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(b Haarlem, Feb 12, 1791; d Haarlem, July 8, 1870).

Dutch architect, urban planner and landscape designer. He was the most illustrious member of a family of architects and landscape gardeners. He and his brother, Karel George Zocher (1796–1864), were both trained by their father, Jan David Zocher the elder (d 1817), and he in turn introduced his son, Louis Paul Zocher (1820–1915), to the practice. Zocher the younger’s career was a microcosm of developments in 19th-century design. As a landscape architect he was dedicated to the Picturesque and introduced the English garden style into the Netherlands. His buildings, however, were the purest examples on Dutch soil of Romantic Classicism, a style that had relatively little impact there.

In 1809 Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland, granted Zocher a bursary and in 1811 sent him to study at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris under Louis-Hippolyte Lebas. After completing his training Zocher toured France, Italy, Switzerland and England. This contact with current architectural trends abroad enabled him to break with the Palladian tradition that had prevailed in the Netherlands since the mid-17th century. Zocher returned to the Netherlands in ...


Geoffrey Ashton and Lin Barton

(Joseph ) [Johannes Josephus ; John ]

(b nr Frankfurt am Main, March 13, 1733; d Strand-on-the-Green, nr Kew, London, Nov 11, 1810).

German painter, active in England. Born Johannes Josephus Zauffaly, he was the son of Anton Franz Zauffaly (1699–1771), Court Cabinetmaker and Architect in Regensburg to Alexander Ferdinand, Prince of Thurn and Taxis. After an apprenticeship in Regensburg under the painter and engraver Martin Speer (c. 1702–65), a pupil of Francesco Solimena, Zoffany left in 1750 for Rome, where he studied under the portrait painter Agostino Masucci and came into contact with Anton Raphael Mengs. By 1757 and after a second trip to Rome, Zoffany was commissioned by Clemens August, Prince-Archbishop and Elector of Trier, to produce frescoes and paintings for his new palace at Trier and the palace of Ehrenbreitstein at Koblenz. All Zoffany’s early work at Ehrenbreitstein and Trier has been destroyed, but it may have been in the German Rococo manner of Cosmas Damian Asam and Johann Baptist Zimmermann. A number of small easel paintings such as ...


Juliana Nedeva-Wegener

( Khristovich )

(b Samokov, 1810; d Samokov, July 14, 1853).

Bulgarian painter and draughtsman . He is the best-known artist of the ‘Bulgarian Renaissance’ and was the first to introduce secular elements into the religious paintings of the Samokov school , founded by his father, Khristo Dimitrov (d 1819). His evangelical scenes are spiritually pure, bright images, illuminated by an inner nobility; they also, however, contain contemporary imagery and elements of social criticism. He came from a family of artists and studied iconography with his father and elder brother, Dimitar Zograph (1796–1860). From 1831 he began to work independently and to date his icons, such as the ones in SS Constantine and Helen in Plovdiv (e.g. St John the Baptist). In 1840–41 he executed frescoes (e.g. the Last Judgement and Life of Christ) in St Nicholas at Bachkovo Monastery, south of Plovdiv, painting his portrait above the sacred scenes. This was the first instance in Bulgarian painting of an artist’s own features being incorporated into a religious setting. In the ...


Jean-Pierre Leduc-Adine

(b Paris, April 2, 1840; d Paris, Sept 29, 1902).

French writer and critic . He was brought up in Aix-en-Provence, and arrived in Paris in 1858, where he frequented painters’ studios and visited the salons. Cézanne was a childhood friend to whom Zola dedicated his first article of art criticism, which appeared in L’Evénement in 1866. He later recreated his passionate discussions with other artists in his novel L’Oeuvre (Paris, 1886), in which he debated all the aesthetic problems of the second half of the 19th century. Zola’s aesthetic analysis of painting was based on rules close to those of the Naturalist novel ( see Naturalism ), which he defined in 1864 as ‘a corner of creation seen through a temperament’ (Correspondance, Paris and Montreal, 1978, p. 375). This definition was not solely concerned with reproducing reality; in Zola’s view the artist’s personality alone enabled him to produce a work of art. He thus vigorously defended certain painters such as Pierre Puvis de Chavannes and Gustave Moreau, although their work was far from Naturalist, because of the seductive effect of their frescoes and canvases on him....


