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Mark D. Fullerton

(fl c. 1st century bc).

Greek sculptor. He worked in Rome during the late Hellenistic and early Imperial eras, and signed a statue of a Youth (c. 50 bc; Rome, Villa Torlonia) as a pupil of Pasiteles. However, he is mentioned only once in literary sources (Pliny the elder: Natural History XXXVI.iv.33), as the maker of a group of Appiades (apparently water nymphs associated with the aqua Appia) in the collection of Asinius Pollio (76 bcad 5). The Albani Youth is representative of the eclectic and stylistically retrospective sculptures created for the Roman market in later Hellenistic times. While it is largely modelled on Early Classical Apollo types (e.g. the Choiseul-Gouffier Apollo; London, BM), it has the elongated proportions, small head and agitated stance typical of Late Classical works. Over a dozen replicas of the type are known, two of which were incorporated into statue groups. In the Orestes and Electra...


Diane Harris

(fl c. 325–c. 280 bc).

Greek sculptor. He was the son of Herodotos of Olynthos and the father of Herodoros, both of whom were also sculptors. He was born in Olynthos before 348 bc when the city was destroyed by Philip of Macedon. His later signatures on statue bases record his citizenship as Athenian or from the Attic deme Diomeia. He was a contemporary of Lysippos as well as Leochares, and continued to work during the reign of Lysimachos (287–281 bc). Many of his works were brought to Rome, including statues of Demeter, Zeus and Athena which were displayed in the Temple of Concord; matrons weeping, praying or sacrificing (Pliny: Natural History XXXIV.xc); a portrait of the philosopher Dion of Ephesos (Inscr. Gr./1, XIV, 1149); and a portrait of Autolykos, the founder of Sinope (Plutarch: Lucullus xxiii). Other works include a portrait of Hadeia, the wife of Autolykos, in the amphiareion at Oropos (...



Kara Hattersley-Smith

Site in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia on a promontory at the confluence of the rivers Crna and Vardar, c. 23 km south-east of Titov Veles. It existed as a city by the early 2nd century bc; under the Romans, its commercial and military importance was enhanced with the construction of roads along the Crna and Vardar valleys. In ad 325, the city is recorded as having its own bishop and by the 5th century it had become the capital of the province of Macedonia Secunda. It was severely damaged by the attack of 479 by the Goths and was probably also affected by the earthquake of 518. Although the bishops of Stobi subscribed to the proceedings of the Council of Constantinople in 680 and the Penthekte Council in Trullo in 780, the archaeological evidence suggests that by the late 7th century the urban community was no longer functioning. The presence of Slav graves, however, indicates that the area continued to be inhabited until probably the 12th century, after which it was abandoned....


Martha C. Nussbaum

Philosophical school of ancient Greece and Rome. It was among the most influential movements of antiquity and because of its centrality in later European education, especially in the 16th–19th centuries, it exercised a profound influence on the views of virtue, mind and emotion held by many thinkers and artists. The school was named after the porch (stoa) in Athens where it met under Zeno of Citium (335–263 bc), Cleanthes (331–232 bc) and Chrysippus (280–207 bc), all of whose works survive only in fragments. Modifications of doctrine were introduced by Panaetius (185–109 bc) and Posidonius (135–50 bc). At Rome, Stoicism became the creed of many political, artistic and intellectual leaders. The most important Roman Stoic philosophers were Seneca (c. 4 bcad 65), Epictetus (c. ad 55–c. 135) and the emperor Marcus Aurelius (...


Marie Mauzé

Region of eastern Vancouver Island and the adjacent Canadian–US mainland, opposite the Fraser River delta and canyon. It is the homeland of the Native American Coast Salish and the location of a number of Pre-Columbian sites, including Marpole, Glenrose, St Mungo, Locarno Beach and Musqueam around the Fraser delta. The first art, including sculpture in the round, appeared during the Developmental period (c. 3500–c. 1100 bc). The Marpole site, for example, has yielded ground slate fragments decorated with drilled holes, notched or scalloped edges and patterns of incised lines. Similar decorations were applied to bone and antler. From St Mungo come carvings in bone or soft stone resembling segmented insect larvae (Vancouver, U. BC, Mus. Anthropol.). The most impressive example, from Glenrose, is a small tool handle of antler in the shape of a human figure (Vancouver, U. BC, Mus. Anthropol.). It has a large, deeply carved face, perforated earlobes, almond-shaped eyes and eyebrows and nose forming a ‘y’. It is one the oldest anthropomorphic sculptures from the Northwest Coast (...



