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Article

Joseph Connors

(fl Milan, 1588–1639).

Italian engineer and architect . From 1588 he is recorded in the service of Philip II of Spain as a military engineer. His most important commission was for the Palazzo della Giustizia (New Prison; c. 1570–after 1624) in Milan, its varied massing and powerful entrance portal proclaiming Spanish hegemony over Milan. In 1605 Barca opened up a new street between the prisons and the Palazzo di Corte (Governor’s Palace) ‘so that the way from justice to clemency should be short and easy’. The other major design attributed to Barca is the façade of Sant’Angelo in Milan, begun c. 1600.

Barca was an active polemicist against the ideas and influence of the rising generation of Milanese architects. In 1607 he disputed with Francesco Maria Ricchini over the issue of pedestals for the columns on the proposed façade of Milan Cathedral. Barca’s report is interesting for the wide knowledge of Classical architecture it reveals and for the combination of a negative attitude to the Gothic style of the cathedral and an admiration for its grandeur. He lost the dispute to Ricchini, and although he failed the younger man in the examination for military architect in ...

Article

Jean-Louis Cohen

(b Vichy, April 1, 1907; d Vichy, May 30, 1989).

French architect, urban planner and writer . Immediately after his studies at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, he presented designs for a ‘garden city for intellectuals’ at the Salon d’Automne of 1934. He then entered the Institut d’Urbanisme of the University of Paris, where he was much taken with the teaching of the architectural historian Marcel Poëte (1866–1951). He established a reputation in 1937 with La Rome de Mussolini, in which he unreservedly celebrated il Duce’s urban development policy. He worked with Jacques Gréber, the chief architect of the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne of 1937, and in 1941 he published Problèmes d’urbanisme, in which he set out for the first time a global manifesto linking both spatial and social factors. He was particularly opposed to the planning principles on which Le Corbusier based the sunburst layout of his Ville radieuse, but he commended the functionalist designs of Alexander Klein to a French audience in ...

Article

Kathleen James-Chakraborty

(b Karlsruhe, April 12, 1883; d Darmstadt, Feb 20, 1959).

German architect and writer. Bartning studied at the Technische Hochschule in Karlsruhe and at the Technische Hochschule and the University in Berlin. In 1905 he established a practice in Berlin. By 1918 he had received c. 50 commissions, but he only began to publish his work after World War I. The upheavals of the period prompted him to propose the spatial and stylistic reorganization of German Protestant church building as a means of restoring social harmony. His book, On New Church Buildings, appeared in 1919 and spurred a revolution in German sacred architecture. During the 1920s Bartning joined the Novembergruppe, the Arbeitsrat für Kunst, and Der Ring, the principal German avant-garde artistic and architectural groups. His most interesting contribution to the brief period of German Expressionism was the Sternkirche project (1922). The centralized church is surmounted by a roof of layered concrete shells that are supported by a thicket of columns, intended as a reinterpretation of Gothic construction....

Article

Louise Rice

(fl Rome, 1620).

Italian jurist and amateur architect . A learned dilettante active during the reign of Pope Paul V, he wrote and illustrated a series of proposals for the improvement and embellishment of St Peter’s, Rome. His Discorso was composed in 1620, and in 1623, following the election of Urban VIII, his designs were published at the expense of his nephew Simone Bartoli in a set of four engravings by Matthäus Greuter. Bartoli proposed the construction of an elaborate pontifical choir in the crossing of St Peter’s, to be built in the form of a navicella (a ship symbolic of the Church) and to encompass within its complex iconography the tomb of the Apostles, the papal high altar and the chair of St Peter. He also advocated transforming St Peter’s from a three-aisled to a five-aisled basilica by modifying the chapels on either side of the nave; demolishing the attic storey of Carlo Maderno’s façade in order to restore a view of Michelangelo’s drum and dome; and regularizing the piazza in front of the church by means of a vast three-storey arcuated portico built on an elongated rectangular plan. Bartoli’s projects, costly and impractical, were never executed and are chiefly of interest as precedents to Bernini’s great works at St Peter’s....

