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Kathryn Morrison

[column figure]

Form of sculpture in which a column and a figure are carved from a single block of stone. It is distinct from the Classical Caryatid, which structurally replaces the column, or from figures carved into columnar shafts (e.g. the Puerta de las Platerías of Santiago de Compostela, c. 1110). Column statues first appeared on the embrasures of French portals in the middle of the 12th century and are regarded as the main feature that distinguishes Romanesque from Early Gothic sculptural ensembles.

The desire to depict large figures on doorposts and recessed doorway embrasures was manifest in the first half of the 12th century, for example at St Pierre, Moissac (c. 1125–30), where large standing figures were carved into the sides of the trumeau and the faces of the doorposts, or at Ferrara Cathedral (c. 1135), where figures were carved into the arrises of the embrasures. Meanwhile, column statues may have appeared in cloisters or church furnishings. Three marble column statues from ...


Frances Terpak and Elisabeth Taburet-Delahaye

Former Benedictine abbey in Aveyron, France. Originally dedicated to the Holy Saviour, the monastery was occupied by Benedictine monks from at least ad 801. In 838 Pepin I, King of Aquitaine (reg 817–38), made a donation to Conques stipulating that the monks should move and build a new abbey at Figeac. Later in the century a monk stole the relics of St Faith from Agen, carrying them to Conques, where miracles made the abbey a famous pilgrimage shrine and established its economic growth. Although this ensured the abbey’s continuation, the struggle for supremacy with Figeac lasted until 1096. These struggles and the increasing number of pilgrims probably influenced the decision in the 11th century to construct a new church and richly decorate it. The date, however, is controversial. The Chronicle of Conques credits Abbot Odolric (reg 1031–65) with having built most of the church (‘basilicam ex maxima parte consummavit’), to which he translated St Faith’s relics; but those portions of the architectural sculpture exhibiting ties to other dated monuments suggest that much of the church was built later in the 11th century and into the 12th (...


Lindy Grant

Cathedral dedicated to Notre-Dame in Manche, Normandy, France. The see of Coutances is first mentioned in 511, but in 836 Viking invasions forced the bishop to abandon his cathedral, and the see was not re-established until 1024. A new cathedral was begun by Bishop Geoffrey de Mountbray after his election in 1048, with financial help from Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia, Calabria, and Sicily. It was consecrated in 1056, though it is possible that work continued after this date. The earliest work in the present building dates from this campaign, all trace of previous cathedral churches on the site having disappeared.

The Livre noir of Coutances, containing a chronicle of the cathedral from 836 to 1093, reveals that there was a lantern tower over the crossing of the Romanesque building, though the arrangement of the east end is unclear. Substantial remains of the western parts of the Romanesque cathedral survive, with the west towers almost intact within their taller Gothic casings; they are square at the base and octagonal at the top, like the west towers of Jumièges Abbey. The Gothic nave seems to have been built on a Romanesque skeleton: the exterior and interior walls of the gallery are essentially 11th century, so that more 11th-century work must be encased in the arcade and aisle walls below. The unvaulted gallery of the Romanesque cathedral was lit by windows beneath arches of alternate dark and light stone reminiscent of the 11th-century work at the Le Mans Cathedral. It seems likely that some sections of the present clerestory are also Romanesque (though this view has recently been challenged) and that Coutances should be considered one of the earliest Norman buildings with a clerestory passage extended beyond the transept. All the Romanesque work is in the local granite....


L. A. S. Butler

(b ?1080–90; d Clairvaux, 1140).

