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Annemarie Seiler-Baldinger

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A. F. Harding

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Helen M. Strudwick, Claude Vandersleyen, Dimitris Plantzos, William A. Ward, William H. Peck, Dominic Montserrat, John Baines, Gay Robins, J. Ruffle, Lise Manniche, Rosemarie Klemm, Jean-Luc Chappaz, Joachim Śliwa, Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood, Ann Bomann, R. G. Morkot, Peter Lacovara, Delia Pemberton, Rita E. Freed, Philip J. Watson, Robert S. Bianchi, Henry G. Fischer, Jaromir Malek, S. Curto, Nadine Cherpion, James F. Romano, Karol Mysliwiec, Richard A. Fazzini, Edna R. Russmann, Eleni Vassilika, updated by Dimitris Plantzos, Edda Bresciani, Claude Traunecker, T. G. H. James, W. J. Tait, J. H. Taylor, Dorothea Arnold, Jack Ogden, Jean Vercoutter, Carol Andrews, Donald P. Ryan, E. Finkenstaedt, Paul T. Nicholson, Rosemarie Drenkhahn, Willemina Z. Wendrich, Robert Anderson, Barbara G. Aston and Morris Bierbrier

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Margaret Mullett, Elizabeth Bruening Lewis, Valerie Nunn, Robin Cormack, Hans Buchwald, W. Eugene Kleinbauer, Marlia Mundell Mango, Lyn Rodley, William Saunders, Robert Ousterhout, Archibald Dunn, Slobodan Ćurčić, Kara Hattersley-Smith, Charles Barber, Christine Kondoleon, Ruth E. Kolarik, Lucille A. Roussin, Henri Lavagne, Margaret A. Alexander, Melita Emmanuel, Alexander Grishin, J.-P. Sodini, T. Zollt, Lucy-Anne Hunt, John Lowden, Manolis Chatzidakis, Nano Chatzidakis, Judith Herrin, Cécile Morrisson, Hero Granger-Taylor, Karel C. Innemée, David Whitehouse, Anthony Cutler, Aimilia Yeroulanou and David Buckton

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R. S. Merrillees

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Simonetta Stopponi

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Diane Favro, David W. J. Gill, Eugene Dwyer, Martin Henig, William L. MacDonald, F. B. Sear, T. F. C. Blagg, Susan Walker, Jeffrey Hilton, Joyce Reynolds, C. K. Williams II, S. Cormack, J. M. C. Bowsher, Janet Delaine, E. C. Stenton, Richard Brilliant, Eve D'Ambra, A. Claridge, C. Landwehr, Elizabeth Bartman, Peter J. Holliday, N. Hannestad, Ann Kuttner, Ann Thomas Wilkins, Henning Wrede, C. M. Antonaccio, Marianne Bergmann, Alix Barbet, Hélène Eristov, Katherine M. D. Dunbabin, Nicole Blanc, David Whitehouse, Jennifer Price, Catherine Johns, Andrew Oliver, W. H. Manning, Simon James, Andrew Burnett, Michael Vickers, Reynold Higgins, Donald M. Bailey, Hugh Chapman, J. W. Hayes, Jaimee Uhlenbrock, Hero Granger-Taylor and Alexandra Bounia

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Dominique Collon

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Beatriz de la Fuente

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Frederick M. Asher

[Vaiśālī; Vesāli]

Ancient Indian city that flourished from c. 6th century bc to c. 5th century ad. The site, in Muzaffarpur District, Bihar, spans several villages, including Basarh and Kolhua. By the 6th century bc Vaishali was the capital of the Vrjis (Lichchavis). It is important in Jainism as the birthplace of Mahavira, the last Jaina saviour, and in Buddhism (see Buddhism §I) as a place where the Buddha visited and taught. Its most important monumental remain is a pillar with a lion capital dating to the 3rd century bc. The shaft has no inscription, but the design is similar to the pillars erected by the Maurya dynasty at Lauriya Nandangarh and elsewhere. An adjacent mound, the likely location of a stupa, has yielded an image of the Buddha, shown crowned and seated (Vaishali Mus.). Excavations at Vaishali have uncovered numerous terracotta sculptures from the Kushana and Gupta periods (all Vaishali Mus.), among them a superbly rendered mother goddess image (...

