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Patricia J. Graham

[Toyotomi Kiminobu; Sekinan Shōja; Tameushi (Igyū)]

(b Kyoto, 1795; d Kyoto, 1859).

Japanese painter and poet. He was an official painter for the imperial court in Kyoto, a waka (31-syllable form) poet and a fervent loyalist, supporting the re-establishment of imperial rule against the Tokugawa shogunate. Ikkei was active at the close of the Edo period (1600–1868). He expressed his political opinions in his paintings, which, though closely modelled on Yamatoe paintings of the Heian (794–1185) and Kamakura (1185–1333) periods (see Japan §VI 3., (iii)), included explicit satires on the contemporary political scene. As a result of his paintings and a speech he wrote questioning the future of the country, he was imprisoned in 1858. Released in 1859, he died shortly afterwards from an illness he had contracted in prison.

Ikkei studied painting under Tanaka Totsugen (1760–1823), founder of the Fukko Yamatoe (‘Yamatoe revival’) movement. Ikkei’s painting style is close to Totsugen’s, being modelled after earlier ...


Yi Sŏng-mi

[cha Misu ; childhood name Tŭggok ]

(b Inch-on, Kyŏnggi Province, 1152; d 1220).

Korean literati painter, calligrapher and writer . He wrote the P’ahanjip (Chin. Poxian ji: ‘Breaking the doldrums’), a collection of poems and miscellaneous stories in the sihwa (Chin. shihua) literary genre. Active in the Koryŏ period (918–1392), he was born into a well-to-do family; he became a monk but soon abandoned the religious life, passing the civil service examination in 1180. Because of his literary talent and excellence in calligraphy, he served in the Office of Compilation of History. None of his painting or calligraphy has survived, but he was supposed to have excelled in the cursive and clerical scripts and learned ink bamboo painting from An Ch’i-min, another literati painter of the Koryŏ period. According to a poem written by him on his own ink bamboo painting and recorded in the P’ahanjip, he considered himself an incarnation of Wen Tong , the Chinese ink bamboo painter of the Northern Song period (...


Hiroshi Watanabe

(b Okayama Prefect., April 1, 1944).

Japanese architect and writer. He graduated from Waseda University, Tokyo, in 1966 and completed a graduate course there in 1968, the same year in which he established the office DAM DAN in Tokyo. Through a wide range of activities, of which design was only a part, Ishiyama became a spokesman for the New Wave architects in Japan who turned away from Metabolism and historicism to re-create a sense of place in architecture. An admirer of Buckminster Fuller, Ishiyama also attempted, though not always successfully, to provide general solutions, producing an indeterminate architecture that allowed users maximum freedom within. Inspired by a house in Toyohashi, Aichi Prefecture, constructed in 1962 by Kenji Kawai, an engineer for the early buildings of Kenzō Tange, Ishiyama designed a series of houses of corrugated steel sheets, the best-known of which is the Gen’an (Fantasy Villa) in Aichi Prefecture (1975). These simple houses required only the cheapest of materials and a low standard of construction skills, symbolizing the architect’s commitment to making housing easily available to the public. This was a cause he also supported through writing popular books on architecture and initiating a system called ‘direct dealing’ that recalled, in its intent to bypass the conventional commercial network, the ...


Kenneth Frampton

(b Oita, July 23, 1931).

Japanese architect, teacher and theorist. One of the leading architects of his generation, he became an influential proponent of the avant-garde conceptual approach to architecture that characterized the New Wave in Japan in the 1970s and after (see Japan, §III, 5, (iii), (b)). He studied at the University of Tokyo under Kenzō Tange and after graduating (1954) he worked for Kenzō Tange & Urtec until 1963. From 1960 Isozaki began to develop his own practice, first as an architectural designer, completing the Ōita Medical Center (1960) and Ōita Prefectural Library (1966), and then as a theorist, loosely associated with Japanese Metabolism and creating such ironic projects as his ‘Ruin Future City’ and ‘Clusters in the Air’ (both 1962). His first large public commission was the Ōita branch of the Fukuoka Mutual Bank, completed in 1967. Other important public works followed in relatively rapid succession, and he quickly established his reputation with such buildings as the ...


