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Article

Francesc Fontbona de Vallescar

(b Barcelona, Sept 11, 1871; d Port de Pollença, Mallorca, July 7, 1959).

Spanish Catalan painter. He studied under Tomàs Moragas (1837–1906), but mainly under Modest Urgell (1839–1919) at the Escola de Belles Artes (Llotja) of Barcelona. In 1888 Anglada-Camarasa participated in the Exposició Universal in Barcelona. At his first one-man show, at the Sala Parés, Barcelona (1894), he exhibited Realist landscapes. In 1894 he settled in Paris and studied at the Académie Julian and Académie Colarossi. Between 1898 and 1904 he took part in numerous international exhibitions and won fame with his almost expressionistic scenes of Spanish dance (e.g. Spanish Dance (Córdoba), 1901; St Petersburg, Hermitage) and iridescent nocturnal Parisian scenes (e.g. Glow-worm, 1904; Stockholm, Thielska Gal.), which influenced the young Picasso and Kandinsky. In 1904, after a trip to Valencia, he began painting folkloric subject-matter not out of interest in anecdote or naturalism but as a source of brilliant and colourful forms. He had a strong sense for the decorative and greatly admired fireworks. Until ...

Article

Richard Thomson

(b Criquetot-sur-Ouville, Normandy, April 19, 1854; d Rouen, April 1, 1926).

French painter. He was trained at the Académie de Peinture et de Dessin in Rouen, where he won prizes. Although he failed to gain entry to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, Angrand began to win a controversial local reputation for canvases in a loosely Impressionist manner. In 1882 he secured a post as a schoolteacher at the Collège Chaptal in Paris. With this security he was able to make contacts in progressive artistic circles, and in 1884 he became a founder-member of the Salon des Indépendants. His paintings of this period depict rural interiors and kitchen gardens, combining the broken brushwork of Monet and Camille Pissarro with the tonal structure of Bastien-Lepage (e.g. In the Garden, 1884; priv. col., see 1979 exh. cat., p. 27).

By the mid-1880s Angrand had met Seurat through Signac and the literary salon of the writer Robert Caze. From 1887 Angrand began to paint in Seurat’s Neo-Impressionist manner and adopted his tenebrist drawing style. Paintings such as ...

Article

Jeremy Howard

(Izrailevich)

(b Beltsy, Bessarabia [now in Moldova], Oct 14, 1879; d Waterford, CT, Dec 4, 1973).

Russian painter and stage designer. He was a Symbolist artist who, like many of his colleagues in the World of Art group, made his foremost contribution to the development of Russian art in the fields of graphic art and stage design. He first studied at the Drawing School of the Odessa Society of Fine Arts (1895–1900) and then at the St Petersburg Academy of Arts (1901–9), where his tutors included Dmitry Kardovsky and Il’ya Repin. His participation in exhibitions included the World of Art (St Petersburg and Moscow, 1906–18), the Union of Russian Artists (Moscow and St Petersburg, 1906–10), the Salon d’Automne (Paris, 1906), Wreath (St Petersburg, 1908) and the Izdebsky International Salon (Kiev and Odessa, 1909–10). His painting attracted considerable critical acclaim for its exotic themes and colouring. Simultaneously, he worked as a caricaturist, creating grotesque and fantastic images for satirical magazines as well as executing wall paintings for houses in St Petersburg. His prolific career as a stage designer began in ...

Article

Anne Pastori Zumbach

[Albrecht]

(b Anet, Berne, April 1, 1831; d Anet, July 16, 1910).

Swiss painter and illustrator. An early interest in art was kindled by visiting the exhibitions of the Société des Amis des Arts in Neuchâtel in 1842, and he took private drawing lessons with Louis Wallinger (1819–86) between 1845 and 1848. However he began studying theology in Berne in 1851, continuing these studies at the university in Halle. During his stay in Germany he became acquainted with major German collections, notably the Gemäldegalerie in Dresden, which impressed him deeply. His father reluctantly consented to an artistic career, and in 1854 Anker moved to Paris, where he joined the studio of Charles Gleyre. He studied at the Ecole Impériale des Beaux-Arts in Paris from 1855 until c. 1860, meanwhile selling portraits. In 1861 he travelled in nothern Italy, copying Old Masters such as Titian and Correggio.