Article

Nicholas Bullock

(b Krnov, Moravia [now in Czech Republic], 1872; d Vienna, 1938).

Austrian architect and writer of Moravian birth. He studied with Carl Hasenauer (1893), and with Otto Wagner at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna (1894–6). He was one of the most successful of Wagner’s pupils. Along with Josef Hoffmann and Joseph Maria Olbrich he was a founder-member of the Siebenerklub and one of the first members of the Secession (see Secession, §3). During 1902 he was one of the editors of Ver Sacrum and between 1900 and 1905 he was responsible for the design of the decoration and fitting out of a number of rooms at the annual exhibitions of the Secession.

Bauer’s early commissions were mainly suburban and country houses, first in Bohemia but later in Silesia and Vienna. With his international success in the competition for ‘Ein Haus eines Kunstfreundes’, organized by Alexander Koch in 1900, he acquired the reputation of being an adventurous and sympathetic interpreter of the new domestic style. His early designs show how the vernacular forms inspired by the Arts and Crafts Movement could be simplified and reworked in a stark geometrical fashion, while the planning of such early houses as Villa Larisch (...

Article

Annalisa Avon

Italian architectural partnership of architects, designers, urban planners and critics, established in Milan in 1932. The firm’s name was derived from the first letters of the surnames of its four partners, Gian Luigi Banfi (b Milan, 2 April 1910; d Mauthausen, Austria, 10 April 1945), Ludovico (Barbiano di) Belgiojoso (b Milan, 1 Dec 1909), Enrico Peressutti (b Pinzano al Tagliamento, 28 Aug 1908; d Milan, 3 May 1976) and Ernesto Nathan Rogers (b Trieste, 16 March 1909; d Gardone, 7 Nov 1969). They all graduated from the Politecnico of Milan in 1932. As well as individual projects, they presented a joint written introduction that gained the standing of a manifesto, which referred to the declaration of Gruppo 7 (1926) and proclaimed their support for the Modern Movement. They maintained: ‘The individual personality does not concern us so much.’ Shortly afterwards they formed BBPR Architectural Studio (BBPR), keeping the name even after Banfi’s death in the concentration camp at Mauthausen....

Article

Juliana Nedeva-Wegener

(Iliev)

(b Sofia, Aug 11, 1891; d Poland, Oct 10, 1962).

Bulgarian architect, theorist and teacher. He graduated in architecture from the Technische Hochschule, Berlin, in 1920. On returning to Bulgaria he formed a practice with Ivan Danchov (1898–1972). Belkovski espoused the revival of Neo-classicism that was prevalent in much of Europe in the 1930s and actively resisted the modernist trends of Functionalism and Constructivism. Notable examples of his collaboration with Danchov in Sofia are the Bulgaria Hotel and Concert Hall (1934–7), originally with frescoes (destr. 1944), the Balkan Cinema and Hotel (1935–7; from 1944 Youth Theatre) and the Telephone Exchange (1942–7), with sculptures by Lyouben Dimitrov (b 1904). Belkovski and Danchov also designed Kuyumdzhiiski House (1931; now the French Embassy), Oborishte Street, Sofia. From 1943 Belkovski was a professor at the Higher Institute for Architecture and Building, Sofia, and Director of the Institute of Town Planning and Architecture of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, where he published papers in the field of standardized designs and the industrialization of construction....

Article

Adriano Ghisetti Giavarina

(b San Marino, Sept 27, 1506; d Pieve S Paolo, nr Pisa, March 25, 1554).

Italian architect. He was the son of Bartolo di Simone Belluzzi, an important political figure in the Republic of San Marino. He spent his youth in commerce and at the age of 18 was sent by his father to Bologna, where he remained for two years. In 1535 he settled in Rome, entering the service of Ascanio Colonna, whom he followed to Naples to meet Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. At the end of that year he returned to San Marino to marry a daughter of Girolamo Genga. From that time, without abandoning his business interests, he worked with his father-in-law, who was then employed by Francesco Maria I della Rovere, 4th Duke of Urbino, to enlarge the Villa Imperiale at San Bartolo, near Pesaro (for illustration see Genga family, §1), and on other architectural projects for the state. In September 1538 Belluzzi worked with his father-in-law on the fortifications of Pesaro and at the same time began to study Vitruvius. In ...