Tadashi Kobayashi

(b Izumi, Hekikai district, Mikawa Prov. [now Aichi Prefect.], 1583; d Kyoto, 1672).

Japanese poet and calligrapher of the early Edo period (1600–1868). He was the son of a samurai named Shinjō. Both his father and grandfather were retainers of the first Tokugawa shogun, Ieyasu (1542–1616), and from his youth Jōzan was an attendant to Ieyasu and joined him in battle. Having, however, violated the command of military leaders during the Summer Battle of Osaka in 1615, he forfeited his fief and went to Kyoto where he took the tonsure. He studied Confucianism with Fujiwara no Seika (1561–1619) and at the same time, on his mother’s behalf, entered the service of a daimyo. After his mother’s death in 1641, Jōzan constructed a dwelling called Ōtotsuka (‘roughness or jaggedness cave’) at the temple Ichijōji in Kyoto, where he led the life of a recluse. The building reflected the current Japanese taste for rusticity in architecture but was embellished by its creator with a number of Chinese touches, including a second-storey ‘moon-viewing room’. Jōzan commissioned the artist ...


Liu Jue  

Bent L. Pedersen

[Liu Chüeh; zi Tingmei; hao Wan’an]

(b Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1410; d Suzhou, 1472).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, poet and government official. He mainly painted landscapes inspired by the great painters of the Yuan period (1279–1368). Having obtained the juren provincial degree in 1438, he served at the imperial court in Beijing until he was 50 years old, when he retired to his native city. There he built a house and a garden, in which he held meetings and parties with his learned friends. Shen Zhou, the founder of the Wu school and Liu’s younger contemporary, was greatly influenced by him. In Liu’s later years they often met and travelled together.

Liu successfully blended the styles of the Four Masters of the Yuan period—Ni Zan, Huang Gongwang, Wu Zhen and Wang Meng. Such works were usually executed in ink on paper, often with sparingly applied washes. He did not seek merely to imitate former masterpieces but rather to grasp their mood and incorporate their spirit into his own works. He created a more formal structure in the compositions executed to be mounted in the hanging scroll format than his Yuan predecessors did, by stressing a firm foreground and a closer relationship between the background and foreground. The towering cliffs in the background rise upwards close to the middle ground in a high, massive group with accompanying lower cliffs to the sides. In the mountains, small, rounded boulders are densely covered with ink dots of dark moss and grasses that convey the impression of wild nature. The middle ground is separated from the foreground by an inlet of water, while the trees growing on the rocky ground in the front reach across the water to unite them. By combining thick, dry brushstrokes with wetter strokes in the dotting and finer details, he obtained a rhythmic movement in a bold expressionistic fashion. An example of this is ...


Chu-Tsing Li

[Kung K’ai; zi Shengyu; hao Cuiyan]

(b Huaiyin, Jiangsu Province, 1221; d 1307).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, essayist and poet. When the Mongols became rulers of China as the Yuan dynasty (1279–1368), Gong Kai became known chiefly as one of the loyalists of the preceding Southern Song dynasty (1127–1279). Like many intellectuals of the Song period, he received a standard classical education. However, having apparently failed to distinguish himself in the official civil service examinations, he had to serve on the staff of commanders guarding the area of Lianghuai (now Jiangsu Province, north of the River Yangzi) against the constant threat from the north by the Ruzhen (Jürchen) and the Mongols. After the Yuan dynasty became established, Gong lived a secluded life with his family, mainly in the cultural centre of Suzhou and in Hangzhou, the old Southern Song dynastic capital, although he remained active in literary circles. His final years seem to have been spent in poverty. It was said that, lacking furniture in his house, he wrote or drew by resting the paper on his son’s back. Nevertheless, his artistic and literary accomplishments earned him the respect of many of his friends....



(fl early 18th century).

