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Article

Lewis Johnson

[Phiz]

(b London, July 12, 1815; d Hove, W. Sussex, July 8, 1882).

English illustrator, etcher and painter. Browne’s only formal education consisted of sporadic attendance at the St Martin’s Lane Academy life class and apprenticeship to the line-engraver William Finden. In 1834 he cancelled his indenture and established an illustrators’ workshop with fellow apprentice Robert Young, producing etchings and watercolours in preference to the more laborious line-engravings. He won the Silver Isis medal of the Society of Arts in 1833 for his etching, John Gilpin’s Ride. He also produced illustrations for Sunday under Three Heads (1836), an anti-Sabbatarian pamphlet published pseudonymously by Charles Dickens, who later preferred Browne to Thackeray as collaborator in the production of The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club. Initially The Pickwick Papers was merely meant to accompany etchings of pastimes of contemporary London by Robert Seymour (1798–1836), but after Seymour’s suicide Dickens took charge and made them a narrative with illustrations in monthly parts. Symptomatic of this accommodation of image to prose is Browne signing himself first ‘Nemo’ and then ‘Phiz’ (a depicter of physiognomies) to harmonize with Dickens’s ‘Boz’. Browne played an important part, for instance, in the portrayal of Sam Weller, whom he made less wiry, less an example of what Dickens called ‘loutish humour’, but more resilient and knowingly ironical....

Article

Frank L. Chance

[Tani Masayasu; Shazanrō]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], Oct 15, 1763; d Edo, Jan 6, 1841).

Japanese painter and book designer (see fig.). He was the son of the poet Tani Rokkoku (1729–1809). As his father and grandfather were retainers of the Tayasu family, descended from the eighth Tokugawa shogun, Bunchō inherited samurai status and received a small stipend to meet the responsibilities this entailed. In his youth he began studying the painting techniques of the Kanō school under Katō Bunrei (1706–82). After Bunrei’s death Bunchō worked with masters of other schools, such as the literati painter Kitayama Kangan (1767–1801), and developed a wide stylistic range that included many Chinese, Japanese, and even European idioms. He is best known for his crisp landscapes in the literati style (Nanga or Bunjinga; see Japan, §VI, 4, (vi), (d)), especially those produced in the Kansei era (1789–1801) inspired by such Chinese masters of the Ming period (...

Article

A. Daguerre de Hureaux

(b Moudon, Vaud, Aug 30, 1850; d Paris, Feb 4, 1921).

Swiss painter and illustrator. Having studied with Barthélemy Menn at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Geneva, he went to Paris in 1872 and joined Jean-Léon Gérôme’s studio. After a visit to Rome in 1876–7, he returned to live in Paris in 1878. Burnand was primarily a landscape painter. Works such as the Village Pump (1879; Neuchâtel, Mus. A. & Hist.), Bull in the Alps (1884; Lausanne, Pal. Rumine) and Day’s End (1896; Lucerne, Kstmus.) reveal his debt to the Realism of Millet and Courbet and express a genuine attentiveness and great sensitivity to nature. This Realism is also present in his religious works, for example the Apostles Peter and John Running to the Sepulchre (1898; Paris, Mus. d’Orsay). After learning engraving with Paul Girardet (1821–93) in Versailles, Burnand also produced many illustrations for such newspapers as L’Illustration and Tour du monde. In addition he illustrated editions of numerous literary works: ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1759; d 1838).

American clockmaker and silversmith. After an apprenticeship in Norwich, CT, he established a business in East Windsor, CT. He made fine longcase clocks with brass works and faces of engraved silver. His day-books and ledgers survive, and show that he made and sold only 49 clocks in the course of 20 years....

Article

Geoffrey Ashton

[Francis]

(b Worcester, Sept 7, 1760; d London, Dec 16, 1848).

English painter and illustrator. He studied at the Royal Academy Schools, London, from 1777. The work of James Barry and Henry Fuseli was an influence on his style, which often strained unsuccessfully towards heroic effects, but a more mundane technical proficiency was gained from copying portraits by Sir Joshua Reynolds. There are several accomplished versions of Reynolds’s 1781 portrait of Dr Charles Burney, Edward’s uncle (e.g. Oxford, Ashmolean), and the best of his few original portraits depicts his cousin, the novelist Fanny Burney (1782; London, N.P.G.). Burney’s first exhibited works were three drawings of scenes from Fanny Burney’s novel Evelina (exh. RA 1780; untraced), and his literary connections may have encouraged his work as an illustrator. Nevertheless, he had dreams of working on a larger scale and made sketches for a St Paul at Ephesus (c. 1800; New Haven, CT, Yale U., A.G.) in the manner of the Raphael Cartoons (London, V&A). Burney’s early drawings, such as the watercolour (...