Naomi J. Norman

Site in Akarnania, north-west Greece, on the west bank of the River Acheloos. The largest city and ancient capital of the region, it flourished from the 5th to the 2nd century bc. Preserved at the site are a theatre, traces of an agora with a stoa, a fortification wall, extramural tombs and a temple to Zeus. The site was investigated by the French School at Athens in 1892, 1910–11 and 1924. The Temple of Zeus was built of limestone and orientated east–west. It stood on a platform, partly projecting from the west city wall, with two statue bases, a treasury-like building and a structure that may have been either an altar or a stoa. The orthostat course of the cella wall still stands, and architectural fragments are scattered around, but the workmanship is not good, and the temple was probably unfinished. The stylobate (c. 32.5×16.5 m) carried a peristyle of 6×11 Doric columns attached to it with dowels. The profile and proportions of the capitals compare well with those from the South Stoa at Corinth (later 4th century ...


M’Hamed Fantar

[now Sbeïtla]

Tunisian site on the Roman road from Carthage to Thevestis, on a plateau on the west bank of a deep wadi. The original nucleus of 9 ha was divided into centuriations at the time of the Flavians (reg ad 69–96), the name of the new foundation being a diminutive form of Sufes, a castellum situated a journey stage to the north-east. With abundant springs, easily accessible quarries and farmland, it flourished in the 3rd and 4th centuries ad, covering an area of c. 50 ha and possessing a population of c. 10,000; its principal source of revenue was olive oil (many presses survive). There was a bishop as early as ad 256; despite the sack of the town by Arabs in ad 647 it continued to function until the 11th century.

Among the buildings visible today are the forum complex, with a monumental triple archway (ad 139) dedicated to Antoninus Pius, an enclosed square with colonnades on three sides and three temples on the fourth side dedicated to the Capitoline triad. The pseudo-dipteral prostyle temples stand on podia and are linked by small arches at the rear; the central temple is in the Composite order, while the flanking temples are Corinthian. Other notable monuments are the Arch of Diocletian (...


Marie-Louise Buhl

[Arab. Sūkās; Anc. Shuksu]

Ancient town mound on the Syrian coast south of Latakia, between two natural harbours. The site was occupied from the 7th millennium bc and was finally abandoned in the 14th century ad. Tell Sukas was excavated by a Danish expedition under P. J. Riis between 1958 and 1963 and most of the finds are in the National Museum in Damascus.

The Canaanites may have conquered the site in the 3rd millennium bc. During the 2nd millennium bc the international character of the town is well demonstrated by the presence of cylinder and stamp seals from various parts of the Near East. Imported cylinder seals from Mesopotamia, Anatolia, north Syria and Cyprus are of a high standard but local seals are modest works. A tablet inscribed in Ugaritic testifies to relations between Shuksu and Ugarit (Ras Shamra on the north Syrian coast) in the 14th–13th centuries bc, about when objects from Egypt and the Mycenaean world also appeared. Remains of a contemporary sanctuary have been excavated....


E. Errington

[anc. Bagolāṅgo: ‘place of the gods’]

Site of the dynastic shrine of the Kushana kings, c. 13 km north-west of Pul-i Khumri, Afghanistan. The site was excavated in 1952–63 by the Délégation Archéologique Française en Afghanistan under Daniel Schlumberger. Finds were placed in the Kabul Museum but their fate since the museum was bombed in 1993 is unknown.