Japanese poet and calligrapher. Along with her adopted daughter Yuri, also a poet and calligrapher, she ran the Matsuya tea house in Kyoto, where intellectuals and literary figures gathered to hear her recite poetry. Her waka (31-syllable classical verse) poems were written casually and for the moment; hence few examples are extant. The calligraphy in these, however, is remarkable for its boldness, energy and flair, effects created by dramatic variations in the thickness of the lines. In 1707, 120 of Kaji’s waka were collated by the Edo-period (1600–1868) poet Ameishi in the three-volume Kaji no ha, illustrated by Miyazaki Yūzen. Kaji was one of the most widely recognized Japanese poets of the 18th century and continues to be celebrated, along with other famous people of various eras, in the Jidai Matsuri (Festival of the Ages), held each October at the Heian Shrine in Kyoto.

For general discussion of Japanese calligraphy ...


Elizabeth F. Bennett

[K’ang Yu-wei; zi Nanhai]

(b Nanhai, Guangdong Province, 19 March 1858; d Qingdao, Shandong Province, 31 March 1927). Chinese reformer, scholar and calligrapher. He is best known as the instigator of the Hundred Days Reform, which lasted from 16 June to 21 September 1898, when the Guangxu emperor (reg 1875–1908) accepted Kang’s proposals for far-reaching change. Kang convinced the emperor of the importance of incorporating Western methods into Chinese culture so as to strengthen China against foreign aggression. The profoundly conservative dowager empress Cixi (1835–1908) staged a coup which brought the movement to an end. Kang fled the country and did not return until 1913, after the fall of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911).

Kang’s formal education in calligraphy and epigraphy began under the tutelage of the eminent scholar, Zhu Ciqi (1807–81). Kang later chose a few models and copied them avidly: the Shimen ming, calligraphy carved into a cliff face in Shanxi Province in ...


Alberto González Pozo

(b Harbin, Manchuria [now China], May 3, 1910; d Mexico City, Oct 7, 1996).

Mexican architect, teacher and writer, of Russian descent. In 1926 he settled in Paris, where between 1929 and 1935 he studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Georges Gromort. He moved to Mexico in 1942, where he combined editorial work on the periodical Arquitectura México, run by Mario Pani, with his first commissions in Mexico City, among them the ‘Albert Einstein’ Secondary School (1949), with walls of exposed brick. Other examples of his educational architecture, notable for their formal austerity, include the Liceo Franco-Mexicano (1950) and the Facultad de Economía (1953; with J. Hanhausen), Ciudad Universitaria, both in Mexico City. From the 1950s to the 1970s Kaspé continued building in Mexico City; outstanding examples of his work are the Centro Deportivo Israelita (1950–62), Periférico Norte; the Laboratorios Roussel (1961), Avenida Universidad y M. A. Quevedo; and the offices of Supermercados S. A. (...


Chu-Tsing Li

[Kao K’o-kung; zi Yanjing; hao Fangshan]

(b Fangshan, Beijing, 1248; d 1310).

Chinese painter, poet and government official. Of Muslim Uygur descent, he was the eldest of five sons from a family that combined Muslim and Han cultures and enjoyed favourable social status when the Mongols ruled China as the Yuan dynasty (1279–1368). From an early age he was taught by his father, a highly respected Confucian scholar who instructed Gao in the Chinese classics, preparing him well for government service. Gao began his service in the Yuan government at the age of 27, eventually achieving the high rank of governor and a minister of justice. In addition to serving at the court in Dadu (Khanbalik, now Beijing), he held various positions in many parts of China, including Shandong, Henan, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces.

While serving in the River Yangzi delta area, Gao became acquainted with many of the painters and poets of that southern region; these included other northern literati who also served in the south, such as Li Kan, Xianyu Shu (...


Frank L. Chance


(b Ōmi Province [now Shiga Prefect.], 1796; d Edo [now Tokyo], 1858).

Japanese painter, poet, and illustrator. The last master of the Rinpa school of decorative painting, he moved to Edo as a youth and became the leading pupil of Sakai Hōitsu, the instigator of the Rinpa revival in the early 19th century. Kiitsu was adopted into the family of Suzuki Reitan (1782–1817), another of Hōitsu’s pupils, and married his sister. When Reitan died, Kiitsu inherited his samurai rank and became a salaried retainer of the Sakai family. By the age of 30 Kiitsu was collaborating with Hōitsu on the compilation of Kōrin hyakuzu (‘One hundred pictures by Kōrin’). From mere imitation of Hōitsu, Kiitsu evolved a more personal style. He adopted the elegant compositions and brilliantly opaque colours of the Rinpa masters (see fig.), as in the exquisite pair of six-panel folding screens Cranes (Los Angeles, CA, Co. Mus. A.), but was also affected by the decorative naturalism of the Maruyama–Shijō schools (...