Article

Colette E. Bidon

(b Cuisery, Saône-et-Loire, April 24, 1862; d Saulieu, Côte d’Or, Oct 29, 1928).

French painter, illustrator and printmaker. He was taught by his father, Victor Bussière, a decorative painter in Mâcon. He went to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Lyon and then to Paris, where he studied in the atelier of Alexandre Cabanel. During further studies under Puvis de Chavannes, he came into contact with Gustave Moreau. Symbolist paintings followed, drawing on French legend, as in the Song of Roland (exh. Salon 1892), and Nordic myth (Valkyries, exh. Salon 1894); he exhibited at the Symbolist Salon de la Rose+Croix, 1893–5. In 1905 he rented a studio at Grez-sur-Loing on the edge of the Forest of Fontainebleau. Paintings such as the Rhine Maidens (1906; Mâcon, Mus. Mun. Ursulines) drew on observations of the forest, populating its streams with adolescent water nymphs. Such studies of the female nude—a lifelong speciality of Bussière’s—uphold a rigorous draughtsmanship that is yet not devoid of sensuality....

Article

Julian Treuherz

(b Chester, March 22, 1846; d St Augustine, FL, Feb 12, 1886).

English illustrator, painter and sculptor. Caldecott worked as a bank clerk in Whitchurch and Manchester and attended evening classes at the Manchester School of Art. He moved to London in 1872 and studied briefly at the Slade School of Fine Art. Through the painter Thomas Armstrong, he was introduced to London editors and publishers. He collaborated with Armstrong and W. E. Nesfield on decorative paintings for aesthetic interiors, notably at Bank Hall (1872–3), Derbys. Caldecott was taught to model by Jules Dalou, later modelling the gilt capitals of birds for the Arab Hall (1877–9) at Leighton House, London. Outstanding among Caldecott’s work were his illustrations to Washington Irving’s books, such as Old Christmas (1875), and the jolly Christmas stories and illustrated letters from abroad commissioned by the Graphic. However, his reputation rests on the frequently reprinted series of 16 picture books for children published between ...

Article

Gerardo Pérez Calero

(b Madrid, 1823; d 1897).

Spanish painter, watercolourist and illustrator. He trained at the Escuela de Nobles Artes in Seville (1833–40) and subsequently at the Real Academia de S Fernando in Madrid. He became a member of the Academia de S Isabel de Hungria of Seville in 1848, where he taught from 1859 and reformed the teaching of art. His early work shows traces of Neo-classicism, although his art is essentially based on Romanticism. Between 1851 and 1861 he concentrated on portrait painting, depicting mainly female subjects or children; examples include Youth with a Dog (Seville, Neana Col.), Self-portrait (Seville, Mus. B.A.) and Josefa Garvey (Seville, priv. col.). He was an important link between Romanticism and Realism and stimulated a renewed interest in history painting in Spain, a genre he established at the Exposición Nacional in 1856 with his painting Christopher Columbus in the Convent of La Rábida (Madrid, Pal. de las Cortes), which was awarded first prize. He won the same prize in ...

Article

(b Amarante, Sept 16, 1872; d Oporto, March 31, 1930).

Portuguese painter, draughtsman and illustrator. He was brought up in an orphanage in Oporto, where he attended the drawing class of the Escola de Belas-Artes; there he was a pupil of António Soares dos Reis and then studied painting from 1890 to 1896. In 1897 he went to Paris with a grant from the Marquês de Praia e Monforte. From 1897 to 1899 he attended the Académie Julian, where he was a pupil of Jean-Paul Laurens and Benjamin Constant. The Parisian fin-de-siècle ambience helped form his style. The influence of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Eugène Carrière and the Symbolism of Edvard Munch were important in his work. In his first major painting, the triptych Life (1899–1901; Vila Nova de Famalicão, Fund. Cupertino de Miranda), Carneiro developed his personal vision of Symbolism on the theme of hope, love and saudade (longing or nostalgia), inspired by Puvis de Chavannes and with the crisp, sweet drawing and pale colours of that artist....

Article

(b Middlesex, Oct 21, 1812; d London, March 27, 1855).