French monk and architect. His reputation as an architect rests on three contemporary records. They show him to be a senior and trusted member of the Clairvaux community of Cistercian monks who had been at the abbey since its early days (see Clairvaux Abbey). In his role as a companion of St Bernard he was given responsibility for assisting new houses to establish themselves in the Cistercian way of life (see Bernard of Clairvaux). The clearest information comes from Fountains Abbey, N. Yorks, to which Geoffroi was sent in 1133 to instruct the monks (none of whom had spent any time within a Cistercian house) in the customs of the Order, its way of life, and disciplined attitude to monastic affairs. Serlo, then of Fountains, stated that Geoffroi had performed this task on many occasions: ‘he was skilled in ordering and establishing new houses’ (see Walbran). Part of these duties included the physical aspects of laying out the buildings, deciding on their disposition, and determining their dimensions, whether in timber as at Fountains or in stone as at Clairvaux. The confidence that Bernard placed in Geoffroi is indicated in his letter to Abbot Richard: ‘All the matters I have no time to write about I leave to Geoffroi; he will deal verbally with the rest’. When the instruction at Fountains was completed, Geoffroi left behind him a group of monks well able to continue the Cistercian tradition. Adam of Meaux, Robert of Newminster, and Alexander of Kirkstall were all monastic founders and, inevitably, builders....


J. Marr and Christopher Tadgell

[Daulatābād; anc. Devagiri, Deogiri]

Fortress site in central Maharashtra, India, a key link in the chain of forts that once controlled the Deccan. The conical mountain of granite, rising over 180 m, was originally a Buddhist monastic site; some of its excavated shrines were incorporated into the earliest defences, which were probably created in the 9th century ad by a feudatory of the Rashtrakuta dynasty. In 1187, the Yadava king Billama V (reg 1185–93) made Devagiri his capital, after which a succession of dynasties vied for its control. Devagiri first fell in 1293 to the powerful Sultanate armies of ‛Ala al-Din Khalji (reg 1296–1316). The Jami‛ Masjid (congregational mosque) was founded in 1318; recycled temple pillars figure in its construction. After the Tughluq dynasty took control of the Sultanate in 1320, they continued a policy of expansion into the Deccan. In 1328, feeling that Delhi was too far from his military operations, Muhammad Tughluq (...


V. Beridze

Complex of cave monasteries in the Garedzhi Desert, 60–70 km south-east of Tbilisi, Republic of Georgia. In the early 6th century the monk David, one of the 13 ‘Syrian fathers’ who preached Christianity in Georgia, and his pupil Lukian inhabited the caves, thus forming the basis of the Lavra of David. During the following centuries 11 further monasteries were founded in the cave complex, including Tsamebuli, Natlismtsemeli (John the Baptist), Chichkhituri, Dodos-Rka, Bertubani and Sabereyebi. They are spread over a wide area and include hundreds of cells, churches, chapels, refectories and living-quarters hollowed out of the rock face.

Despite the harsh environment, David Garedzhi remained an important centre of religious and cultural activity for many centuries; at certain periods the monasteries owned extensive agricultural lands and many villages. King David III the Builder (reg 1089–1125) made David Garedzhi a royal property. Its main period of development was in the late 12th century and the early 13th, with the construction and decoration in fresco of numerous cave churches and refectories. These structures are much larger than the earlier ones and are decorated with exceptionally beautiful murals, displaying a distinctive school of Georgian monumental painting. Among the portraits of historical figures are those of ...


Rossella Caruso

(fl Pisa, 1152).

Italian architect. The name appears in three inscriptions: one on a pilaster in the baptistery at Pisa (‘deotisalvi magister huius operis’), one on the campanile of S Sepolcro, Pisa, and one on the inside north wall of S Cristoforo, Lucca. The last is generally attributed to a different craftsman of the same name.

At the Pisa Baptistery (see), begun in 1152, Diotisalvi presumably worked on the planning, on the execution of the lower storey of the exterior and, inside, on the erection of the monumental granite columns from Elba and Sardinia and of the piers (excluding the capitals). The centralized design is based on the rotunda of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, which may suggest that Diotisalvi’s original scheme included the arcaded gallery and truncated conical roof. The signed inscription on the campanile of the Pisan church of S Sepolcro probably refers to the whole church. This is characterized by a similar centralized plan with a cupola, but it is smaller than the baptistery. The original octagonal structure—with eight tall pilasters, pointed arches and a dome raised on a drum—has, however, been much altered and restored....


