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V. Rakitin

( Bogdanovich )

(b Tiflis [now Tbilisi], Jan 2, 1884; d Erevan, Dec 28, 1928).

Georgian stage designer and painter of Armenian origin, active in Russia . He studied at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture (1901–3) but was expelled after a disagreement over the teaching methods. Posted to the Far East during military service, he became acquainted with Far Eastern decorative art, which inspired the works he exhibited with the Blue Rose group after his return to Moscow in 1907 (e.g. The Races, 1905; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.). His work of this time refers to traditional Chinese and medieval European art refracted through Art Nouveau, in an attempt to create a new decorative style in easel painting. In Moscow he often designed the décor for artistic soirées and balls, creating architecturally decorative compositions whose basic components were painted panels. In 1910 he travelled to Italy and in 1912–13 he worked in Paris, where he became acquainted with Sonia Delaunay and Robert Delaunay. In ...


Marian Burleigh-Motley

( Fyodorovich )

(b Moscow, Oct 24, 1875; d Moscow, April 11, 1958).

Russian painter and writer . Yuon attended the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture from 1894 to 1898, studying under Konstantin Korovin and others. From 1899 to 1900 he was in the workshop of Valentin Serov. In 1899 he also travelled extensively abroad. In 1900, together with Ivan Dudin (1867–1924), he opened an art school in Moscow, where many of the future avant-garde studied, including Lyubov’ Popova, Varvara Stepanova and Nadezhda Udal’tsova. Yuon painted the Russian landscape and views of old Russian churches and monasteries as had Apollinary Vasnetsov before him. Trinity Monastery: Winter (1910; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.), with its light-filled atmosphere, is typical of his work. The landscape March Sun (1915; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.) betrays the influence of the Impressionist style of his teacher Korovin in its portrayal of sunlight casting blue shadows on the snow, an effect that is repeated in End of Winter: Midday...


N. A. Yevsina

( Petrovich )

(d 1727).

Russian architect and painter . He worked first in the Ukraine, and in 1701 he was invited to Moscow to enter the service of Peter I, Tsar and Emperor of Russia. He also superintended icon painting in Russia (from 1707). His principal work is the church of the Archangel Gabriel (1701–7), known as the Menshikov Tower, in Moscow. Its composition is based on the traditional ‘octagon on cube’ pattern, comprising two superimposed cubes surmounted by three octagonal stages. The building, which surpassed in height the hitherto tallest structure in the city, the bell-tower of Ivan the Great (1505–8) in the Kremlin, was topped by a dome, a gilded spire and the figure of an angel, also gilded (top storey destr. 1723). West European Baroque forms prevail in the architectural and artistic embellishment of the exterior and interior. Richly moulded decoration and sculptural motifs with angels’ heads together make up an emotionally complex, somewhat capricious picture. It is likely that Zarudny was involved in the building of the church of St John the Warrior (...


Janice Shell

(b Treviglio, c. 1464; d Milan, Feb 10, 1526).

Italian painter and architect . In 1481 Zenale was already a qualified master and a member of the Scuola di S Luca, the painters’ guild, in Milan. In 1485 he and Bernardino Butinone were hired by Simone da San Pellegrino and other officials of S Martino, Treviglio, to paint a large altarpiece for the high altar (in situ); the carving of the frame was subcontracted to Ambrogio and Giovanni Pietro Donati. By January 1491 the altarpiece had been installed, and Zenale and Butinone made a final payment to the Donati brothers. The two-tiered polyptych, in an elaborate pedimented frame, shows the Virgin and Child, St Martin and the beggar and other saints. The architectural setting for each group, shown in steep perspective, is festooned with swags and encrusted with decorative patterning.

During the 1480s and early 1490s Zenale frequently worked with Butinone: from these years date the decorations, including Dominican saints, for the nave of S Maria delle Grazie, Milan (...


Kathleen Curran

(b Regensburg, Feb 7, 1800; d Munich, July 24, 1873).

Bavarian architect and painter. After working with the stage designer Domenico Quaglio II he studied at the Königliche Akademie der bildenden Künste in Munich under the Neo-classical architect Karl von Fischer. Following Fischer’s death, Ziebland completed many of his projects, including the Hof- und Nationaltheater (1811–18) in Munich. An exhibition of Ziebland’s paintings brought him to the attention of Ludwig I, King of Bavaria ( see Wittelsbach, House of family §III, (3) ). In his quest to transform Munich into a museum of architecture, Ludwig sent Ziebland to Italy to study Early Christian basilicas, so that he could design one for Munich. After two years in Italy (1827–9) Ziebland was commissioned to design an Early Christian-style basilica with an adjacent Benedictine monastery. The Bonifaziusbasilika (1835–40), Munich, is the best known of Ziebland’s works. A brick, five-aisled basilica with a sumptuous interior, St Boniface was hailed as one of Ludwig’s greatest building projects. Its monastery is attached to his exhibition building, the ...


(b Beaune, Feb 21, 1821; d Paris, Feb 11, 1911).

French painter. He studied architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Dijon until he was expelled in 1838 for unruly behaviour. In 1839 he left for Marseille, where he was Clerk of Works on the construction of the Marseille canal. In November 1839 he was noticed by Ferdinand Philippe, Duc d’Orléans, who accepted two watercolours that Ziem presented to him and commissioned a further six. This first success decided Ziem’s vocation, and he started a drawing class that was attended by Louis Auguste Laurent Aiguier (1819–65) and Adolphe Monticelli. During this period he also encountered the Provençal artists Emile Loubon (1809–63), Prosper Grésy (1804–74) and Gustave Ricard.

In 1842 Ziem left for Nice, where he came into contact with members of the European aristocracy, with whom, thanks to his talent and his charm, he was soon on familiar terms. During the following years he travelled widely. Sophie, the Grand Duchess of Baden, invited him to Baden in ...


Geoffrey Ashton and Lin Barton

(Joseph ) [Johannes Josephus ; John ]

(b nr Frankfurt am Main, March 13, 1733; d Strand-on-the-Green, nr Kew, London, Nov 11, 1810).

German painter, active in England. Born Johannes Josephus Zauffaly, he was the son of Anton Franz Zauffaly (1699–1771), Court Cabinetmaker and Architect in Regensburg to Alexander Ferdinand, Prince of Thurn and Taxis. After an apprenticeship in Regensburg under the painter and engraver Martin Speer (c. 1702–65), a pupil of Francesco Solimena, Zoffany left in 1750 for Rome, where he studied under the portrait painter Agostino Masucci and came into contact with Anton Raphael Mengs. By 1757 and after a second trip to Rome, Zoffany was commissioned by Clemens August, Prince-Archbishop and Elector of Trier, to produce frescoes and paintings for his new palace at Trier and the palace of Ehrenbreitstein at Koblenz. All Zoffany’s early work at Ehrenbreitstein and Trier has been destroyed, but it may have been in the German Rococo manner of Cosmas Damian Asam and Johann Baptist Zimmermann. A number of small easel paintings such as ...