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J. Marr

[Vākāṭaka]

Indian dynasty that ruled portions of Maharashtra, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh, flourishing from the mid-3rd to late 5th century ad. The Vakataka house was founded by Vindhyashakti I who ruled in the mid-3rd century. Pravarasena I (reg c. 270–330), responsible for significantly advancing the Vakatakas, conquered large parts of the western Deccan. After his death, the kingdom was apparently divided into four parts; the history of each branch is not entirely clear. Those descended from Pravarasena through Gautamiputra are considered the main branch and are best known for their matrimonial alliance with the imperial Gupta dynasty, King Rudrasena II (reg c. 385–90) marrying Prabhavatigupta, daughter of Chandragupta II (reg c. 380–415). With the death of Rudrasena, Prabhavatigupta served as regent (c. 390–410). Whether these events led to more northern influence in Maharashtra than would have occurred in the ordinary course of events is a subject that has not been satisfactorily explored. The Vakataka branch at ...

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T. F. C. Blagg

[now Vaison-la-Romaine]

Site of a Roman city (fl mid-1st century adc. 475). It originated as a native settlement of the Vocontii and occupied hillsides north of the River Ouvèze, southern France, over which a single-span Roman bridge still stands. The theatre (1st century ad) is the main surviving public building. Its cavea, cut into the north side of the Puymin Hill, has been extensively restored. The stage building was of western type with doors set in curved and rectangular exedrae. In front of it, rock-cut shafts contained the curtain mechanism. Statues of emperors and local dignitaries from the theatre are displayed in the nearby Musée Archéologique. The excavated town houses are the best-preserved in France, notable for their Hellenistic peristyle courtyards. Among those on the southern slopes of the Puymin Hill, the House of the Messii (2nd century ad) had at the east end large rooms paved in ...

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David M. Jones

Rock shelter in North America, in the Castle Mountains, AZ. It was occupied in Pre-Columbian times from c. 10,000 bc to c. ad 1300. Ventana Cave was excavated by the American archaeologist Emil Haury and the results were published by the University of New Mexico Press. The earliest layers of occupation contained crude, then more sophisticated, stone tools (including projectile points, of which the type—Clovis or Folsom—is disputed), a variety of faunal remains and shells from the Gulf of California, c. 160 km to the west. The inhabitants practised a hunting–gathering economy. Later layers contained artefacts of the Hohokam culture ( fl c. 300 bcad 1300) of the US Southwest, including evidence of their agricultural way of life ( see also Snaketown ), such as maize-grinding stones, pottery and remains of netting, cordage, basketwork, leather and feather objects and cotton textiles. The pottery is typical of early Hohokam styles, with red-on-buff decorations (...

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Luca Leoncini

Marble statue of a semi-nude Venus (h. 2.04 m; Paris, Louvre; see fig. ). Its twisting composition is probably the work of the Greek artist Alexandros of Antioch on the Meander, active in the 2nd century bc, who in turn was inspired by a pre-Hellenistic model. The artist’s name was incised on a block of stone that was found together with the Venus but later lost. A few scholars in the past doubted the connection between the block and the statue and hence the attribution of the work to Alexandros. Some attributed the work to Praxiteles, and the loss of the inscribed block may have been engineered to support this theory. The statue was found in 1820 by a peasant on the island of Melos. When found it was in two pieces, along with other fragments. It was bought by the Marquis de Rivière, who donated it to Louis XVIII, King of France. The latter in turn donated it to the Musée du ...