Article

Jack Quinan

(b Hartland, CT, June 15, 1773; d Springfield, MA, July 26, 1845).

American architect and writer. Benjamin was one of the most influential architect–writers of the first half of the 19th century in the USA and was trained as a housewright in rural Connecticut between 1787 and 1794. Two of his earliest commissions, the carving of Ionic capitals (1794) for the Oliver Phelps House in Suffield, CT, and the construction of an elliptical staircase (1795) in Charles Bulfinch’s Connecticut State Capitol at Hartford, reveal an exceptional ability with architectural geometry that was to help to determine the direction of his career. Benjamin worked as a housewright in a succession of towns along the Connecticut River during the 1790s. In 1797, dissatisfied with the publications of William Pain, an English popularizer of the Neo-classical style of Robert Adam, Benjamin wrote The Country Builder’s Assistant, a modest handbook for carpenters that was the first such work by an American writer. In ...

Article

Sjettie Bruins

(b Aalsmeer, Feb 14, 1903; d March 9, 1994).

Dutch architect, theorist and teacher. He studied at the Technische Hogeschool, Delft, but began practising in Aalsmeer before completing his studies. His Muzenhof housing block (1938), Stadionweg, Amsterdam (for illustration see Delft school), which represents the traditional architecture of Holland, demonstrates his stylistic affinity with members of the Delft school. An article written in 1934 testified to his preference for regional architecture. The rebuilding (1930) of the flower auction house at Aalsmeer is among his best-known projects for its innovative wood construction. His prize-winning competition design (1937–42, unexecuted; with J. J. M. Vegter, 1906–82) for the Stadhuis, Amsterdam, sparked off the debate between supporters of the Delft school and the Functionalists. He also did many typological studies for ground-plans of houses. After World War II he worked on both traditional projects, such as the rebuilding of Middelburg, and Modernist ones, such as the introduction of the prefabricated Airey system. He and ...

Article

Pieter Singelenberg

(b Amsterdam, Feb 21, 1856; d The Hague, Aug 12, 1934).

Dutch architect, urban planner, designer and writer. He abandoned early his intention to become a painter and instead trained in architecture at the Bauschule of the Eidgenössiche Polytechnikum (now Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule) in Zurich under Gottfried Semper’s followers. Semper was a major influence on Berlage, especially for Berlage’s emphatic use of a variety of materials and an acute attention to construction. The other major influence was the work of Viollet-le-Duc. After his training Berlage visited Germany and Italy from 1878 to 1881, returning to Amsterdam to become an associate of the classicist architect and businessman Theodorus Sanders, who very soon handed over to him the task of designing. The shop and office-block for Focke & Meltzer (1884–5), Kalverstraat, Amsterdam, was critically acclaimed for its correct application of the Venetian Renaissance style favoured by Semper and for the grandeur of its shopping area, with its unusually large windows. Berlage voiced doubts in ...

Article

(b Basle, Feb 17, 1876; d Basle, Sept 12, 1959).

Swiss architect, urban planner and theorist. He came from a celebrated family of mathematicians. After failing to complete his secondary schooling and breaking off a business training, he served an apprenticeship as an architectural draughtsman. From 1897 he studied architecture at the Technische Hochschule, Munich, where Friedrich von Thiersch was one of his teachers, and then in Karlsruhe and Darmstadt. In 1902 Bernoulli settled in Berlin, where he went into partnership with Louis Rinkel, designing elegantly functional domestic and commercial buildings, including the Fischbein & Mendel Building (1911–12), Lindenstrasse 44–7, Berlin. Around this time he became increasingly interested in the just-evolving field of city planning, particularly in the ideas of the garden city promoted by Ebenezer Howard and Raymond Unwin, and in 1911 he visited England. In Berlin he worked on schemes for Frankfurt-an-der-Oder and on the Falkenberg development near Berlin, which was later revised and implemented by ...