Torsten Gunnarsson

( Christoffer )

(b Hyllie parish, Skåne, Sept 20, 1818; d Stjerarps farm, Halland, Nov 9, 1860).

Swedish painter . He started his education at the Konstakademi in Stockholm in 1836, with Fredric Westin, Per Krafft the younger (1777–1863) and Carl Johan Fahlcrantz as his teachers. At the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen (1845–6), Zoll was impressed by the clear, realistic pictures of everyday objects by C. W. Eckersberg and his pupils. Partly because of this Zoll came to differ from the other Swedish Düsseldorf painters, both in his use of colours and figure style. From 1852 to 1855 Zoll resided in Düsseldorf, where he was a pupil of F. T. Hildebrandt (1804–74) and the Norwegian Adolph Tidemand, returning during the winter of 1858–9.

Zoll primarily portrayed scenes from Swedish country life, for example Midsummer Dance in Rättvik (1851, priv. col.; smaller version, Stockholm, Nmus.). He drew his inspiration from long walks through different parts of the country. Zoll’s portrayal of people was characterized by an intimacy and frank naivety, which sometimes turned into sentimentality. He was an outstanding painter of children, and some of his most popular and original pictures were in this genre: for example ...


Pontus Grate

( Leonard )

(b Mora, Feb 18, 1860; d Mora, Aug 22, 1920).

Swedish painter, etcher and sculptor . He was brought up by his grandparents at Mora. As he displayed a precocious talent for drawing he was admitted to the preparatory class of the Kungliga Akademi för de Fria Konsterna, Stockholm, at the age of 15. Dissatisfied with the outdated teaching and discipline of the Academy and encouraged by his early success as a painter of watercolour portraits and genre scenes (e.g. Old Woman from Mora, 1879; Mora, Zornmus.) Zorn left the Academy in 1881 to try to establish an international career. He later resided mainly in London but also travelled extensively in Italy, France, Spain, Algeria and the Balkans and visited Constantinople. However, he continued to spend most of his summers in Sweden.

In 1887–8 Zorn more or less abandoned watercolour and turned to oil painting, and he settled in Paris, where he remained until 1896. Here he began to gain international recognition thanks partly to his portraits and partly to his pictures of nudes (e.g. ...


Norihisa Mizuta


Name used by five generations of Japanese seal-carvers, active from the mid-18th century to the Meiji period (1868–1912). An ancient bronze seal (Jap. kichū) with a stem in the shape of a turtle (zōroku) was passed down from one generation of the family to the next. The founder of the Hamamura school was Zōroku I [Kitsu Mokyo] (b Edo [now Tokyo], 1735; d Edo, 1794), who worked in an Archaic seal-carving style influenced by Kō Fuyō (see Japan §XVII 20.). He was the eldest of four sons, and from an early age he was attracted by the Archaic school (Kotaiha) of Kō Fuyō. He went to Kyoto to learn the technique of seal-engraving from Fuyō and to seek out the mysteries of the art. He later returned to Edo, where he was instrumental in spreading the Archaic-school style. His style, which came close to that of Fuyō, gained him a very high reputation. In ...


Ferenc Batári

Hungarian ceramics factory. In 1851 the merchant Miklós Zsolnay the elder founded the factory in Pécs, southern Hungary, for his eldest son Ignác Zsolnay. Early wares comprised very simple, useful wares, including dishes, water pipes and terracotta garden ornaments, that satisfied local demands. In 1865 Vilmos Zsolnay (1828–1900) took over the concern from his brother and added a range of decorative vessels including flower-pots, wash-bowls and jugs. Zsolnay used a high-firing cream body decorated with a glaze mixed with metallic oxides, which was known as ‘porcelain faience’. Production is characterized by various styles of decoration based on Bronze Age wares excavated in Transdanubia, called ‘Pannonia’ wares, and Renaissance, Japanese, Persian, Anatolian (Turkish) and Hungarian folk ceramics. In 1878 the factory exhibited a variety of ‘porcelain faience’ at the Exposition Universelle in Paris and was awarded the Grand Prix. In 1883, after numerous experiments with the chemists Lajos Petri and ...


