Italian family of artists. The work of the brothers (1) Ubaldo Gandolfi and (2) Gaetano Gandolfi and of the latter’s son, (3) Mauro Gandolfi, reflects the transition from late Bolognese Baroque through Neo-classicism and into early Italian Romanticism. During their period of collective productivity, from c. 1760 to c. 1820, the Gandolfi produced paintings, frescoes, drawings, sculptures and prints. Their drawings (examples by all three artists, Venice, Fond. Cini) made an outstanding contribution to the great figurative tradition of Bolognese draughtsmanship that had begun with the Carracci. Their prolific output and their activity as teachers gave them considerable influence throughout northern Italy, except in Venice. One of Ubaldo’s five children, Giovanni Battista Gandolfi (b 1762), trained at the Accademia Clementina, Bologna, but apart from a vault fresco signed and dated 1798 in the church of S Francesco in Bagnacavallo nothing is known of his adult career. A drawing (Paris, Fond. Custodia, Inst. Néer.) is signed ...
(b Poitiers, 1762; d Livorno, Oct 20, 1801).
French painter. Following his move to Paris, where he became a pupil of Hugues Taraval and a student at the Académie Royale, in 1784 Gauffier shared the Prix de Rome with Jean-Germain Drouais and Antoine-Denis Chaudet (for sculpture), his own work being Christ and the Woman of Canaan (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). During his time in Rome (1785–9) Gauffier worked hard, but his health was poor and the results variable. On his return to Paris he was accepted (agréé) by the Académie as a history painter. Soon after, he returned to Rome in order to escape the worsening situation in Revolutionary Paris, although he continued to send his Neo-classical works to the Salon. In March 1790 he married Pauline Chatillon (d July 1801), a portrait painter whom he and Drouais had taught.
In 1793 anti-French demonstrations in Rome forced him to flee to Florence, where in order to make a living he abandoned historical, mythological and religious themes, as exemplified by ...
(b Paris, 1769; d Paris, July 1825).
French sculptor and painter. He studied sculpture with his father, Claude Gautherot (1729–1802); throughout his life he was known as both Pierre and Claude, signing his work with his surname only. He initially specialized in portrait busts of well-known figures such as Voltaire, Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot and Jean-Sylvain Bailly (all untraced). In 1787 he entered the studio of Jacques-Louis David and became his close friend. Thereafter he devoted himself completely to painting, initially choosing his subjects from his sculptural practice, as in his copies of portraits of Voltaire (after Nicolas de Largillierre) and Turgot (after Joseph Ducreux) (both 1790; St Petersburg, Hermitage). Delécluze’s description of Gautherot in David’s studio in 1796 and 1797 mentions that he was an avid Republican and that he wore a blond, powdered wig to disguise a skin disease. At the Salon of 1799 he exhibited Pyramus and Thisbe (Melun, Mus. Melun) and a year later another version of that subject (Bagnères-de-Bigorre, Mus. A.). At the Salon of ...
(b Paris, March 17, 1817; d Paris, July 15, 1881).
French painter. He entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris on 20 October 1827 as a pupil of Paul Delaroche. The title of the picture which he sent to his first Salon in 1840, Captivity in Babylon (untraced), recalls the subject of Eduard Bendemann’s famous picture of 1832, Jews in Exile (Düsseldorf, Kstsamml. Nordrhein–Westfalen). Gendron went to Italy in 1844 at the same time as Delaroche and Jean-Léon Gérôme. From there he sent A Public Commentary on Dante (untraced) to the Salon of 1844 and Willis (Le Havre, Mus. B.-A.), a vaporous group of spirits, inspired by German literature and also, perhaps, by German art, to the Salon of 1846. The Willis made his reputation. Théophile Gautier was predictably impressed, and in his review of the Salon of 1846 he ‘discovered’ Gendron as well as most of the painters in Gendron’s circle, pupils of Delaroche, who banded together in the late 1840s to form the ...
(b Vésoul, Haute-Saône, May 11, 1824; d Paris, Jan 10, 1904).
French painter and sculptor.