R. Allen Brown

Castle in Kent, England, overlooking the seaport at the narrowest part of the English Channel. It has been described as ‘the key of England’ (Matthew Paris: Chronica majora, Rolls Series, iii, 28; 13th century). Occupation of the site has been traced to the Iron Age. In Roman times Dover was a military settlement and later a Saxon Shore fort. The Pharos (lighthouse; probably 1st century ad; see fig. (a)) survives as the bell-tower of the church of St Mary-in-Castro ((b)), within the castle precinct.

Although larger in area than the norm, Dover could not be a more instructive example of an ‘English’ castle. Founded immediately after the battle of Hastings in 1066 by William, it is even more than usually a product of the Norman Conquest, the site having been sought by the Norman duke in 1051 as a surety for his succession to the English throne. The castle was raised (in eight days according to William of Poitiers, the Conqueror’s biographer) within the existing Anglo-Saxon burgh on the hilltop, on the analogy of Old Sarum, Portchester, Wallingford, etc. The late 10th-century or early 11th-century church of St Mary-in-Castro (restored by ...


Dorothy C. Wang


Site of Buddhist cave sanctuaries located 25 km south-east of the county town of Dunhuang, Gansu Province, China. In the wider definition Dunhuang also includes the Yulin caves at Anxi and the Xi qianfo dong (Western Cave of the Thousand Buddhas). From the 4th century to the 14th, Buddhist cave sanctuaries were continuously carved out in four or five tiers on the cliff face of an alluvial hill that faces east over the Dang River. At its height as a Buddhist complex in the 8th century ad, the complex is believed to have comprised more than 1000 caves. A total of 492 caves with wall paintings and sculptures survive, the earliest of which date to the early 5th century ad. A hoard of old and rare manuscripts was also found at Dunhuang, including the world’s oldest complete printed book (see China, People’s Republic of, §XIV, 3).

Dunhuang was first established as a garrison town in the ...


Francis Woodman

Term invented in the early 19th century by Thomas Rickman to denote the style of Early Gothic ecclesiastical architecture that flourished in Britain from c. 1190 to c. 1250. Rickman’s original style label, which he applied to architecture of the period 1189–1307, was popularized by Nikolaus Pevsner in The Buildings of England. The term is still in favour where equivalent labels (‘lancet’ or ‘pointed style’) have fallen out of use. The style follows the Romanesque and develops into the Decorated style and is characterized by the use of rib vaults, sharply pointed arches, lancet windows, deep mouldings, and the use of decorative contrasting marbles and foliage sculpture, especially Stiff-leaf. It was superseded after the mid-13th century by the window tracery and patterned vaults of the Decorated style). (See also Gothic §II 1..)

The Early English style combined such formal aspects of French Gothic as rib vaults with English pre-Gothic decorative and structural tendencies. It developed from several regional centres of late 12th-century Gothic, the most important of which were the choir of ...


William W. Clark

[First Gothic; Fr. premier art gothique]. First Gothic

The generally accepted term for the first phase of the French Gothic style (see Gothic, §II, 1), lasting from its beginning at Saint-Denis Abbey (c. 1140; see Saint-Denis Abbey, §I, 2) until the reconstruction of Chartres Cathedral (begun after 1194; see Chartres, §I, 1). The Early Gothic style was at first largely confined to the areas in and around Paris and those under royal control, but generally the style spread without respect for political boundaries, having quickly lost its initial Parisian association with the Capetian monarchs. Areas contiguous to the royal domain, such as Normandy and Champagne, were the first to benefit from the structural and spatial changes. The first Gothic buildings in England, Spain, and Germany are described as ‘Early Gothic’, but the practice of adopting stylistic features while rejecting structural innovation indicates that in these countries the main connotations of the term should be chronological. Only with the cathedrals of ...


