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Virginia C. Goodlett

and Tauriskos

(b ?Tralles, Asia Minor; fl ?2nd century bc).

Greek sculptors. They were active in the Hellenistic period. Pliny (Natural History XXXVI.iv.34) mentioned a large sculpted group by Apollonios and Tauriskos portraying the Punishment of Dirke, which was brought to Rome from Rhodes in the time of Augustus (reg 27 bcad 14). A Roman copy of the work, the so-called Farnese Bull, was excavated in the Baths of Caracalla in Rome in 1545 (Naples, Mus. Archeol. N.); it is probably contemporary with the baths, which were built in the mid-3rd century ad. Small copies on gems prove that this marble copy is more elaborate than the original group. Thus it is impossible to date Apollonios’ and Tauriskos’ activity. Pliny provided the names of both their natural father, Artemidoros, and their adopted father, Menekrates. Attempts to identify Menekrates with the Menekrates of Rhodes who worked on the ‘Great Altar’ at Pergamon are unsuccessful: the Pergamene inscription is so fragmentary that the name of Menekrates cannot be restored with certainty....



Anna Maria Quagliotti

[anc. Takṣaśilā]

Site of an ancient city and centre of Buddhism on the Tamra River c. 32 km from Rawalpindi, Pakistan. At the crossroads of important trade routes in ancient times, Taxila lies in a valley bounded by the Murree Hills; a short spur, the Hathial Ridge, divides the valley into two unequal parts, the larger one to the north, the smaller one to the south. Taxila includes the city-sites of Bhir Mound, Sirkap and Sirsukh, the religious buildings in or near them and a number of Buddhist sites scattered throughout the valley (see fig.). Recent studies have partially modified the results of the excavations carried out by John Marshall in 1913–34 and Amalananda Gosh in 1944–5.

The earliest finds at Taxila (attributed to ‘Gandhara Grave Culture—Phase VI’) come from the Hathial Mound (1a). After a brief period of prosperity, Hathial may have been abandoned in favour of the Bhir Mound (...



Arlen F. Chase and Trent Barnes

Pre-Columbian Maya site in the Petén region of north-eastern Guatemala, on the peninsula that divides Lake Petén. Tayasal has been occupied since c. 600 bc, but is known primarily from its presumed association with the historically identified Itzá Maya, believed to have migrated to the Petén from Yucatán in the Post-Classic period (c. ad 900–1521), who were finally conquered by the Spanish in ad 1697. Excavations were carried out by Carl Guthe for the Carnegie Institution of Washington around 1920 and by Arlen Chase in the 1970s, uncovering both Post-Classic and much earlier remains. The association of the site with the Itzá has been questioned, but sizeable Post-Classic deposits have been found along the shores of Lake Petén adjacent to Tayasal.

Ancient Tayasal extended over both the peninsular spine and the lake-shore, but occupation shifted within this area over time: Middle to Late Pre-Classic (c. 600 bc...


G. Lola Worthington

Archaeological areas in eastern and southern North America reveal advanced mound building cultures from several different cultural phases. Around 1500 bc, several North American indigenous groups attained the sophisticated cultural “Woodlands” phase. For over a millennium, three principle cultural groups, the Adena, Hopewell and Mississippian, built elaborate advanced earthen structures and large temples in the Upper Ohio Valley of Kentucky and West Virginia. Accompanying the earthen monuments was an ambitious religious devotee system.

The Adena culture flourished in the Upper Ohio Valley, around 800 bc. An excavation in 1902 uncovered the preliminary extensive temple mound building structures ( see Adena Mound ). Precursors to monumental temple building, these sites offer early evidence of organized, sophisticated, cultural communities. The Adena lived in large permanently constructed circular dwellings covered with thatch. For almost 1700 years, the Adena performed extensive elaborate death ritual ceremonies. A notable ritual was burial with specialized élite material objects. Advances in copper metallurgy produced technologically specialized objects ideal for interring with the dead. Commercialized production of funerary objects revealed that greater and more elaborate burial practices were developed for elevated individuals. Material goods became increasingly important for eternal rest and great qualities and object types began to appear. Evolving their burial rites into elaborate practices the Adena increased the size and sophistication of their early temple mound building construction techniques....