In the course of this training Anker started painting large original compositions, such as ...

Article

George Tibbits

(b Bendigo, Victoria, Aug 16, 1865; d Melbourne, June 22, 1933).

Australian architect. He served articles with William Salway (1844–1902) in Melbourne and practised alone from the late 1880s to the early 1930s, with a circle of clients and friends drawn from varying levels of Melbourne society. As well as a commitment to the ideals of the Arts and Crafts movement, he aimed to create an Australian idiom and saw architecture as an art rather than a profession. His talent for sketching and his flair for writing on architecture were also recognized at an early stage in local building journals.

His earliest designs show the influence of H. H. Richardson, whom he greatly admired, but the Viennese Secession may have influenced the Springthorpe Memorial in Kew cemetery, Melbourne (1897). His well-known houses at 32, 34 and 38 The Eyrie, Eaglemont (1902–3), are free and decorative adaptations of a half-timbered, roughcast and Marseilles-tiled idiom fused with an Arts and Crafts approach, which he continued to develop in examples such as the Norman Macgeorge house at Alphington (...

Article

Belinda Thomson

(b Etrepagny, nr Gisors, Jan 26, 1861; d Paris, Aug 19, 1932).

French painter. He came to Paris in 1882 and studied art at the Ateliers of Bonnat and Cormon, where he was a contemporary and friend of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Emile Bernard and Vincent van Gogh. His early work shows the influence of Impressionism and of Edgar Degas. In 1887 Anquetin and Bernard devised an innovative method of painting using strong black contour lines and flat areas of colour; Anquetin aroused much comment when he showed his new paintings, including the striking Avenue de Clichy: Five O’Clock in the Evening (1887; Hartford, CT, Wadsworth Atheneum) at the exhibition of Les XX in Brussels and at the Salon des Indépendants in Paris in 1888. The new style, dubbed Cloisonnisme by the critic Edouard Dujardin (1861–1949), resulted from a study of stained glass, Japanese prints and other so-called ‘primitive’ sources; it was close to the Synthetist experiments of Paul Gauguin and was adopted briefly by van Gogh during his Arles period. Anquetin’s works were shown alongside Gauguin’s and Bernard’s at the Café Volpini exhibition in ...

Article

Sally Mills

(Pollock)

(b Newport, KY, Oct 5, 1851; d Fort Washington, PA, June 16, 1912).

American painter and teacher. In 1872 he moved to New York, where he enrolled at the National Academy of Design. By 1875 he had advanced to the life class but found the Academy ‘a rotten old institution’. Moving to Philadelphia, Anshutz entered a life class taught by Thomas Eakins at the Philadelphia Sketch Club and transferred to the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts when it opened its new building in 1876. Continuing to study under Eakins and Christian Schussele (1824/6–79), Anshutz soon became Eakins’s assistant demonstrator for anatomy courses taught by the surgeon William Williams Keen.

Anshutz’s style quickly progressed from a tight linearity toward an emphasis on solid form, expressed through simplified modelling and a thorough knowledge of anatomy. For his first mature works he sought subjects in the active lives around him, whether in the lush pastoral setting of The Father and his Son Harvesting...

Article

Alberto Villar Movellán

(b Valencia, 1832; d Madrid, 1917).

Spanish architect, teacher and writer. He studied at the recently established Escuela de Arquitectura in Madrid and received his degree in 1855. He was noted for the historical knowledge that he was able to apply to the theories of eclecticism in the pursuit of pure historicism. He was more a theoretician than a practising architect, devoting 50 years to teaching at the Escuela de Arquitectura as Catedrático de Construcción. He was director of the Escuela between 1896 and 1910 and bequeathed his library to it.