Article

(b Vicenza, April 5, 1719; d Vicenza, Oct 25, 1790).

Italian architect and theorist. He was the son of Antonio Bertotti, a local barber, and Vittoria Scabora; through the patronage of Marchese Mario Capra, an amateur poet and architect, he was able to study architecture in the private school opened in Vicenza in 1748 by Domenico Cerato, and he became curator of the Accademia Olimpica in 1753. This gave him a small annual income and the use of the house attached to the Teatro Olimpico, Vicenza, for which he was responsible for the maintenance. For the rest of his life Bertotti Scamozzi superintended the restoration works on the theatre, to which he published an excellent guide in 1790.

In his will the architect Vincenzo Scamozzi had left a legacy for the support of a promising young student of architecture in Vicenza. As executor the Marchese Capra awarded this to Bertotti, who added Scamozzi to his name in accord with the provisions of the will. In ...

Article

Mariana Katzarova

(b Dolni Dŭbnik, nr Pleven, July 24, 1901; d Sofia, Jan 23, 1958).

Bulgarian cartoonist, illustrator, draughtsman, painter, teacher, editor and critic. In 1926 he studied painting at the Academy of Art, Sofia, and although he was later known for his paintings, he achieved greater fame as a political and social cartoonist and newspaper and magazine illustrator. His early cartoons are courageous commentaries on political events in Bulgaria from 1925 to 1934, wittily satirizing the monarchy and dictatorships. He also mocked the machinations of the various bourgeois political parties as they fought for power. Among his most celebrated cartoons are the Kidnapping of the Constitution and the Tsar’s Family, published in the Sofia newspapers Zemedelsko Zname and Sturetz, as well as Suvremennik and other left-wing publications. He also illustrated the series Spanish Chronicle (1936). In 1940 he began freelancing for the anti-Fascist satirical newspaper Sturshel (Sofia) and in 1941 became its editor. During World War II he executed many political cartoons opposing Fascism and Nazism (e.g. ...

Article

Hans Frei

(b Winterthur, Dec 22, 1908; d Zurich, Dec 9, 1994).

Swiss architect, sculptor, painter, industrial designer, graphic designer and writer. He attended silversmithing classes at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Zurich from 1924 to 1927. Then, inspired by the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes (1925), Paris, by the works of Le Corbusier and by a competition entry (1927) for the Palace of the League of Nations, Geneva, by Hannes Meyer and Hans Wittwer (1894–1952), he decided to become an architect and enrolled in the Bauhaus, Dessau, in 1927. He studied there for two years as a pupil of Josef Albers, László Moholy-Nagy, Paul Klee and Vasily Kandinsky, mainly in the field of ‘free art’. In 1929 he returned to Zurich. After working on graphic designs for the few modern buildings being constructed, he built his first work, his own house and studio (1932–3) in Zurich-Höngg; although this adheres to the principles of the new architecture, it retains echoes of the traditional, for example in the gently sloping saddle roof....

Article

Richard A. Fellows

(Theodore)

(b Bow, Devon, Dec 20, 1856; d Hampstead, London, Dec 27, 1942).

English architect and writer. He was educated at Haileybury College, Herts, and then read Classics at Oxford University. In 1881 he entered into articled pupillage with his uncle, Arthur W. Blomfield (1829–99), a Gothic Revival architect, and attended classes at the Royal Academy schools under R. Phené Spiers (1838–1916).

Blomfield set up his own practice in 1884, with early commissions coming from church, school and family connections. This work is mainly in the Old English style. Through E. S. Prior he met the circle of R. Norman Shaw’s young pupils and assistants, who were the main instigators of the Art Workers’ Guild and the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society. Blomfield became a leading member of both organizations and in 1890 was a founder of Kenton & Co., a furniture manufacturing company established in London and based on Arts and Crafts principles. Although he eventually became unsympathetic to some of the more simplistic dogmas of the ...