Harry Brewster

Site on the west coast of Turkey, on the isthmus of a small peninsula c. 48 km south-west of Smyrna (now Izmir). It was founded by Athenians and Ionians led by Nauklos, a son of King Kodros, though its legendary origin went back to Minyan settlers from Boiotia. The city flourished in the 7th and 6th centuries bc, before falling to Persian invaders (546 bc). Many of its citizens departed and founded the city of Abdera in Thrace, though several later returned after the Persians had been evicted. In the 5th century bc Teos regained its prosperity and, through seaborne trade, became one of the richest Ionian Greek cities. It continued to prosper throughout the Hellenistic period in spite of the conflicts that broke out under Alexander’s successors and with the coming of the Romans in the 2nd century bc. Under the Romans Teos gradually declined. The remains of the city lie scattered among olive trees, and the most conspicuous ruins are those of the Temple of Dionysos, the principal deity of Teos, built early in the ...


J. C. Langley

Pre-Columbian site in the Mexican Central Highlands. It was the region’s pre-eminent city during the Late Pre-Classic and Classic periods (c. 250 bcc. ad 900).

Teotihuacán’s ruins, which lie c. 50 km north-east of Mexico City, are an eloquent memorial to the achievements of a culture whose influence at the middle of the 1st millennium ad extended over much of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica. The site covers more than 20 sq. km and is laid out on a regular grid orientated 15°30′ east of north (see Mesoamerica, pre-columbian, fig.). The ceremonial centre is a grandiose arrangement of planned space and monumental structures surrounded by modular single-storey apartment compounds that housed most of the city’s inhabitants. Little is known about their ethnic origins, but, with a population estimated at up to 200,000, in the 6th century ad Teotihuacán was the largest and most populous city in the Pre-Columbian Americas and sixth most populous in the world. Its arts have survived most conspicuously in the form of architecture and in closely integrated wall paintings, but fine pottery and some stone sculpture also remain.....



M. A. Claringbull

[Thair; anc. Tagara]

Temple site in Osmanabad District, Maharashtra, India. Its principal monument is the Trivikrameshvara Temple (c. 4th century ad). One of the earliest surviving examples of a brick-built structural temple in India (the other being the Kapoteshvara Temple at Chezarla, Andhra Pradesh), it is now in worship as a Hindu temple but was probably originally Buddhist. It is built in the manner of the early apsidal Buddhist temples (caityag ṛhas) with a barrel-vaulted roof and a pointed window arch (gavākṣa) at the gable end (see Indian subcontinent §III 4., (ii), (c)). The Uttareshvara and Kaleshvara temples, which have been compared with the oldest Chalukya-period temples at Pattadakal, Karnataka (see Cousens), are of moulded brick with wooden beams and doorframes and may be still more ancient. Archaeological Survey of India excavations have further revealed the foundations of two brick stupas, limestone slabs and copings carved in the Amaravati style and an apsidal temple of the ...



Elizabeth Sears

[Publius Terentius Afer]

(b Carthage, c. 190 bc; d ?Greece, 159 bc).

Roman writer. His six comedies, composed between 166 bc and 160 bc for performance before a Roman public, were admired for the purity and elegance of their Latin and became school texts, destined to be read and studied, quoted and imitated long after they had ceased to be performed. Over 700 manuscripts (5th–15th centuries ad) and a large number of printed editions attest to the plays’ enduring popularity. The medieval and Renaissance manuscripts belong to the ‘Calliopian’ recension of the text (named after the Late Antique redactor Calliopius, of whom nothing further is known) and are divided into the gamma and delta branches. At an early date—probably in Late Antiquity, if not before—the plays were illustrated: frontispieces were created and unframed images of masked, costumed, gesturing actors were inserted at the scene divisions. These pictorial cycles accompany texts of the gamma branch only, although it is not necessarily the case that the cycle was created for this recension (Grant). Extant illustrated copies of the plays, descendants of a posited Late Antique archetype, fall into three principal groups: 12 manuscripts and a fragment dating from the 9th to 12th centuries; a small number of luxury manuscripts produced in French court circles in the early 15th century; and numerous series of woodcuts prepared for printed editions of the plays in the late 15th and 16th centuries....


