshi Harada, Thomas Leims, Victor Hauge, Takako Hauge, Terry Hiener, Patricia J. Graham, Jerald P. Stowell, Joe Cribb, Lea Baten, George Kuwayama, Elizabeth Palmer, David Waterhouse, Kazuko Koizumi, Tal Streeter, Raymond Bushell, B. Hickman, Henryk Jurkowski, Norihisa Mizuta, Willem van Gulik, Peter Bleed and Laurance P. Roberts

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[Arab. Al-Jumhūriyya al-Yamaniyya; formerly Yemen Arab Republic (North Yemen; Yemen) and People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen (South Yemen)

Independent republic in south-western Arabia, including Socotra and other islands, with San‛a as the political capital and an estimated area of c. 636,000 sq. km. Yemen’s location at the crossroads between Arabia, the Indian Ocean and Africa, and particularly on the Red Sea route, has had an impact on its cultural heritage and turbulent political history. Along the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden stretch arid plains rising to mountains and cultivated highlands, which descend in the east to desert and the distinct region of Hadramawt. The Arab population (c. 22,000,000; 2007 estimate), some of African origin, is mostly Sunni and Shi‛a Muslim, with small communities of Jews and Christians. The traditional tribal structure is strong, particularly in the north.

In the lst millennium bc until the first centuries ad South Arabia was the home of highly cultured city states, which owed their prosperity partly to the trade in frankincense and myrrh, native to the region. To the Greco-Roman world the land was known as ‘Fortunate Arabia’ (Gr. ...

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[Jugoslavija]

Country in the Balkan peninsula, south-eastern Europe, formerly comprising six republics: Bosnia , Croatia , Macedonia ( see Macedonia ), Montenegro , Serbia and Slovenia . The country was founded in 1918, after the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian empire, as the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and was renamed Kingdom of Yugoslavia (‘land of the South Slavs’) in ...

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J.-A. Cornet and Lema Gwete

[République du Zaïre ; formerly Congo Free State, Belgian Congo]

Central African country, with a short Atlantic coastline to the west, bordered by the Central African Republic and Sudan to the north; by Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania to the east; by Zambia and Angola to the south; and by the Democratic Republic of Congo to the west. Zaïre is the third largest country in Africa, with a total area of 2,345,409 sq. km. It is dominated topographically by the Zaïre River and is extremely rich in natural resources, including minerals. Its population totals 34,491,000 (UN estimate, 1989) and consists of c. 250 different ethnic groups, nearly all of which are Bantu-speaking. French is the language of administration. The capital is Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville).

Although what is now Zaïre was politically decentralized until colonial times, a number of kingdoms developed in the southern savannah region from c. ad 1500, and one of these, the Kongo kingdom, established and maintained diplomatic relations with the Portuguese between the 16th and 18th centuries. Such kingdoms as the Kuba, Lunda and Luba engaged in long-distance trade. In the 19th century the area was subject to more thorough European explorations, and by ...

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David Simpson

[formerly Northern Rhodesia]

Country in Southern Africa. Covering 752,614 sq. km, it is bordered by Zaïre to the north, by Malawi and Mozambique to the east, by Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south and by Angola to the west. The capital is Lusaka. Zambia gained independence in 1964. Most of the country is more than 1000 m above sea-level, with moderate temperatures and a natural vegetation of open woodland. National languages include English, Bemba, Tonga, Nyanja and Lozi. Most of the population practised subsistence agriculture until the 1950s, when commercial farming was encouraged. Zambia is comparatively industrialized and urbanized, with 40% of the population (7,804,000; UN estimate, 1989) living in urban areas; the economy went into depression in the mid-1970s following a decline in world copper prices, rising oil prices and a reduction of trade, the result of Zambia’s opposition to white minority rule in what was then Rhodesia. This entry covers the art produced in Zambia since colonial times. For art of the region in earlier periods, including rock art, ...

Article

D. Walker and Celia Winter-Irving

[formerly Southern Rhodesia , Rhodesia ]

Country of c. 390,580 sq. km in Southern Africa, bordered by Zambia to the west and north, by Mozambique to the north and east, by South Africa to the south, and by Botswana to the south and west. The capital is Harare (formerly Salisbury). Zimbabwe’s fertile plateau and mountain ranges contain vast mineral resources including serpentines and such other stones in many colours as verdite and soapstone. Its population of c. 10,600,000 (census, 1992) comprises mostly Shona-speaking peoples (c. 75%), with the Nguni-speaking Ndebele making up the largest non-Shona group. The area of present-day Zimbabwe was first settled by the San in c. 20,000 bc. Around 500 bc Shona agriculturalists and herdsmen moved into the country and by ad 1000 had built up a commercial empire based around Great Zimbabwe . In the early 19th century a king of the Ndebele, Mzilikazi, conquered the country. In 1890 an army sent by Cecil Rhodes (the British Prime Minister of the Cape Colony) invaded, and by ...