The site was founded c. late 1st century adc. early 2nd, possibly by Kanishka I, and repaired, according to an inscription, in year 31 of the Kanishka era. Mud-brick fortifications with bastions and arrow-shaped loopholes encircle the base of the hill. On the east side there is a canal, a well and the entrance to a rectangular inner enclosure with a monumental stairway that ascends the terraced hillside to three temples on the acropolis. The inner fortification wall has square towers c. 15 m apart and is decorated with stepped merlons, fretwork and arrow-shaped loopholes alternating with an openwork design of arrowheads and triangles in rectangular recesses. The principal monument, a peripteral-style ...


Erberto F. Lo Bue

[Svayambhūnātha, Skt: ‘Self-Existent Lord’; Nepali Śimbhu; Newari Śeṅgu; Tib. Shing-kun]

Sacred Buddhist site consisting of a large richly decorated stupa and associated structures on a hilltop 2 km west of Kathmandu, Nepal. Svayambhunatha is the most important Buddhist site in the Kathmandu Valley, equally sacred to Newar and Tibetan Buddhists, and one of the most sacred sites of the Buddhist world. According to tradition the Indian scholar Vasubandhu visited it in the 4th century ad, but the stupa was almost certainly founded c. early 5th century and is likely to have undergone enlargements and repairs as early as the Lichchhavi period (c. ad 300–800). It was restored in 1129 and extensively renovated in 1372, following a devastating Muslim raid from Bengal in 1349. Tibetan masters have resided at the site since at least the 11th century and had the stupa restored in 1504, 1640 and 1751–8. The Lhasa government contributed to the restoration in 1825–6, and another restoration took place early in the 20th century....


Thorsten Opper

[Gr.: ‘drinking together’]

Highly ritualized drinking party that developed in Archaic and Classical Greece. Initially restricted to aristocratic circles, participants were exclusively male; women, if they attended at all, attended in subordinate roles as servants, dancers, musicians, prostitutes or more refined courtesans (Gr. hetairai). A symposion took place in specially constructed room, the andron (men's room), fitted to accommodate a series of klinai (dining couches) along the walls and usually recognizable in the archaeological footprint of a house through its off-centre doorway. Food was a secondary element; it was offered first and served on small, low tables standing in front of the couches. After the meal and a sacrifice, the drinking began. Revellers elected one of their number as symposiarch, or master of proceedings, whose task it was to decide the pace of drinking and ratio of wine to water to be imbibed (Greeks always diluted their wine; drinking it undiluted was considered barbaric); he would also determine a topic for conversation. Symposia could range from highly philosophical discourse (as immortalized in Plato's famous dialogue, ...


Bonna D. Wescoat and Lucia Trigilia


Site of a city in south-east Sicily. From the early 5th century bc until its destruction by the Saracens in ad 878 it was the leading city of Sicily and, for a time, of the Greek world.

Bonna D. Wescoat

Greek colonists from the Corinthia founded Syracuse in the second half of the 8th century bc (734 bc according to Thucydides) on the island of Ortygia, where the famous Fountain of Arethusa is located (see fig. (a)). Soon after the foundation, a city plan was set out, which continued on to the mainland and connected the early settlement with the contemporary cemetery at Fusco. It became the basis for the regular urban development of the city over the next centuries. Systematic archaeological work has revealed much of the ancient city; finds, including all those mentioned below, are well displayed in the Museo Archeologico Regionale ‘Paolo Orsi’.

Syracuse displayed her wealth in boldly innovative architectural monuments built of local limestone. The temples of Apollo (...


I. R. Pichikyan

[Takht-i Sangīn]

Site in Tajikistan, situated at the most convenient crossing point on the right bank of the upper reaches of the Oxus River (Amu), at the confluence of the Vakhsh and Pyandzh rivers, which flourished from the 4th–3rd century bc to the 4th century ad. Takht-i Sangin, the fortress of Takht-i Kubad on the opposite bank and the town of Takht-i Kubad, 5 km to the south, controlled the crossing. These were important points in the chain of fortifications that controlled the water and land routes along the Amu River during the Greco-Bactrian period (3rd–2nd century bc). Takht-i Sangin was protected to the west by the Teshiktash range of hills, to the east by the Amu River, while to the north and south it had defensive walls (1600×300 m). The citadel (235×165 m), fortified with stone walls up to 8 m high and 2.2 m thick, was excavated by B. P. Denike (...