Aparici y Soriano’s early architectural works, such as the monument to Mendizábal, Argüelles and Calatrava (1857) in the cemetery of S Nicolás, Madrid, shows his scholarly interests. Immediately after, however, his style came under the influence of Viollet-le-Duc, of whom he became a fervent follower, as is apparent in his few completed projects. The most important of these was the sober and monumental basilica of Nuestra Señora de Covadonga (...

Article

Annemieke Hoogenboom

[Lodewijk Franciscus Hendrikl]

(b The Hague, Sept 6, 1850; d The Hague, Nov 22, 1936).

Dutch painter. He was a pupil of Johannes Franciscus Hoppenbrouwers (1819–66) and Pieter Stortenbeker (1828–98) and studied at the Koninklijke Academie van Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague. His first exhibited work, in 1869, was a summer landscape, but he made his name with A January Evening in the Hague Woods (c. 1875; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.). He specialized in winter landscapes; his works became extremely popular in the last quarter of the 19th century. In views such as Wood in Winter (c. 1884; Haarlem, Teylers Mus.) staffage, in the shape of skaters, horse-drawn sleighs and so on, is subordinated to the overall mood. In this respect he differs from other Dutch painters of winter scenes such as Andreas Schelfhout and Hoppenbrouwers. Apol had a broad, pronounced manner of painting and was considered one of the minor masters of the Hague school. He made many drawings on a trip to Novaya Zemlya in ...

Article

(Gooch)

(b Shalford, Essex, 1854; d 1924).

English mezzotint engraver. He worked in London from the late 1870s until 1903. His early work includes prints after Luke Fildes (e.g. Roses, exh. RA 1877) and Frederic Leighton. Although he continued to engrave contemporary work, he achieved prominence with his prints after 18th- and early 19th-century English portrait painters, copying works by, among others, ...

Article

Margo Machida

(b New York, Aug 16, 1949).

American printmaker and installation artist. Born and raised in New York City, Arai, a third-generation Japanese American printmaker, mixed-media artist, public artist and cultural activist, studied art at the Philadelphia College of Art and The Printmaking Workshop in New York. Since the 1970s, her diverse projects have ranged from individual works to large-scale public commissions (see Public art in the 21st century). She has designed permanent public works, including an interior mural commemorating the African burial ground in lower Manhattan and an outdoor mural for Philadelphia’s Chinatown. Other works include Wall of Respect for Women (1974), a mural on New York’s Lower East Side, which was a collaboration between Arai and women from the local community. Her art has been exhibited in such venues as the Bronx Museum of the Arts, the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Museum of Modern Art, International Center for Photography, P.S.1 Museum, the Brooklyn Museum, the Museum of Contemporary Hispanic Art, all New York and the Library of Congress, Washington, DC. She is the recipient of awards and fellowships from National Endowment for the Arts, New York Foundation for the Arts, and Joan Mitchell Foundation....

Article

Alberto Villar Movellán

(b Rome, Oct 22, 1844; d Madrid, Dec 18, 1916).

Spanish architect. He was the son of the watercolourist and printmaker Manuel Arbós y Ayerbe (d 1875) and studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris (1862–5). In 1865 he entered the Escuela de Arquitectura in Madrid, where he received a bursary to train in Paris (1867). He was awarded the title of Architect in 1869 and in 1884 was appointed Architect to the Ministry of Justice. In 1898 he became a member of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando, Madrid; his acceptance speech was entitled Transformaciones más culminantes de la arquitectura cristiana.

Arbós y Tremanti’s work represents the pure eclecticism characteristic of architecture in the period after the restoration of Alfonso XII in 1874. The differences between his style, which reveals Italian and French influences mixed with a Byzantine type of orientalism, and that of his contemporaries may be explained by his training in Rome, Paris and Madrid....

Article

Irene Puchalski

(b Inverness, Dec 14, 1872; d Montreal, March 2, 1934).