Gérôme’s father, a goldsmith from Vésoul, discouraged his son from studying to become a painter but agreed, reluctantly, to allow him a trial period in the studio of Paul Delaroche in Paris. Gérôme proved his worth, remaining with Delaroche from 1840 to 1843. When Delaroche closed the studio in 1843, Gérôme followed his master to Italy. Pompeii meant more to him than Florence or the Vatican, but the world of nature, which he studied constantly in Italy, meant more to him than all three. An attack of fever brought him back to Paris in 1844. He then studied, briefly, with Charles Gleyre, who had taken over the pupils of Delaroche. Gérôme attended the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and entered the Prix de Rome competition as a way of going back to Italy. In 1846 he failed to qualify for the final stage because of his inadequate ability in figure drawing. To improve his chances in the following year’s competition, he painted an academic exercise of two large figures, a nude youth, crouching in the pose of Chaudet’s marble ...
Phyllis Dearborn Massar
(b San Sebastiano Curone, Dec 17, 1758; d Rome, Jan 10, 1823).
Italian painter and draughtsman. He was a prolific painter who, with a team of artists and craftsmen, decorated palaces and public buildings in Rome, Venice, many cities in Emilia Romagna (especially Faenza), and in France. He worked in a distinctive Neo-classical style, creating sumptuous, richly coloured rooms, the paintings on walls and ceilings being surrounded with a wealth of antique ornament. Despite the turbulent era of revolution and war (1789–1815) he never lacked commissions, for which he chose subjects from the literature and history of Greece and Rome that were symbolic both for him and for his patrons. He was a prodigiously talented draughtsman, who drew constantly, both out of doors and in the studio.
He first studied in Pavia with Carlo Antonio Bianchi and Antonio Galli-Bibiena. In 1778–9 he attended the Accademia Clementina, Bologna, where he won a prize, and from 1780 to 1783 continued his studies in Rome at the Accademia di S Luca. In an autograph note (New York, Cooper-Hewitt Mus.) he referred to ...
(b Montpellier, Dec 15, 1807; d Paris, Aug 8, 1893).
French painter. He was trained by Eugène Devéria and Achille Devéria and made his first appearance at the Salon, in 1836, with Luca Signorelli da Cortona (Avignon, Mus. Calvet) and Flight into Egypt (untraced), the first of a number of religious pictures painted in the 1840s in the pleasant, sentimental manner of Eugène Devéria’s religious work. The Humility of St Elizabeth of Hungary (exh. Salon, 1843; Montpellier, St Louis), Conversion of the Magdalene (1845; Nogent-sur-Seine, parish church) and Adoration of the Shepherds (1846; Quesnoy-sur-Airaine, parish church) belong to an idea of the Rococo common in the 1840s. Glaize’s interest in 18th-century French art is also evident in Blood of Venus (exh. 1846) and Picnic (both Montpellier, Mus. Fabre). This element was less obvious in the 1850s. In 1852 he exhibited a scene of the savage heroism of the Women of Gaul: Episode from the Roman Invasion (Autun, Mus. Rolin), one of the first pictures on a theme that appealed to a new interest in the history of Gaul in the Second Empire. Increasingly, he adopted subject-matter favoured by the ...
(b Amsterdam, ?Feb 5, 1752; d Rome, Nov 12, 1781).
Dutch painter and draughtsman. In 1777 he was an assistant in the wallpaper workshop of Jurriaan Andriessen in Amsterdam. In the same year he enrolled in the Amsterdamse Stadstekenacademie and was one of the founder-members of the Félix Meritis Society for the promotion of art. The collectors Jan Tersteeg and Dirk Versteeg financed Grandjean’s visit in 1779 to Italy, where he came into contact with a circle of artists centred on the sculptor Alexander Trippel, who gave lessons in drawing from the model in his Trippelsche Academie. Grandjean’s Italian drawings (e.g. Temple of the Sibyl at Tivoli, 1779; Leiden, Rijksuniv., Prentenkab.) show that he was decisively influenced in his artistic development by his encounter with great Italian art, as well as by his contact with the German artists’ circle. In both his landscapes and his figure studies, he changed from a typical Dutch wallpaper style to a type of international classicism. Grandjean would undoubtedly have been Holland’s most important Neo-classical artist if his early death had not cut short his career....