Iain Browning

Site of a Pisidian city that flourished c. 150 bcad 300, now in the Termessos National Park, near Antalya, Turkey. According to tradition, it was founded by a Central Anatolian tribe, the Solymoi, who were noted warriors. Early record of them is shrouded in legend (e.g. Homer: Iliad VI. 184), though Herodotus (I.clxxiii.2) mentioned their conflicts with settling Greeks. Termessos, like all Pisidia, was overrun by the Persians (mid-6th century bc), but due to the city’s remote, mountainous location, its citizens were able to retain much of their independence. It submitted to Alexander the Great in 333 bc, though it was not actually captured by him (Arrian: Anabasis of Alexander I.xxvii.5–xxviii.2). After Alexander’s death in 323 bc, Termessos became involved in the conflicts between his ‘Successors’. Siding first with Alketas and then with Antigonos, it surrendered to the Seleukids (301 bc), who eventually ceded it to Rome by the Peace of Apameia in ...


T. W. Potter


Site of one of the most completely excavated Roman towns in North Africa (see fig.). It lies on the edge of a plain in Algeria, below the northern flanks of the Aures mountains, some 160 km from the Mediterranean coast. It stood at a nodal point in the road system: to the west lay the legionary fortress at Lambaesis, while to the east was the main route to Thevestis and Carthage. It was founded by Trajan in ad 100 as a colony for army veterans, the Colonia Marciana Traiana Thamugadi, and built by soldiers stationed at Lambaesis. Although its plan is overwhelmingly military, there is little doubt that Thamugadi was intended to be a town, not a military base. Its square shape comprises a grid of 111 blocks, each 20 sq. m; most were subdivided into properties for the individual settlers, while a good number were given over to public buildings....


S. J. B. Barnish

[the Great]

(b Cauca [now Coca], Spain, c. ad 346; reg 379–95; d Milan, Jan 17, 395).

Roman emperor and patron. His father, Count Theodosios, was executed in 376 under Valens (reg 364–78), but in 379 Gratian (reg 367–83) proclaimed Theodosios emperor of the eastern empire. In a series of campaigns he contained the invading Goths and crushed two rivals in the west: Magnus Maximus (reg 383–8) and Eugenius (reg 392–4), who was supported by leading pagans in the Roman aristocracy. He was a devout Nicene Christian and persecutor of heretics and was much influenced by St Ambrose of Milan (c. 339–97), who forced him to do penance for his massacre of between 7000 and 15,000 people in the Hippodrome at Thessaloniki in 390. He abolished sacrifices and confirmed the disendowment of pagan cults but gave some legal protection to statues and temples as works of art. In 384–8, however, he permitted his fanatical minister Cynegius to tour the eastern provinces destroying temples. The empire was by then becoming firmly Christian, and the resulting flowering of Christian literature, art and architecture is known as the Theodosian Renaissance. At Rome he and his co-emperors began the construction of ...


Diane Favro, David W. J. Gill, Eugene Dwyer, Martin Henig, William L. MacDonald, F. B. Sear, T. F. C. Blagg, Susan Walker, Jeffrey Hilton, Joyce Reynolds, C. K. Williams II, S. Cormack, J. M. C. Bowsher, Janet Delaine, E. C. Stenton, Richard Brilliant, Eve D'Ambra, A. Claridge, C. Landwehr, Elizabeth Bartman, Peter J. Holliday, N. Hannestad, Ann Kuttner, Ann Thomas Wilkins, Henning Wrede, C. M. Antonaccio, Marianne Bergmann, Alix Barbet, Hélène Eristov, Katherine M. D. Dunbabin, Nicole Blanc, David Whitehouse, Jennifer Price, Catherine Johns, Andrew Oliver, W. H. Manning, Simon James, Andrew Burnett, Michael Vickers, Reynold Higgins, Donald M. Bailey, Hugh Chapman, J. W. Hayes, Jaimee Uhlenbrock, Hero Granger-Taylor and Alexandra Bounia




J. Lesley Fitton, Christos G. Doumas and R. A. Tomlinson

[Thira; Santorini]

Volcanic Greek island at the southern extremity of the Aegean Cyclades. In the Late Bronze Age (c. 1525 bc; but see also Cycladic, §I, 4) a violent eruption of the paroxysmal or explosive type changed the shape of the island, which was originally roughly circular, with the volcano rising to a central cone. The ejection of huge quantities of gas, pumice and ash created a void beneath the cone, which then collapsed, leaving a vast central space known as a caldera. This filled up with sea-water and, surrounded by steep-sided cliffs with a white mantle of ash, it now provides access for ships visiting the island. The outer ring left after the collapse of the centre eventually fragmented, forming the modern crescent-shaped island of Thera, the smaller Therasia and the tiny islet of Aspronisi. Excavations on Thera were begun by the French School in the mid-19th century; the current excavations at Akrotiri began in ...