Canadian architect of Scottish birth. From 1887 to 1893 he was an apprentice in the architectural office of William MacIntosh in Inverness. He settled in Canada in 1893, joining the office of Edward Maxwell in Montreal, where he was employed as draughtsman and assistant.

From 1897 to 1915 he formed a partnership with Charles Jewett Saxe (1870–1943), in which Archibald’s role was predominantly administrative. The partnership’s work included schools, large residences, residential blocks and office buildings. Early commissions in Montreal included the F. H. Anson Residence (1904), 466 Côte St Antoine, Westmount; Montreal Technical School (1909); and several additions to the Queen’s Hotel (1909–13; destr. 1988), 700 Peel Street. After 1915, in his own independent practice, Archibald built the Baron Byng High School (1921); the Masonic Memorial Temple (1928); and St Mary’s Memorial Hospital (1932), all in Montreal. In the 1920s ...

Article

Robert Buerglener

[motor car]

Architecture and the automobile have been intimately connected since the late 19th century. The attributes of cars required specific architectural solutions for manufacture, sales, and service. On a broader level, the overall built environment was forever changed by roadside structures designed to meet the needs of drivers.

Automobile factories evolved in tandem with mass production; modular form and open floor spaces provided flexibility in machine placement and possibilities for expansion as production needs changed. Detroit-based architect Albert Kahn, with his associate Ernest Wilby (1868–1957), set a new standard for 20th-century industrial buildings through innovative use of space and materials. For the Packard Company’s Building Number Ten (Detroit, 1905; enlarged 1909), Kahn used reinforced concrete to create modular bays, repeatable horizontally and vertically, with wide interior spans and large window surfaces. For Ford’s Highland Park factory (begun 1909; see fig.), Kahn designed a multi-building complex of reinforced concrete and steel-framed buildings that housed machinery strategically in the sequence of production. In Ford’s River Rouge manufacturing complex in Dearborn, MI (...

Article

(b Boulogne-sur-Seine, May 3, 1870; d Paris, Aug 14, 1935).

French architect. He trained at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Paul-René-Léon Ginain and Louis-Henri-Georges Scellier de Gisors, receiving his architectural diploma in 1892. His early work included S. Bing’s Art Nouveau pavilion (destr.) at the Exposition Universelle of 1900 (inspired by Louis Bonnier’s initial project), blocks of flats in Paris in ashlar work, for example 236–238 Boulevard Raspail, 105 Rue Raymond Poincaré (both 1906) and the corner site of the Avenues du Bois de Boulogne et Malakoff (c. 1908), as well as regionalist constructions (garage in Neuilly and rural buildings in Herqueville and Heilly). He participated regularly in the competitions organized by the City of Paris, building low-cost housing schemes in the Rue Brillat-Savarin (1914–30) and the garden city at Chatenay-Malabry (1920–32) in collaboration with Joseph Bassompierre and Paul de Rutté. Following World War I he was named architect for the reconstruction schemes for the districts of Aisne and Pas-de-Calais....

Article

Dianne Timmerman and Frank van den Hoek

(b Loenen, April 3, 1858: d Abcoude, July 11, 1918).

Dutch architect. He trained as a carpenter’s assistant and took evening classes at the Society for the Workers, afterwards becoming a draughtsman for Jan Galman. From 1876 he worked in the office of Gerlof Bartholomeus Salm, where he was involved in, among other projects, the design of the building for the Vrije Gemeente (built 1879–80) on the Weteringschans, Amsterdam. In 1882 van Arkel set up as an independent architect. Rather than adopt Salm’s eclectic style, he was influenced by Netherlandish Renaissance architecture. His preferred Renaissance Revival style is particularly apparent in his early smaller works, such as the shop at Kalverstraat 200, Amsterdam. Following H. P. Berlage’s ideas, van Arkel also became more sparing in his use of decorative elements. An example of this sober style, related to Jugendstil, is the photographic studio at Spui 15–19, Amsterdam. He always remained active as a draughtsman and had a great interest in historic buildings, illustrating the book by ...