(b Toulon, March 24, 1783; d Paris, Jan 16, 1855).
French painter. He was the son of a locksmith who fled from Toulon, which was in revolt against Jacobin rule, to Marseille in 1793. Although intended to follow his father, Guérin decided at 13 to study drawing, attending the Ecole des Bernardines, which had opened in Marseille in 1793. There he met Augustin Aubert (1781–1857), who became his adviser and lifelong friend. Guérin went to Paris in October 1802 and for about ten years lived in poverty and isolation, executing a number of self-portraits as he could not afford models (e.g. Self-portrait, 1804; Toulon, Mus. Toulon). In 1805 he was admitted as an apprentice to the studio of François- André Vincent where he met Auguste Heim and Horace Vernet. Although his studies under Vincent were free, he had to leave in order to provide money for his family in Marseille. He became a full-time assistant to François Gérard, painting accessories and drapery in his portraits....
(b Paris, March 13, 1774; d Rome, July 16, 1833).
French painter, draughtsman and teacher. He was one of the most successful French painters working in the Neo-classical style at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th. He especially admired the art of Poussin and David, and derived inspiration from Greek mythology and from the Classical themes of the plays of Jean Racine. At the Salons in Paris he exhibited elegant compositions painted in a carefully controlled manner and with arresting chiaroscuro. He was never a prolific artist and, owing to ill-health, painted even less in his later years, devoting himself instead to teaching and to the directorship (1822–8) of the Académie de France in Rome.
His talent for drawing was apparent at an early age and his father, an ironmonger with a shop on the Pont-au-Change, enrolled him at the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris in 1785. As required, his application was supported by a member of the Académie, in this case Hugues Taraval, who would have become his first master had he not died that year. Guérin then transferred to the studio of ...
(b Murdieston, Lothian, 1723; d Rome, Jan 4, 1798).
Scottish painter, archaeologist and dealer, active in Italy. He was educated at Glasgow University and in 1748 arrived in Rome to study portrait painting under Agostino Masucci. He lodged with the architects James Stuart and Nicholas Revett; they probably encouraged him to visit Herculaneum and the recently discovered archaeological site of Pompeii, which had a profound effect on his subsequent career. Convinced that ‘the ancients have surpassed the moderns, both in painting and sculpture’, Hamilton undertook a systematic study of Classical antiquities during the 1750s and 1760s. In 1751 he was briefly in Scotland, where he painted a full-length portrait of Elizabeth Gunning, Duchess of Hamilton (Lennoxlove, Lothian), in a conventional style derived from van Dyck. He returned to Rome in 1752 and remained there, with the exception of short visits to England, for the rest of his life. In 1755 he was introduced by Anton Raphael Mengs to Johann Joachim Winckelmann, who was to become one of the leading theorists of Neo-classicism. In the same year Hamilton entertained Robert Adam (i), who studied in Rome from ...
(b Dublin, c. 1740; d Dublin, Feb 10, 1808).
Irish painter, active in England and Italy. He trained under Robert West at the Dublin Society’s Drawing School, after which he moved to London in the early 1760s. There his skilfully executed pastel portraits attracted a large number of commissions from Irish and English sitters. Among his portraits of the royal family is that of Queen Charlotte (1769; Berlin, Kupferstichkab.); many others are in the British Royal Collection. In 1779 Hamilton travelled to Italy, where he soon attracted an impressive array of British patrons. These included George John, 2nd Earl Spencer (examples at Althorp House, Northants); Lady Hannah Cowper, for whom he made an oval portrait in pastel: Countess Cowper (c. 1787; Firle Place, E. Sussex); and the exiled Stuart royal family, for example the portraits in oil of Charles Edward Stuart (c. 1785; Dundee, Cent. Mus. and A.G.; Edinburgh, N.P.G.)