Tadashi Kobayashi


(b Osaka, 1736; d Osaka, 1802). Japanese collector, scholar, poet, painter and calligrapher. As a boy he undertook the study of medicinal herbs at the apothecary’s shop owned by his father and other relatives. According to tradition he began to have an interest in art when he was about five or six and studied with the Kanō-school master Ōoka Shunboku. He also learnt bird-and-flower painting (kachōga) under Kakutei, a Zen priest from Nagasaki. He first met the literati painter Ike Taiga (see Ike family §(1)) when he was 15, and became his pupil. Taiga’s influence is evident in his Bunjinga (literati painting; see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (d)) and also in his calligraphy, in which he excelled. Kenkadō also studied seal-carving with Kō Fuyō, a friend of Taiga, and poetry with Katayama Hokkai. He became one of the most erudite and well-known literati in the region. By profession he was a sake brewer and amassed a fortune, which, however, he forfeited when he incurred the wrath of the authorities. He collected a vast range of objects including calligraphy, old writings and paintings, maps, ceramics, utensils for the ...


Dai Kui  

Weihe Chen

[Tai K’uei; zi Andao]

(b Qiaojinzhi [now Suxian], Anhui Province, c. ad 326; d c. 396).

Chinese sculptor, painter and philosopher. At an early age he studied with the famous Confucian scholar Fan Xuan, however, despite being influenced by Confucianism, he never took up an official position, instead he adopted a policy of withdrawing from society, admiring nature and advocating a simple way of life. He was a prolific author and developed the Confucian monastic tradition of xing and shen. A nine-volume work entitled The Collected Works of Dai Kui was published but is now lost.

As an artist he is said to have been good at figures, Buddhist portraits and landscapes. Gu Kaizhi remarked that his Picture of Seven Sages exceeded ancient paintings in likeness and charm. The critic Xie He approved his works as ‘creating a feeling of lasting appeal; stimulating interest through their ingenuity; excelling in their depiction of sages and setting models for professional painters’. His works Pictures of Nineteen Poems by Ruan Ji...


Botond Bognar

(b Nagoya, April 8, 1934; d Tokyo, Oct 12, 2007).

Japanese architect and writer. He graduated in architecture from Kyoto University in 1957 and continued his studies in the PhD programme at Tokyo University under Kenzō Tange until 1964. They collaborated on numerous urban proposals, including Tange’s famous urban plan for Tokyo Bay (1960). Kurokawa also developed his own futuristic schemes, for example Space City (1960) and Helix City (1961). In 1962 he established his own office in Tokyo. Kurokawa was a founder-member of Metabolism in 1960 and contributed significantly to the Metabolist manifesto. He proved to be the most radical designer of the movement, promoting an architecture that used technologically advanced plug-in modules and clip-on capsule units suspended from a frame, which he felt would accommodate and represent elements of growth and change, a concept that underlined Metabolist theory. The use of capsules appeared in such works as the buildings he designed for the World Exposition (...


Midori Yamamura

(b Matsumoto City, Nagano Prefect., March 22, 1929).

Japanese painter, sculptor, poet, writer, printmaker, installation, and performance artist, active also in the USA.

Growing up under Japan’s World War II totalitarian regime, Kusama believed art could help her nurture a more humane worldview. She began taking private art lessons at the age of 13. Between 1952 and 1955, she had six solo exhibitions. In 1955 Kusama wrote to artists Kenneth Callahan and Georgia O’Keeffe in the United States and Callahan helped organize her first United States solo exhibition in Seattle (1957).