G. Herrmann

[Pers. Takht-i Sulaymăn; Takht-e Suleiman; anc. Shiz; Ganzak]

Site of an oval walled city in north-west Iran identified as the great religious centre of the Sasanian people (c. ad 224–651). It is in a remote mountainous region remarkable for its springs, which are so rich in minerals that through the millennia deposits have formed hills surrounding ever-deepening lakes; that around which the city is built has sheer sides some 40 m deep. Near by, at Zendan-i Sulayman, an earlier settlement was constructed on an even higher hill whose lake has drained away leaving an empty crater. Although Takht-i Sulayman may have been founded in the Achaemenid (538–331 bc) or Parthian (250bcc. ad 224) periods, the existing buildings are mostly late Sasanian. The site was excavated by a German team from 1959, and finds are in the Archaeological Museum, Tehran.

Most of the site was occupied by a walled, rectangular sacred precinct. The ‘Processional Way’ running from the North Gate of the city bisected the site and led directly to the principal temple, a ...


Site of a Buddhist monastery of Gandhara on a hillside 14.5 km north-west of Mardan, North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan. Discovered by British officers in 1852, the main stupa courtyard subsequently suffered extensive damage from amateur collectors. An official excavation by the Punjab Government in 1871 uncovered a small part of the adjoining lower courtyard, the monastic buildings beyond and the undercroft of vaulted cells below the western terrace. Finds were placed in the Lahore Museum without record of site provenance and are mostly not identifiable. In 1907–8 and 1910–12 the Archaeological Survey of India comprehensively excavated the main religious complex. Extensive subsidiary ruins on the slopes above remain unexcavated. Sculptures are in the Peshawar Museum apart from stucco reliefs in situ on a stupa (7.6×6.4 m) in the south-west courtyard.

The base (6 m sq.) of the main stupa has steps on one side and originally comprised three tiers decorated with pilasters and probably stucco reliefs. Three sides of the surrounding courtyard (17×13.7 m) have alternating large and small shrines set on a continuous plinth and roofed with corbelled domes. Extant examples show that the large shrines either had a double dome or were fronted by a gable, while the roofing of the small shrines had an angular, sloping exterior. Many fragmentary schist reliefs and Buddha images up to 2 m high were recovered from the courtyard. The large, rectangular lower courtyard contains numerous votive stupas and open-fronted shrines, the façades of which were originally decorated with schist and stucco reliefs. Stucco fragments confirm that some of the largest shrines once housed Buddha images some 5 m high. A row of six colossal Buddha statues also fronted a high wall in the western courtyard....



Kalyan Kumar Chakravarty

Hindu temple site 25 km south of Bilaspur in Madhya Pradesh, India. It was excavated and cleared by Kalyan Kumar Chakravarty for the Madhya Pradesh Department of Archaeology and Museums. Its two temples, known as Jethani and Deorani (or Devarani), are datable respectively to the late 5th century ad and the early 6th. The Jethani Temple has entrances on the south, east and west, the southern entrance being the largest. Other notable features include huge sculpted slabs forming the side walls on either side of the southern entrance, enormous four-sided pillars faced with carved slabs on the southern steps and a cyclopean elephant plinth (Skt gajapīṭha) that substitutes for an entrance on the northern side of the temple. The Deorani Temple, a more compact structure equipped with only one entrance, comprises a sanctum (garbhagṛha) and a vestibule (antarāla) of almost equal size fronted by a small hall (...


Helaine Silverman and Trent Barnes

Pre-Columbian Andean site in the Acarí Valley, c. 600 km south of Lima, 100 km south of the Nazca drainage and 25 km inland. Although the valley is separated from the Nazca drainage by a bleak desert, the headwaters of the Acarí River lie in the vicinity of the Nazca’s highland catchment basin. This geographical proximity is significant, since at various times in the Pre-Columbian past the Acarí and Nazca cultures were closely related, and both were subjected to the same external pressures when they were conquered, first by the Huari peoples and later by the Inca empire.