Hamilton spent 13 years in Rome and Florence. In Rome he became friendly with numerous artists, among them Antonio Canova, John Flaxman, Christopher Hewetson and Henry Tresham, and his portraits included that of the dealer ...
Jens Peter Munk
(b Rome, Nov 3, 1804; d Frederiksberg, March 29, 1880).
Danish painter. In 1816 he entered the Kongelige Akademi for de Skønne Kunster, Copenhagen, intending to study architecture; however he later became attracted to painting and worked under C. W. Eckersberg from 1828 to 1833. Around the middle of the 1820s he started developing an individual style of portraiture, which had matured by 1830. He often used his sisters and friends as models; using simple costumes, poses and compositions, he managed to endow his pictures with the intimacy and warmth that mark the Danish Golden Age. The Artist’s Sisters Signe and Henriette Reading a Book (1826; Copenhagen, Stat. Mus. Kst) is a fine example of his combination of natural observation with Neo-classical idealization. Under Eckersberg, who encouraged both, he strengthened his natural flair for painting serene architectural views of Copenhagen.
During the 1830s a concentration on specifically Danish subjects was officially promoted, and in 1834 Hansen won a competition for a view of a notable Danish monument with ...
(b Paris, 1776; d Rome, 1805).
French painter and draughtsman. He began his career in 1793 by winning second prize in the Prix de Rome with an entry that was praised by his teacher, David, and by Prud’hon. He exhibited portraits and subjects taken from ancient history in the Salons between 1796 and 1802. Harriet took part in the ‘Pre-Romantic’ movement made famous by his fellow disciples of David, Pierre Guérin and Anne-Louis Girodet. Oedipus at Colonus (1798–9; priv. col., see 1974 exh. cat., no. 97) is typical of this development in Neo-classicism. Harriet combined precise drawing of draperies, strong effects of light and symbolically divided landscape (the arid section on the left prefigured Caspar David Friedrich) with static, symmetrical composition. At the same time he won the 1798 Prix de Rome with the Fight between the Horatii and the Curiatii (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). He went to Rome, probably in 1802, where he undertook a vast heroic composition, ...
(b Carlisle, June 4, 1762; d London, Dec 16, 1800).
English painter. Having entered the Royal Academy Schools, London, in 1778, he exhibited at the Free Society of Artists (1779), the Society of Artists (1780) and annually at the Royal Academy from 1779. In 1781 he exhibited Landscape with the Story of Europa (untraced), but a sketchbook (London, V&A) is all that survives to indicate his interest in landscape. That year he travelled to Europe, becoming a member of the Florence Accademia (1787) and of the Kassel Akademie (1788). By 1790 he had settled in Rome, where he was elected a member of the Accademia di S Luca in 1792. He presented a Neo-classical painting of Iris as his diploma piece, the design for which he derived from Guido Reni’s Fortuna (c. 1623; both Rome, Accad. N. S Luca). A larger version of this work was exhibited at the Royal Academy in ...
(b Lyon, 1762; d Leuze, nr Tournai, May 12, 1833).
French painter. He was precociously talented and by the age of 15 had been Donat Nonnotte’s pupil at the Académie des Beaux-Arts at Lyon and had arrived in Paris. There he worked for a time in Jacques-Louis David’s studio, from which he was expelled after being accused of theft. He completed his studies at the Académie Royale de Peinture in 1784 and visited Rome at the expense of an English patron named Mills. Because of masonic connections he was forced to flee in 1789, returning to Lyon. His politics tended towards Jacobinism, and during the Revolution he was appointed to a commission entrusted with saving works of art. After the fall of Robespierre in 1794 he fled to Paris, where he suffered imprisonment and narrowly avoided the guillotine.
In 1798 Hennequin exhibited Paris Tearing himself from Helen’s Arms and in 1799 was commissioned to paint the Triumph of the French People, 10th August 1792...
Mónica Martí Cotarelo
(b Alava, Spain, 1810; d Mexico City, 1872).