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Celebrated work of antique sculpture. It depicts a nude Venus, her head turned to the left, her hands covering her breasts and genitals (h. 1.53 m; Florence, Uffizi; see fig. ), and is perhaps the work of an Athenian follower of Praxiteles of the 1st century bc, probably based on a bronze original derived from the Aphrodite of Knidos. On the base is an inscription attributing it to Kleomenes the Athenian. The inscription is certainly spurious but, as Ennio Quirino Visconti noted, it may have been copied from an original signature. The statue, which was in the Villa Medici in Rome perhaps from the end of the 16th century, is documented there with certainty in 1638 by the three plates that François Perrier devoted to it in his survey of the most beautiful statues of Rome (Segmenta nobilium signorum et statuarum). In 1677 Pope Innocent XI approved its transfer to Florence, where the following year it was exhibited in the Tribune of the Uffizi. In ...

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Joan K. Lingen

Pre-Columbian culture of the Veraguas Province of central Panama. This area extends from the Caribbean Sea to the Pacific Ocean; it is bordered on the west by the Bocas del Toro and Chiriquí provinces and on the east by the Colon and Coclé provinces, and by the Azuero Peninsula provinces of Los Santos and Herrera. The extreme northern and southern parts consist of high mountains supporting a wet tropical climate, while the central area is dry. Veraguas culture was included by Richard Cooke as part of the central Panamanian cultural region, which exhibits cultural homogeneity through much of the archaeological record. More broadly, it is classed as part of the Intermediate area (see South America, Pre-Columbian, §II). Its earliest known site, Pueblo Nuevo on the Veraguas–Chiriquí border, has yielded a radiocarbon date of c. 230 bc, but the presence of iron tools in graves near Soná indicates the continuous use of the site into the 16th century ...

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Luca Leoncini

[Titus Flavius Vespasianus]

(b Reate [now Rieti], 17 Nov ad 9; reg ad 69–79; d Cutilia, 4 June ad 79). Roman ruler and patron. By the death of Nero (ad 68) he had largely subdued Judea; he was acclaimed emperor by the troops in the civil war that followed. As Suetonius aptly expressed it (Vespasian viii), Vespasian wished not only to give stability to the state but also to embellish it. That aim was fully expressed in the grandiose building programme that he carried out, mainly in Rome. He enlarged the enclosure of the pomerium (city precinct) and made it uniform with that of the new customs barrier; he straightened the course of the Tiber and repaired roads and aqueducts; he rebuilt the Temple of the Deified Claudius (after ad 70), which had been destroyed by Nero, and that of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitol (rededicated ...

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Gordon R. Willey, David M. Jones, Gordon Brotherston, Peter W. Stahl, Elizabeth P. Benson, Warwick Bray, H. Stanley Loten, Ursula Jones, Karen Olsen Bruhns, Frederick W. Lange, Sara Lunt, Annemarie Seiler-Baldinger, Elizabeth K. Easby, M. E. Moseley, W. Iain Mackay, Susan A. Niles, Pauline Antrobus, Duccio Bonavia, George Bankes, R. José Berenguer, Daniel Schávelzon, Irmhild Wüst, Tania Andrade Lima, José R. Oliver, Ann M. Mester, Luis A. Borrero, Colin McEwan, Anthony Alan Shelton, William J. Conklin, Peter Cloudsley and Joanne Pillsbury

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Margaret Mullett, Elizabeth Bruening Lewis, Valerie Nunn, Robin Cormack, Hans Buchwald, W. Eugene Kleinbauer, Marlia Mundell Mango, Lyn Rodley, William Saunders, Robert Ousterhout, Archibald Dunn, Slobodan Ćurčić, Kara Hattersley-Smith, Charles Barber, Christine Kondoleon, Ruth E. Kolarik, Lucille A. Roussin, Henri Lavagne, Margaret A. Alexander, Melita Emmanuel, Alexander Grishin, J.-P. Sodini, T. Zollt, Lucy-Anne Hunt, John Lowden, Manolis Chatzidakis, Nano Chatzidakis, Judith Herrin, Cécile Morrisson, Hero Granger-Taylor, Karel C. Innemée, David Whitehouse, Anthony Cutler, Aimilia Yeroulanou and David Buckton

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Sara Champion

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