Article

John E. Bowlt

(Yefimovich)

(b Yegorovo, Ryazan province, Aug 15, 1862; d Moscow, Sept 25, 1930).

Russian painter. He trained at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture under Vasily Perov, Aleksey Savrasov, Vladimir Makovsky and Vasily Polenov and joined the Wanderers (Peredvizhniki) in 1889 and the Union of Russian Artists in 1903. While indebted to the realist painting of Perov, Arkhipov also gave particular attention to effects of light, rhythm and texture, even in his most didactic canvases, such as Washerwomen (late 1890s; two versions Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal. and St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.). Arkhipov found a rich and diverse source of inspiration in the Russian countryside and the peasantry; he painted peasants at work, the melting of the snow, the local church and priest, the villages of the far north and the White Sea. Works such as The Lay Brother (1891) and Northern Village (1903; both Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.) are evidence of Arkhipov’s important position in the history of late 19th-century Russian landscape painting. His concentration on ...

Article

Philip Ward-Jackson

(b London, June 18, 1828; d London, Dec 4, 1905).

English sculptor, silversmith and illustrator. He was the son of a chaser and attended the Royal Academy Schools, London. At first he gave his attention equally to silverwork and to sculpture, exhibiting at the Royal Academy from 1851. An early bronze, St Michael and the Serpent, cast in 1852 for the Art Union, shows him conversant with the style of continental Romantics, and his debut in metalwork coincided with the introduction into England of virtuoso repoussé work by the Frenchman, Antoine Vechte (1799–1868). In the Outram Shield (London, V&A), Armstead displayed the full gamut of low-relief effects in silver, but its reception at the Royal Academy in 1862 disappointed him, and he turned his attention to monumental sculpture. Among a number of fruitful collaborations with architects, that with George Gilbert I Scott (ii) included a high degree of responsibility for the sculpture on the Albert Memorial in Kensington Gardens, London. Here Armstead’s main contribution was the execution of half of the podium frieze (...

Article

R. W. A. Bionda

[Flor; Pieter Florentius Nicolaas Jacobus]

(b Surabaya, Java, June 9, 1864; d The Hague, June 9, 1925).

Dutch painter, illustrator and printmaker. He moved to the Netherlands c. 1875, and was taught first by Johan Hendrik Frederik Conrad Nachtweh (1857–1941). He attended the Rijksacademie van Beeldende Kunsten in Amsterdam from 1883 to 1888, studying under August Allebé and Barend Wijnveld (1820–1902). He then spent a year studying life drawing at the Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Antwerp under Charles Verlat before returning to Amsterdam, where he initially applied himself to painting landscapes in the countryside around The Hague and in Nunspeet in Gelderland in the style of the Hague school.

Arntzenius settled in The Hague in 1892. He was particularly active as a painter of Impressionist townscapes in both oil and watercolour from c. 1890 to 1910. His crowded street scenes with their misty, rainy atmosphere, such as The Spuistraat (The Hague, Gemeentemus.), were particularly successful and despite their greater emphasis on intimacy and tonality are reminiscent of the work of George Hendrik Breitner and Isaac Israëls. Arntzenius may have collaborated with ...

Article

Monique D. J. M. Teunissen

Dutch company of art dealers and interior design and furniture workshop. The Arts and Crafts interior design and furniture workshop was set up in The Hague in 1893. The Art Nouveau character of the furniture produced by the workshop set it very much apart from its competitors. Designs were produced by the artist Johan Thorn Prikker and the architect Chris Wegerif (1859–1920). During the early years of the workshop the Belgian artist Henry van de Velde exercised a strong influence on its designs. After 1900 the designs became more austere, any Art Nouveau character being confined to woodwork and batik upholstery fabrics. In order to ensure the unity of each interior, an effort was made to have all the objects designed by the same artist. The workshop fostered a close relationship with The Hague school of painting.

F. Netscher: ‘Arts and Crafts’, De Hollandsche Revue (1902), p. 211...