After Seattle, Kusama moved to New York in 1958, where she launched her career alongside the second generation Abstract Expressionists. In 1959 she developed a series of paintings called Infinity Nets; large horizontal works featuring obsessively repeated small arcs. At solo exhibitions in New York (1959, Brata Gallery; 1961, Stephen Radich Gallery), she only showed white, wall-sized works from the series. Appearing void from a distance, her huge paintings forced viewers to come closer, disallowing their objectification, while permitting each viewer an intimate experience. These works made a strong impression on the New York scene, with Frank Stella and a future Minimalist Donald Judd buying her works....


(b Seoul, 1704; d Sinji Island, South Chŏlla Province, 1777).

Korean painter, calligrapher and poet . Born the son of a government minister during the Chosŏn period (1392–1910), he was involved in the conspiracy of the Soron faction in 1755 and was exiled to Kilju in North Hamgyŏng Province. In 1762 he was transferred to Sinji Island, where he eventually died. He studied calligraphy with Yun Sun (1680–1741) and produced a compilation of the calligraphy of earlier Korean calligraphers, Wŏngo chipson (‘Compilation of manuscripts’), as well as a systematic account of the theory of calligraphy. His own calligraphy, for example Haengso sa’ŭn si (Seoul, Korea U. Mus.), a four-line verse in running script, had a considerable influence on the calligraphy of future generations. He painted portraits in the style of the Southern school , for example Portrait of a High Priest (1746; silk; 242×223 mm; Seoul, Cent. Stud. Kor. A., Kansong A. Mus.), while his landscapes reflect the influence of the ...


Kathy Niblett


(b Hong Kong, Jan 5, 1887; d St Ives, Cornwall, May 6, 1979).

English potter and writer. Until he was ten years old he lived in the Far East, which had a most powerful influence on his life and work. In 1903–4 he studied drawing with Henry Tonks at the Slade School of Art, London. He kept a death-bed promise to his father to train to work in the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, but left after nine months and in 1908 he attended the London School of Art to learn etching with Frank Brangwyn. In 1909 he returned to Japan to teach etching and in 1911 was ‘seized with the desire’ to work in clay after attending a ‘raku yaki’ tea party, where he shared the instantaneous joy of Raku family pottery. He found a pottery teacher, Shigekichi Urano (1881–1923), who had become Kenzan VI c. 1900 (see Ogata family §(2)). After teaching him to pot, Kenzan built a kiln for Leach in ...


Wu Li  

Vyvyan Brunst and James Cahill

[zi Yushan; hao Mojing Daoren]

(b Changshu, Jiangsu Province, 1632; d Feb 24, 1718).

Chinese painter, poet and calligrapher . He was one of the Six Orthodox Masters of the early part of the Qing period (1644–1911); the others included the Four Wangs: Wang Shimin, Wang Jian, Wang Hui and Wang Yuanqi, along with Yun Shouping ( see Orthodox school ). All six were natives of southern Jiangsu Province, in the Yangzi River basin. Wu Li was a close friend of Wang Hui in his youth, and both were students of Wang Shimin and Wang Jian. Wu flirted with the philosophical tenets of Neo-Confucianism, Buddhism and Daoism but eventually converted to Christianity when he was about 50 years old and travelled to the Portuguese island of Macao with Father Philippe Couplet in 1681. He became a Jesuit priest and in 1692 headed a Jesuit mission in Jiading (in modern Shanghai Municipality). Catholicism did not inspire in Wu Li a great love of European art, and he remained a painter in the Chinese literati tradition (...


Hasan-Uddin Khan

(b Hong Kong, July 19, 1932).

Singaporean architect, urban planner and writer. He studied at the Architectural Association School, London, graduating in 1955; he worked for the London County Council for a year and then was a Fulbright Fellow in the Department of City and Regional Planning at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (1956–7). After 1957 he worked exclusively in Singapore and Malaysia as partner in a number of practices, and as principal of Design Partnership (DP). Working in a modernist style, he concentrated on residential and commerical works within an urban or historic framework, with a particular interest in the improvement of the urban environment. He built several large-scale shopping complexes in Singapore and Kuala Lumpur, the first being the People’s Park (1973; with Tay Kheng Soon), Singapore; this multi-level centre, with innovative atrium spaces and a mix of large and small shops, became a model for much subsequent commercial development in the city. Other important projects in Singapore included the Golden Mile Shopping Centre (...