Bernard Jacqué

French wallpaper manufacturing company established in 1790 in Mulhouse, Alsace. Originally the company was set up under the name of Nicolas Dolfus & Cie with Joseph-Louis Malaine (1745–1809), a designer from the Gobelins, as artistic director. In 1795 it changed its name to Hartmann, Risler & Cie, and in 1797 it moved to the commandery of Rixheim at the Mulhouse city gates. It was bought out in 1802 by Jean Zuber (1773–1852), the head of the marketing side of the business, whose name the company adopted and whose descendants remained in possession of the company until 1968.

Zuber was the driving-force behind the company. He ensured high-quality production by employing such excellent designers as Eugene Ehrmann (1804–96) and Georges Zipelius (1808–90), who designed ‘Décor chinois’ (1832; U. Manchester, Whitworth A.G.), and by perfecting new wallpaper manufacturing techniques: irisé or blended colourgrounds from ...


M. Dolores Jiménez-Blanco

(b Eibar, Guipúzcoa, July 26, 1870; d Madrid, Oct 31, 1945).

Spanish Basque painter . He studied in Paris in 1891, coming under the influence of Impressionism and of the group of Catalan painters around Santiago Rusiñol. His visit to Andalusia in 1892 provided the key to his later work, leading him to replace the grey tonalities of his Paris paintings with more brightly coloured images of Spanish folkloric subjects and of male or female figures in regional dress, for example Merceditas (1911/13; Washington, DC, N.G.A.). Zuloaga turned to Castilian subjects in works such as Segoviano and Toreros de Pueblo (both 1906; both Madrid, Mus. A. Contemp.) after the defeat suffered by Spain in the Spanish-American War of 1898; like the group of writers known as the ‘Generation of ’98’, with whom he was associated and who were among his most articulate supporters, he sought to encourage the regeneration of his country’s culture but with a critical spirit.

Zuloaga began to enjoy considerable international success in ...


Clementine Schack von Wittenau

(b Herzebrock, Westphalia, Nov 23, 1830; d Rimsting, nr Prien am Chiemsee, Sept 27, 1915).

German sculptor . He studied sculpture at the Polytechnische Schule in Munich, under Johann von Halbig (1814–82) whom he accompanied on a study tour to Milan in 1849. After setting up independently in 1852 and successfully fulfilling his first portrait commissions, he went to Rome (1857–8) to study Classical sculpture. He travelled to Italy again in 1867, this time accompanied by his pupil Adolf von Hildebrand. Zumbusch’s early works are tentative in approach. Flora (1859; ex-Städt. Gal., Hannover) reveals the pervasive influence of Ludwig von Schwanthaler and also borrows features from Bertel Thorvaldsen’s Venus (1813–16; Copenhagen, Thorvaldsens Mus.) while anticipating Zumbusch’s later, more distinctive style in its sweeping movement and energetic forms. On the other hand, his religious works from the same period such as the carved altar to SS Benno and Corbinian (1860; Munich, Frauenkirche) assimilated both Nazarene and Romantic styles. The diversity of style of the 19th century is thus mirrored in Zumbusch’s work. In the works commissioned in the 1860s and 1870s by the King of Bavaria, ...


Franz Zelger

(b Lucerne, May 3, 1827; d Lucerne, Jan 15, 1909).