Günther Binding

Former Cistercian monastery in the Taunus Hills, Hessen, Germany, c. 4 km west of Eltville am Rhein. Founded on 13 February 1136 on the site of an Augustinian canons’ monastic foundation with the help of Archbishop Adalbert I (reg 1109–37) of Mainz, it was the first Cistercian abbey to be built on the right bank of the River Rhine. Heavily endowed by the archbishops of Mainz, the abbey became a large property-owner; in its heyday about 300 monks and lay brothers lived in the monastery and at the granges. Eberbach was the burial place of two archbishops of Mainz and of the Grafs of Katzenelnbogen. The abbey was damaged in 1525 during the Peasants’ War and between 1632 and 1635 in the Thirty Years War. In 1803 the monastic complex passed to the Duchy of Nassau; it was used as a prison, a mental asylum, and a sanatorium and now belongs to the state of Hessen. The monastery, which has been preserved in its entirety, now houses a state vineyard. The monastic precinct lies in the narrow Kisselbach Valley and is enclosed by a wall dating from the 12th–13th century. The gate-house, originating from the Romanesque period, was altered in the Baroque style (...


Heather Elgood

Two groups of Hindu temples of the 10th–15th centuries ad on the edge of a small lake near Udaipur in Rajasthan, India. The complex is enclosed by undecorated walls similar to those at Baroli. The main temple at Eklingji is dedicated to Shiva and houses a linga regarded as the guardian deity of the Sisodia Maharanas of Mewar. However, the earliest temple in the complex is the Lakulisha Temple (971–2), a simple building consisting of a sanctuary (vimāna), a hall (maṇḍapa) and a porch. One wall niche contains an image of the goddess Sarasvati (see Indian subcontinent §V 7., (iii), (a)), and inside the sanctum is a seated sculpture of Lakulisha, founder of the Pashupata sect; the doorway has a similar image on the lintel. Although the hall is square, its supporting columns form an octagonal space. Niches on its outer walls contain relief sculptures of a variety of goddesses. The main Eklingji temple dates from the 15th century. The principal sanctuary and the two-storey hall are constructed of marble, and there is a curved tower over the sanctuary. Inside the sanctum is a highly decorated silver doorway and screen preceding the central image, a black marble four-faced Shiva ...


Phillip Lindley and Faith Johnson

Cathedral in Cambridgeshire, England. It began as the minster church for the city of Ely, having been founded in ad 673 on an island in the Fens by Queen Etheldreda (reg 630–79). After being sacked by the Danes in 870, the minster was reconsecrated and re-endowed by Bishop Aethelwold and King Edgar (reg 959–75) in 970 as the church of a Benedictine monastery. Before the Norman Conquest of 1066 Ely was one of the richest English monasteries. Little is known of the undoubtedly sizeable Anglo-Saxon church, which possibly lay on the north side of the present nave, because the first Norman abbot, Simeon (reg 1081–93), founded a new church in 1082. In 1109 Ely was made an episcopal see, and the endowments were divided between the bishop and the monastery. The monastery was dissolved in 1539, and the cathedral church refounded in 1541, when the dedication to SS Etheldreda and Peter was changed to the Holy and Undivided Trinity....


Kathleen D. Nolan

Former collegiate church in Seine-et-Oise, France. The church was founded by King Robert II (reg 996–1031), but only the crypt of this building survives. Construction of the existing building extended from the second to the third quarter of the 12th century. The importance of Etampes for sculpture lies in its Early Gothic portal, situated in the second bay on the south side of the nave. It was erected after the nave and aisles were completed but before the construction of the south transept arm, which truncates the portal massif. The south portal combines the newly invented column statue with a strong interest in narrative and a distinctive sculptural style.

The Ascension occupies the tympanum of the portal, with the eleven Apostles and the Virgin flanked by two witnesses to the Ascension on the lintel below. The Elders of the Apocalypse on the inner archivolts introduce a reference to the Second Coming. The outer archivolt bears Old Testament prophets. The angels in the spandrels refer to the Ascension and are reminiscent of the victories of Roman triumphal arches. The column statues, which derive from Saint-Denis, include Old Testament kings, queens, and patriarchs....


Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the Periculoso, a directive issued by Pope Boniface VIII (reg 1294–1303) in 1298. Various architectural solutions developed throughout the Middle Ages to reconcile the necessities of enclosure with the access required by male clerics to celebrate Mass and provide pastoral care. Nuns’ choirs, where the women would gather for their daily prayers, were often constructed as discreet spaces in the church, which allowed women to hear or see the Mass without interacting with the cleric, as in the 10th-century choir in the eastern transept gallery at St Cyriakus in Gernrode, Germany. In some Cistercian examples, the nuns’ choir appeared at the west end of the nave. Dominican and Franciscan architecture was largely varied. Double monasteries, which housed men and women, also required careful construction. A 7th-century text describing the church of St Brigida in ...