English architect. He was articled to John Blyth (1806–78), a little-known London architect, who encouraged him to pursue his interest in ecclesiastical architecture. He studied the books of John Britton, A. W. N. Pugin and others and visited medieval buildings. In 1830 he exhibited a design for a cathedral transept at the Royal Academy. His earliest executed ecclesiastical commissions were the churches of St Stephen (1843–4; destr.) and St Andrew (1844–6) in Birmingham. St Andrew’s is in correct 14th-century style, with a deep chancel, and is very much in the manner of Pugin, of whom Carpenter was a friend and close follower. Carpenter was the favourite architect of the Cambridge Camden (later Ecclesiological) Society. His best-known churches are St Paul’s (1846–8), Brighton, Sussex, and St Mary Magdalene’s (1849–52), Munster Square, London, which The Ecclesiologist called ‘the most artistically correct new church yet consecrated in London’. Neither received the tall spire designed for it. Carpenter also made some sensitive and learned restorations, including Chichester Cathedral, W. Sussex (...

Article

Leslie Williams

[Dodgson, Charles L(utwidge)

(b Daresbury, Ches, Jan 27, 1832; d Oxford, Jan 14, 1898).

English mathematician, writer and photographer. Well-known as the author of children’s books with a logical philosophical undercurrent, he was active as an amateur photographer, using wet collodion plates, from May 1856 to July 1880, according to his diary. His portraits of Victorian luminaries include Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1863; see Gernsheim, pl. 21), Arthur Hughes (1863; see Gernsheim, pl. 32), John Everett Millais (1865; see Gernsheim, pl. 48), Alfred Tennyson (1857; see Gernsheim, pl. 8) and many churchmen. His portraits of children are often elegantly composed: The Ellis Children (1865; see Ovenden and Melville, pl. 2), for example, lie, sit and stand to form a white triangle of dresses on the dark landscape. Effie Millais (1863; see Gernsheim, pl. 50) in her white flannel night-gown swirls within an oval frame. His letters suggest that he made numerous nude studies of children. Four hand-tinted examples of these may be found in the Rosenbach Museum and Library, Philadelphia....

Article

Francisco Portela Sandoval

(b Villada, Palencia, March 24, 1831; d Madrid, Oct 9, 1886).

Spanish painter and illustrator. He began his studies at the Escuela Municipal de Dibujo in Palencia and continued in 1850 at the Escuela Especial de Pintura in Madrid. In 1855 he was awarded a fellowship by the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando in Madrid for his Resurrection of Lazarus (Madrid, Real Acad. S Fernando, Mus.). He then spent several years in Rome, where he painted such works as A Prisoner (1856; Madrid, U. Complutense) and Semiramis in Dante’s Inferno (1858; Madrid, U. Complutense and Pal. Real), which are notable for their skilful drawing and anatomical correctness. His history paintings of this period include the Death of the Conde de Saldaña (Palma de Mallorca, Mus. Mallorca), and his treatments of this genre led to numerous other successes, such as the Last Moments of Ferdinand IV, ‘El Emplazado’ (Madrid, Senate) exhibited at the Exposición Nacional de Bellas Artes in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Nancy Anderson

(b Wilkes-Barre, PA, July 26, 1796; d Jersey City, NJ, Dec 23, 1872).

American painter and writer. Following a brief career as a lawyer, Catlin produced two major collections of paintings of American Indians and published a series of books chronicling his travels among the native peoples of North, Central and South America. Claiming his interest in America’s ‘vanishing race’ was sparked by a visiting American Indian delegation in Philadelphia, he set out to record the appearance and customs of America’s native people. He began his journey in 1830 when he accompanied Gen. William Clark on a diplomatic mission up the Mississippi River into Native American territory. Two years later he ascended the Missouri River over 3000 km to Ft Union, where he spent several weeks among indigenous people still relatively untouched by European civilization. There, at the edge of the frontier, he produced the most vivid and penetrating portraits of his career (e.g. Buffalo Bull’s Back Fat, Head Chief, Blood Tribe, 1832...

Article

Scott Wilcox

(b Dickleburgh, Norfolk, Aug 10, 1800; d London, July 24, 1868).

English painter and illustrator. From the age of 14 Cattermole worked with his brother Richard (?1795–1858) for the antiquarian John Britton, producing architectural drawings. This training equipped him with a repertory of accurate architectural backgrounds, and from the later 1820s his work shifted from delineations of historic buildings to imaginative depictions in watercolour of episodes from literature and history and genre subjects with historical settings. He became the foremost historical watercolour painter, recreating the medieval, Elizabethan and 17th-century past. The intimate history pictures of Richard Parkes Bonington were undoubtedly influential, while Cattermole’s bold and loose handling of watercolour owed much to David Cox, an admirer of his work. As an illustrator, his works included The Great Civil War of Charles I and Parliament (written by his brother Richard and published in two volumes in 1841 and 1855) and Evenings at Haddon Hall (1846). He also contributed illustrations to some of the novels of his friend ...

Article

Ismeth Raheem

(b 1854; d England, 1913).