Swiss painter . He trained with Jakob Schwegler (1793–1866) and Joseph Zelger (1812–85), whom he accompanied on a study visit to the Engadine. Zelger encouraged him to go to Geneva in 1848. There he was a pupil first of François Diday and then of Alexandre Calame, who influenced his early work. However, while Calame painted dramatic mountain scenes, Zünd preferred the idyllic, tranquil region of the Alpine foothills. In 1851 he moved to Munich, where he met the Swiss painter Rudolf Koller, who remained a close friend. From 1852 he often stayed in Paris. He studied paintings by 17th-century Dutch and French artists in the Louvre and became acquainted with Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps, Louis Français, Louis Cabat, Frank Buchser and Albert Anker.

In 1860 Zünd travelled to Dresden to copy Dutch landscapes in the Gemäldegalerie. In 1863 he settled in the outskirts of Lucerne and looked for subject-matter principally in the landscape around the city. However detailed his scrutiny, he never lost sight of magnitude and breadth, as in ...


Jeremy Howard and Sergey Kuznetsov

( Nikolayevna )

(b Nov 30, 1864; d Aug 22, 1921).

Russian art school founder and painter . Her main significance lay in her creation of the most progressive art school in pre-1917 Russia, a forming ground of many of the leading representatives of the Russian avant-garde. Having studied at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture (1885–8), and at Il’ya Repin’s and Pavel Chistyakov’s studios in the St Petersburg Academy of Arts (1889–96), she enrolled (1897) at the private studios of Rodolphe Julian and of Filippo Colarossi in Paris. In 1899 she opened her own art school in Moscow, where the artists Valentin Serov, Konstantin Korovin and Nikolay Ul’yanov taught. This she moved to St Petersburg in 1906, where, with the help of her close friend Konstantin Somov, it was established as the Zvantseva School of Drawing and Painting; it was also known as the Bakst and Dobuzhinsky School (1906–10) and as the Dobuzhinsky and Petrov-Vodkin School (...


(b The Hague, May 16, 1862; d The Hague, Dec 11, 1931).

Dutch painter, draughtsman and etcher . From 1877 to 1880 he studied drawing at the Academie van Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague and painting with Jacob Maris. His earliest work consisted mainly of still-lifes and figure studies, animal subjects and landscapes. From 1884 to 1886 he worked as a tile painter for the Rozenburg Delftware Factory in The Hague.

From 1885 to 1894—generally considered the period of his most important work—de Zwart painted and etched landscapes and townscapes (e.g. the Wagenbrug in The Hague, c. 1890; Amsterdam, Stedel. Mus.), figures (e.g. Seated Woman in White, c. 1890; The Hague, Gemeentemus.), portraits and still-lifes reminiscent of works associated with such 19th-century Amsterdam painters as George Hendrik Breitner; however, de Zwart’s palette was darker and his brushwork less broad. In 1891 he spent a brief period in Paris making townscapes, such as Porte Saint-Denis (1892; The Hague, Gemeentemus.). From 1892 until ...


Izabel Freifrau von Weitershausen

(b Jakobswalde, Upper Silesia, Feb 28, 1802; d Cologne, Sept 22, 1861).

German architect . He trained at the Kunst- und Bauschule in Breslau (1819–21) and at the Bauakademie in Berlin (1824–8), becoming an official in the Prussian building administration in 1828 under Schinkel. From the start of his career he was an eclectic, one of his first buildings (completed 1834) being for the university in Halle, built in a Neo-classical style. In 1829 he directed the rebuilding in the Gothic Revival style of the Rathaus in Kolberg according to plans by Schinkel.

Zwirner was sent to Cologne by Schinkel in 1833 to consolidate the fabric of the unfinished Gothic cathedral. With the help of Sulpiz Boisserée , he was able to enlist the enthusiastic support of the Crown Prince of Prussia (later King Frederick William IV) for a proposal to complete the building. The decision to do so was taken in 1842 and the foundation-stone was laid that September. However, as the medieval plans did not exactly match the existing structure, Zwirner took the opportunity to prove his abilities and the general impression of the cathedral as it stands today is largely his work, particularly the transepts, the iron roof framework, the former ridge turret (destr. ...