Tambo Viejo had two main occupations. The first occurred c. ad 200–c. 400, when Tambo Viejo was established as the principal centre of Acarí’s Nasca phase 3 pottery-using population. At this time the settlement was quite large, measuring 1.5 km north–south×0.5 km east–west. Identifiable pottery at Tambo Viejo is Nasca 3 in style and date. In addition, the ground-plan of Tambo Viejo closely resembles that of the Nazca capital at ...



Theodore G. Spyropoulos and Jenny Richardson

Site in Boeotia in central Greece, 25 km east of Thebes and 5 km south of Skimatarion.

The prehistoric settlements of the area have been no more than tested by excavation, especially Late Helladic (lh) or Mycenaean (c. 1600–c. 1050 bc) habitation sites near the two Mycenaean cemeteries that have been uncovered by T. G. Spyropoulos during excavations (1968–85). During the lh period Tanagra became a place of some importance, to judge from the two cemeteries. The first covers a slope at Gephyra, some 500 m south-east of the modern village of Tanagra, and the second was found 1200 m to the east of the same village, just above the plain and the Hellenic Air Force base. A total of 300 chamber tombs have been unearthed, each with a spacious chamber, irregularly cut in the soft rock, and long dromos (entrance passage). Other types of grave have been found in both cemeteries, the so-called fossa graves, and cist and pit graves. The two cemeteries date from the ...


Bent Nielsen


Administrative city and district (diqu) in Hebei Province, China. Outside the city of Tangshan a site dating from the Warring States period (403–221 bc) of the Zhou dynasty was excavated in 1950–52. Urn and pit burials were discovered, and near by, stone coffin burials. The pit burials contained a variety of pottery and bronze artefacts, including bronze tools (awls and adzes), weapons such as swords and arrow-heads, coins and various types of vessel. Decorative elements are those characteristic of the period: naturalistic and stylized animals such as dragons (see China, People’s Republic of §VII 3., (ii), (a)), and various geometric designs such as the small square spirals known as leiwen or ‘thunder pattern’. One hu bronze vessel with a lid (h. 352 mm; Beijing, Hist. Mus.) has decoration divided into two bands of six panels by the representation of a double-rope sling. The 12 panels depict a hunting scene in a stylized yet unusually realistic manner (though pictorial hunting scenes as such are characteristic of the period), bearing a superficial resemblance to the cave paintings of Lascaux in southern France. Another unusual vessel is a ...


G. Herrmann

[Pers. Ṭăq-i Bŭstăn]

Site of rock reliefs in western Iran, 5 km north-east of Kirmanshah, a city founded by the Sasanian (224–651 ad). Three rock reliefs of the Sasanian period are the major feature of the site and were carved on a spur of a hill adjacent to deep springs. No contemporary buildings have been discovered in their vicinity, and it is possible that the site was within a paradeisos or hunting park. Two of the carvings can be dated to the late 4th century, while the third probably belongs to the 6th.

The two 4th-century works consist of a simple rock relief showing the king, either Shapur II (reg 309–79) or Ardashir II (reg 379–83), being invested by two deities, Ahura Mazda and Mithra (see Zoroastrianism, §1), and a more ambitious carving that dates to the reign of Shapur III (reg 383–8), son of Shapur II. This features statues of father and son on a ledge at the back of a small grotto or iwan, which is carved out of the living rock. The two kings can be identified by their crowns and by accompanying inscriptions. The change from simple relief to statues set within a room-like setting is significant, particularly as no further simple reliefs were commissioned by the Sasanian kings. Clearly, they had ceased to be considered an appropriate form of dynastic propaganda. Instead, artistic effort was concentrated on the decoration of buildings in stucco, and the two statues in the small grotto at Taq-i Bustan are almost certainly stone versions of statues more frequently worked in stucco....