Article

Christopher Tadgell

(b Ribemont, Somme, 1628; d Paris, Jan 21, 1686).

French engineer, architect, teacher and writer. He was born to a newly ennobled member of the household of the queen-mother, Marie de’ Medici. He joined the army and became a military engineer, attaining the rank of Maréchal de Camp by 1652. In that year he was seconded by one of the secretaries of state for foreign affairs, the Comte de Brienne, to accompany his son on a comprehensive Grand Tour of Europe. On his return in 1655 Blondel was equipped with an unrivalled range of first-hand experience that recommended him for a diplomatic career, although the following year he was appointed Professor of Mathematics at the Collège de France. Diplomatic missions took him to Prussia, Sweden and Turkey and, while waiting on the Sultan, he visited Greece and Egypt. He was ambassador to Denmark in 1659–63. Thereafter he rejoined the armed services and was assigned to the navy as an engineer responsible for port and coastal defences in Normandy and Brittany, most notably transforming Saintes and constructing the new port and arsenal of Rochefort....

Article

Lisa B. Reitzes

(b Passy, Oct 6, 1795; d Paris, May 17, 1853).

French architect and theorist. He began studying architecture in 1817 under Pierre-Jules-Nicolas Delespine (1756–1825) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, and in 1821 he won the Prix de Rome. While in Rome, Blouet became the protégé of Antoine Quatremère de Quincy and executed restoration drawings for a series of ancient monuments. With Quatremère’s support, the Académie Royale d’Architecture published his Restauration des thermes d’Antonin Caracalla à Rome. The support given to Blouet is said to have encouraged Henri Labrouste to proceed with his own controversial study of the temples at Paestum. Blouet’s interest in archaeology and building construction continued after his return to France. He became associated with the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres in Paris and in 1828 joined its expedition to the Peloponnese, which was to excavate at Olympia and Aegina. His subsequent publication L’Expédition scientifique de Morée included polychromatic reconstructions of major Greek monuments but also featured comparative examples from the Byzantine era in this region....

Article

M. J. T. M. Stompé

(b Lohr, c. 1525).

German architect, engraver and writer. After training as an architect in his native town, Hans Blum left Lohr because two architects were already working there: Peter Volckner (fl 1539–48) and Jost Wenzel (fl 1548–70). He then moved to Zurich, where he married Ragali Kuchymeister in 1550. Their eldest son Christoffel Blum (bapt 21 Jan 1552) was named after the publisher Christoffel Froschauer (?1490–1564), who later published Hans Blum’s treatises on architecture.

Hans Blum is primarily known as the author of Quinque columnarum exacta descriptio atque delinaeatio cum symmetrica (1550), a book on the five orders of architecture. He based his work on the fourth volume of Serlio’s Regole generali di architettura (Venice, 1537), a German edition of which was published in 1542. The second source for Blum’s book was Gualtherus Rivius’s edition of Vitruvius, published in 1548 and illustrated by Peter Flettner (...

Article

Andreas Kreul

(b Cronheim, c. 1617; d Ansbach, Feb 22, 1687).

German architect and writer. He was recorded in Strasbourg, as a student in 1641 and as teaching in 1654, and was active there and in Nuremberg and Frankfurt am Main between 1644 and 1687. In 1679 he entered the service of Johann Friedrich, Markgraf von Ansbach (reg 1672–86), for whom he designed several buildings. Details of his work as architect and fortifications engineer are unknown: the only recorded work was the gate-tower at Herried (1684–5; destr. 1750–51), a sketch of which was published in Neue Auslag in Ansbach (1686). He probably built a theatre at Ansbach in 1679, which has been identified with a summer-house that was pulled down in 1726 to be replaced by an Orangerie. However, Böckler published numerous books on architectural theory and mechanical arts, especially hydraulics, as well as handbooks on military building techniques and economics. An Ars heraldica (Nuremberg, 1687...