W. Eugene Kleinbauer

[now Tebessa]

Algerian town at the foot of the Tebessa mountains. It was probably the site of a pre-Roman settlement that became the residence of a Roman imperial legate and his legion in the late 1st century ad, when it was raised to the rank of colony and served as the capital of an administrative and estate district.

The Roman town is known to have had a forum, a theatre, an oval amphitheatre (c. 86×80 m), public baths and some unidentified public works; a temple and a four-sided triumphal arch (ad 214) are perfectly preserved. In the 3rd and 4th centuries the plain surrounding the town was the location of numerous fortified farms that continued in use into the 6th century and beyond. From the time of the synod of Carthage in 256 there was a Christian community and a bishop in Thevestis. Funeral epitaphs attest to Vandal occupation in the second half of the 5th century. After the Byzantine reconquest of North Africa in 533, however, the town gained in military importance and became a marketing centre. Although archaeological and epigraphic evidence indicates the continued presence of a Christian community in the 6th century when two churches were built, little is known of the town’s history until the numerous references to it by Arab geographers between the 11th and 14th centuries....


Timothy Taylor

Terms applied principally to types of figural toreutic metalwork produced in south-east Europe between the 7th century bc and 1st century ad.

Thracian art dates from the 7th–1st centuries bc and is closely connected to Scythian and Sarmatian art. Dacian art represents the later manifestation of Thracian art (1st century bc–1st century ad), particularly in regions north of the Danube where Roman conquest came late. However, it can also be grouped with Sarmatian art as ‘Daco-Sarmatian’. Information on the Thracian and Dacian peoples and their various subgroups comes from Classical texts, epigraphy, place name evidence and archaeological remains. According to classical authors the Thracians occupied a region extending from Greek Thrace northwards to the Danube River and the Carpathian Mountains, and eastwards into Asia Minor (modern Bulgaria, part of Romania, western Turkey, Moldavia and northern Greece). To the east, the steppe extended directly to southern Siberia and the borders of China, and from it came groups of invading Scythian nomads. The Persians invaded from the east ...


(b Rome, Nov 16, 42 bc; reg ad 14–37; d Misenum [now Miseno], 16 March ad 37).

Roman emperor and patron. In ad 23 he retired permanently to Capreae, forsaking Rome and its architectural development. However, although the reign of Tiberius was certainly modest in terms of building activity, the judgements of Suetonius (Tiberius xlvii.1) and Dio display the exaggerated hostility that characterizes their accounts of this emperor. In fact, apart from the various buildings he restored (including the stage-building of the Theatre of Pompey (ad 21) and the Temple of Castor in the Forum Romanum (ad 6; see fig. i), three elegant Corinthian columns of which are still extant), he was responsible for the Domus Tiberiana on the Palatine—the first true palace built there as a single unit by an emperor—and the Castra Praetoria, the camp of the Praetorian Guard (ad 21–23). The latter employed opus latericium (the use of fired clay bricks), a new system of construction that was to revive Roman architecture, as can be seen in the large stretches of its outer walls that still stand. Between ...


Warwick Bray and Trent Barnes

Pre-Columbian archaeological zone in the region of the headwaters of the River Magdalena, Cauca Department, Colombia. Dating evidence for the sites and artefacts is imprecise, although some of the burial architecture probably dates to c. ad 600–850. Scattered throughout the area are cists and graves, stone statues, carved boulders, house sites, and painted underground sepulchral chambers grouped in ridge-top cemeteries; these were apparently unknown to the inhabitants of the region when the Spaniards arrived in 1539.

There are approximately 200 underground tombs, which served as family or community vaults, cut into the soft granodiorite rock. Each tomb is entered by either a straight or spiral stairway, sealed at the top by an earth-covered slab, leading to a circular or oval chamber with inset niches and a roof supported on free-standing square columns chiselled out of rock. Walls and ceilings were covered with a layer of white paint on which geometric patterns and stylized representations of lizards, frogs, serpents, large shield-shaped human faces, and full-length human figures were depicted in red, black, and yellow paint. Shaft tombs, often with side chambers, were also used. A painted underground chamber at ...