English photographer, publisher and writer. He first travelled to Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) as private secretary to the Bishop of Colombo. In 1870 he set up a small bookshop in Colombo, which by 1884 had diversified into a flourishing publishing house, H. W. Cave & Company, and a printing firm equipped to produce books with excellent quality photographic reproductions. He took a serious interest in photography, and this enabled him to illustrate the pictorial travelogues written by him and published by his own firm. His close supervision of the details of book production and photographic reproduction gave him a competitive edge over other commercial photographers. He returned to England in 1886 after the death of his wife and settled down in Oxford. He made occasional visits to Ceylon, but continued to manage his firm’s business from England.

In his photography Cave specialized in rural and landscape scenes and was especially interested in creating views with luxuriant tropical vegetation, using dramatic atmospheric lighting effects. Some of the best examples of this type of work are reproduced in his lavishly printed travelogues ...

Article

[CESCM]

French organization founded in Poitiers in 1953. The Centre d’études supérieures de civilisation médiévale (CECSM) is affiliated with the Université de Poitiers, the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), and the Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. The founders, among them historian Edmond-René Labande and art historian René Crozet, began CESCM as a month-long interdisciplinary study of medieval civilization, inviting foreign students to participate. CESCM has since developed into a permanent organization but maintains the international and interdisciplinary focus of its founders.

CESCM continues to hold its formative summer session, known as ‘Les Semaines d’études médiévales’, and invites advanced graduate students of all nationalities. The summer session spans two weeks and includes sessions on a variety of topics, each conducted by a member or affiliate of CESCM. CESCM supports collaborative research groups and regularly holds colloquia attended by the international scholarly community.

Since 1958 CECSM has published ...

Article

Ralph Croizier

revised by Walter Davis

[Wu Ch’ang-shih; Wu Ch’ang-shuo; ming Jun, Junqing]

(b Anji, Zhejiang Province, 1844; d Shanghai, 1927).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, and seal-carver. The most prominent figure in the Shanghai school during the early 20th century, he rejuvenated the genre of bird-and-flower painting, contributed to the internationalization of the Chinese art world, and helped lead a national revival of traditional Chinese painting and calligraphy in the 1910s and 1920s. Although he initially aspired to become a scholar–official and passed the imperial civil service examinations at the county (xiucai) level, he later made his living as a professional artist, developing an international clientele and a reputation as a literati painter and calligrapher that continues to the present.

While pursuing a career in government service, Wu mastered the Confucian classics and studied poetry, epigraphy, and calligraphy (see China, People’s Republic of, §IV, 2, (vii)). Contact with such professional painters as Ren Yi in the cultural and commercial metropolis of Shanghai during the late 19th century opened up to Wu the possibility of a professional artist’s career. After a brief appointment as a county official in ...

Article

H. Nichols B. Clark

(b Alexandria, VA, Aug 11, 1808; d Staten Island, NY, Nov 28, 1889).

American painter and illustrator. Early encouragement and instruction from Cooke family, §1 and Charles Bird King diverted Chapman from a career in law. In 1827 he began painting professionally in Winchester, VA, but quickly sought more training in Philadelphia at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. His desire to learn history painting soon took him to Italy to study the Old Masters. Returning to the USA in 1831, Chapman supported himself by painting portraits and occasional history subjects. Between 1837 and 1840 he executed the most important picture of his career, the Baptism of Pocahontas, the fifth painting to decorate the Rotunda of the US Capitol Building in Washington, DC (in situ). In the mid-1830s Chapman began to illustrate texts, contributing to numerous magazines and gift-books. His most famous project was Harper’s Illuminated Bible (New York, 1846), which contains over 1400 wood engravings in the style of Homer Dodge Martin and the later religious paintings of Benjamin West. Chapman’s most lasting achievement was his instruction manual, ...

Article

Christopher Masters

French family of publishers. Gervais Charpentier (d 14 July 1871) introduced to France a new format for books that allowed more words to be printed on the page, thereby making books much less expensive to produce. Although the format was originally called in-18 anglais, it was soon known in France as the format Charpentier. Charpentier’s publishing house produced, among other things, beautiful illustrated books, including Théophile Gautier’s Capitaine Fracasse (1863), with illustrations by Gustave Doré, and an edition of the works of Alfred de Musset illustrated by Alexandre Bida (1813–95). These achievements were continued by Gervais’s son Georges Charpentier (b Paris, 1846; d 1905). As well as publishing important novels by French Realist writers, Georges was responsible for such editions as Quatrelle’s A coups de fusil illustrated by Alphonse de Neuville. Georges Charpentier was awarded the Légion d’Honneur in 1886.

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