William W. Clark


Former abbey in Loiret, France. It was founded in 1100 by Robert d’Arbrissel (c. 1047–1117) and received a papal charter in 1106. Between 1189 and c. 1250 it was the dynastic burial church of the Plantagenet counts of Anjou (also kings of England). A joint house of monks and nuns, the abbey was suppressed in 1792 and the conventual buildings were mostly destroyed, although the Romanesque octagonal kitchen survives. Remaining buildings were converted to a prison, which closed in 1963. The 12th-century abbey church has a two-bay choir with an apse, ambulatory and three radiating chapels, and a transept with two bays and a chapel on each arm. The eastern parts are vaulted with barrel vaults, but the single-cell nave has four domed bays and a passage in the thickness of the wall.

The church is best known as the repository of the tomb effigies of Henry II, King of England...


Stephen T. Driscoll

Scottish royal centre in Perthshire, which reached its zenith in the late Pictish period (8th–9th centuries ad) and is the source of an assemblage of high quality ecclesiastical sculpture. Occupying the fertile heart of Strathearn, Forteviot has been more or less in continuous use as a ceremonial centre since the 3rd millennium bc and is the focus of élite burials from the Early Bronze Age (c. 1900 bc) through to the Pictish era. Cinead mac Alpín (Kenneth mac Alpine), the king traditionally identified with the foundation of the Gaelic kingdom of the Scots, died at the palacium (palace) of Forteviot in ad 858. It was eclipsed as a royal centre by Scone in ad 906, but remained a significant royal estate until the 13th century.

The only surviving fabric of the palace is a unique monolithic arch, presumably a chancel arch, carved with three moustached Picts in classical dress flanking a crucifix (now in the Royal Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh). Fragments of at least four additional sandstone crosses indicate the presence of a major church, perhaps a monastery. The celebrated Dupplin Cross (now in Dunning Church) originally overlooked Forteviot from the north. This monolithic, free-standing cross (2.5 m tall) bears a Latin inscription naming Constantine son of Fergus, King of the Picts (...


Francis Woodman

Former Cistercian monastery near Ripon, N. Yorks.

According to Serlo of Kirkstall (fl c. 1205), Fountains Abbey was founded by Benedictine monks of St Mary’s Abbey, York, who were dissatisfied with the discipline of their urban house. Thurstan (reg 1114–40), Archbishop of York, granted a site in Skeldale in 1132–3, and in the same year Fountains was admitted into the Cistercian Order by St Bernard of Clairvaux, who sent Geoffroi d’Ainai to advise the monks (see also Cistercian Order). The land was well watered, both by the River Skell and by six springs, hence the name St Mary of the Springs, latinized to ‘de Fontibus’. A fabric fund existed in 1135, the year that Hugh of York and Serlo joined the house. Their arrival seems to have been a turning-point in the abbey’s fortunes. Grants of land towards the building of the church followed in ...


Alan Borg

Former Cluniac priory dedicated to Notre-Dame in Provence, France. Ganagobie is a Carolingian monastic foundation, although none of the surviving buildings is earlier than the 12th century. The church consists of a single nave with a pointed barrel vault, transepts of a single bay, and an east end comprising a central main apse flanked by apsidal chapels. The cloisters and associated monastic buildings are to the south of the church. Set high on a hilltop above the valley of the Durance, north-east of Forcalquier, Ganagobie was remote from the main centres of Romanesque sculpture. Its Cluniac affiliation, however, may explain its rich decoration, which includes an extensive mosaic floor. The main sculptural decoration is on the west door, where the jambs and arches are enriched with multiple lobes. Although this curious form does have parallels in Aquitaine, Languedoc, and Spain, the particular example here is thought not to be original but to date from a later medieval reconstruction of the portal. The tympanum shows ...