William A. Haviland

Site of a Pre-Columbian Maya city in the Petén region of north-eastern Guatemala. By the 2nd century ad Tikal had become the undisputed political and cultural leader in the southern Maya lowlands, from which it dominated the Maya world c. ad 250–c. 870. During the early part of this period there were extensive trading and political relations with Teotihuacán in the Basin of Mexico. By 593 Tikal was beset by political instability after war against Maya Caracol, but by the late 7th century recovery was under way, and the city experienced a second florescence before its final decline and abandonment in the latter part of the 9th century, for reasons still unclear. Scholarly interest in Tikal began in 1848, when it was visited by Modesto Méndez, Ambrosio Tut and the artist Eusebio Lara, who made somewhat fanciful drawings of several carved monuments and lintels. Over the next 100 years, others mapped, drew and photographed whatever monuments and standing architecture could be seen without excavation. Some objects were removed from the site, most notably carved wooden lintels now in London (BM), Basle (Mus. Vlkerknd) and New York (Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.). (Copies made from moulds of the originals in the European museums have been installed in their proper places in Tikal.) From ...


V. I. Sarianidi

[Tilla Tepe; Tillia-tepe]

Princely or royal necropolis near Shebarghan, northern Afghanistan. The Tillya Tepe mound contained the ruins of a Bronze Age temple of the 2nd millennium bc. In the first centuries bc and ad it was adapted into a necropolis by local rulers. The site was discovered and excavated by a joint Soviet–Afghan archaeological expedition in 1978–9; the finds are in Kabul Museum. The wealth and regal splendour of the burials contrast starkly with other simple pit graves found at a depth of c. 2 m at the site, which lacked any kind of burial goods. The finds suggest that this was the secret necropolis of the local ruling dynasty, with possibly a false, official necropolis being located at the nearby early Kushana city of Yemshi Tepe.

The apparently lidless wooden coffins contained the fully extended bodies of four females, one supposedly female, and one male, wrapped in shrouds sewn with gold, or more rarely silver, discs. The bodies lay on their backs (four with their heads pointing to the north, two with their heads to the west), and were arrayed in sumptuous burial robes intricately patterned with gilt-threaded pearls and hundreds of tiny gold discs. Their heads lay in gold or silver vessels. In the male interment this was a phiale bearing a Greek legend. One had a gold crown; the others, headdresses decorated with pendants. Hair was gathered at the temples with hairpins. The jewellery comprised earring clips, pectorals, necklaces of beads or coin-shaped ornaments, massive finger-rings, cast metal bangles, bracelets with relief modelling and gold anklets. Gold stays (two in the case of the male burial) were fastened from ear to ear across the lower jaw. Footware (in one case unheeled) was strengthened by gold buckles, sometimes modelled into figured shapes. The women wore ankle-length pleated trousers, shirts, jackets and possibly gowns with modelled fastenings at the collar. In one interment three buckles were found one on top of another, thereby indicating three layers of clothing. Garments were especially richly sewn with gold discs on the sleeves, hems, cuffs and around centrally placed brooches on the breasts....


Mark D. Fullerton

(fl 2nd century bc–early 1st).

Name of at least two Greek sculptors, members of a family of Athenian sculptors including Polykles, Timokles and Dionysios. Pliny (Natural History XXXIV.xix.91) listed a Timarchides among sculptors in bronze, but his best-known work seems to have been a marble lyre-playing Apollo in the Temple of Apollo near the Porticus Metelli (later Octaviae) in Rome (Pliny: XXXVI.iv.35). This has been identified with a classicizing Apollo type known from several Roman copies. If it was the cult statue, the original may date to 179 bc, when the temple was rebuilt. Pliny perhaps implied that Timarchides also sculpted the cult image in the Temple of Juno Regina (ded. 179 bc) in the same porticus. He may also have been that Timarchides who worked with (?his brother) Timokles on the cult statue of Asklepios at Elateia (Pausanias: Guide to Greece X.xxxiv.6). They may be the ‘sons of Polykles’ mentioned twice by Pausanias (VI.xii.9; X.xxxiv.8), although neither name occurs with this patronymic. If so, their works suggest a connection with the Neo-Attic school of sculpture, and one may be datable to ...