Spanish architect, painter and teacher, active in Mexico. He graduated as an architect from the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando, Madrid, but also worked in painting, sculpture and pastel miniatures. In 1836 he worked in Paris under Henri Labrouste, and in 1838 he went to Mexico City, where he opened a school of drawing. As one of the outstanding architects in Mexico at the time, he was made an académico de mérito of the Academia de S Carlos and its director of architecture. His chief work was the Teatro de Santa Anna (1842–4; later Teatro Nacional; destr. 1901), Mexico City, a Neo-classical building that was for a long time the most costly in the city. The principal façade had a portico with four large Corinthian columns rising through two storeys. He also rebuilt the dome (1845–8) of the side chapel of the church of S Teresa la Antigua, Mexico City. His solution was a Neo-classical dome supported by a double drum, producing interesting light effects in the interior. The windows of the upper drum, concealed by an incomplete vault rising from the lower one, illuminate paintings around the bottom of the dome. Few of his other works have survived....
(b Montauban, Aug 29, 1780; d Paris, Jan 14, 1867).
French painter. He was the last grand champion of the French classical tradition of history painting. He was traditionally presented as the opposing force to Delacroix in the early 19th-century confrontation of Neo-classicism and Romanticism, but subsequent assessment has shown the degree to which Ingres, like Neo-classicism, is a manifestation of the Romantic spirit permeating the age. The chronology of Ingres’s work is complicated by his obsessive perfectionism, which resulted in multiple versions of a subject and revisions of the original. For this reason, all works cited in this article are identified by catalogue raisonné number: Wildenstein (
His father, Jean-Marie-Joseph Ingres (1755–1814), a decorative painter and sculptor as well as an amateur musician, taught him the basics of drawing and also the violin. In accord with contemporary academic practice, Ingres devoted much of his attention to copying from his father’s collection of prints after such masters as Raphael, Titian, Correggio, Rubens, Watteau and Boucher; none of these copies survives. The earliest known drawings, some signed ...
Donatella Germanó Siracusa
(b Naples, 1746; d Palermo, May 16, 1835).
Italian painter. He is documented in Naples until 1762, where he formed his style by working as a draughtsman at the Reale Opificio delle Pietre Dure and trained in the studios of Giuseppe Bonito and of Antonio Dominici (b 1730), a Sicilian painter active in Naples. He then moved to Palermo, where his first paintings, of scenes from the Life of St Anne (1767; Palermo, S Anna della Misericordia), were influenced by Vito d’Anna (c. ?1729–69), who had taught Dominici and who was a leading figure in the art world of 18th-century Palermo. The scenes from the Life of the Virgin (Palermo, Chiesa degli Agonizzanti, 1782) are directly influenced by Neapolitan painting, especially that of Luca Giordano and Francesco Solimena. Between c. 1780 and 1810, Interguglielmi executed decorative frescoes in palazzi and villas in Palermo and in Piana dei Colli (Bagheria), becoming one of the leading figures in the transition from the late Baroque to Neo-classicism. Among such works are frescoes in the Palazzi Santa Croce–S Elia (...
(b Paris, 1732; d Paris, 1804).
French painter. A pupil of Jean-Baptiste Marie Pierre, he finished second in 1754 in the Prix de Rome competition with his Mattathias (untraced). He was approved (agréé) at the Académie Royale in 1765. He was a precocious and original artist, whose works range from historical, allegorical and religious pictures to decorative and genre pieces and portraits. His work frequently divided contemporary critical opinion. His Belisarius Begging Alms of 1767 (untraced), for example, was considered well composed by Louis Petit de Bachaumont, who admired the motif of the child begging with an upturned soldier’s helmet. Denis Diderot, on the other hand, dismissed the work as ‘a bad sketch’. Jollain’s particular aptitude was for religious subjects. At the Salon of 1769, for example, he exhibited The Refuge (untraced; oil sketch, British priv. col.), which depicts the founder of the Institute of Our Lady of Refuge in an attitude of devotional supplication; it was painted for the Order’s convent chapel at Besançon, and the chapel itself appears in the background. Jollain’s art was part of the mid-18th-century Baroque revival in French religious painting, and ...