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Article

Noémie Goldman and Kim Oosterlinck

Term for the return of lost or looted cultural objects to their country of origin, former owners, or their heirs. The loss of the object may happen in a variety of contexts (armed conflicts, war, colonialism, imperialism, or genocide), and the nature of the looted cultural objects may also vary, ranging from artworks, such as paintings and sculptures, to human remains, books, manuscripts, and religious artefacts. An essential part of the process of restitution is the seemingly unavoidable conflict around the transfer of the objects in question from the current to the former owners. Ownership disputes of this nature raise legal, ethical, and diplomatic issues. The heightened tensions in the process arise because the looting of cultural objects challenges, if not breaks down, relationships between peoples, territories, cultures, and heritages.

The history of plundering and art imperialism may be traced back to ancient times. Looting has been documented in many instances from the sack by the Romans of the Etruscan city of Veii in ...

Article

Sara Stevens

A category of buildings designed to house retail and shopping. It includes arcades, department stores, shopping malls, strip centres, and big-box stores. Retail architecture exists in small towns, big cities, and suburbs: anywhere people congregate. It is as ubiquitous in time and space as the organized exchange of goods for money. It is distinguished from commercial architecture, which, in real estate and architectural practice, can refer more generally to any property that produces income for its investors or owners but does not refer to a building’s architectural function (i.e. retail).

Buildings housing commercial activity have existed since antiquity. Anthropologists have described exchange halls and commercial structures in many cultures, including Roman, Aztec, Tang dynasty China, and Mesopotamian. During the medieval and Renaissance periods, market halls and exchanges were built in cities such as Antwerp, Bruges, London, and Venice, sheltering trading activities at ground level and municipal government functions above (...

Article

Michael Turner

(b Rio de Janeiro, Aug 5, 1923).

Israeli architect of Brazilian birth. Both his South American background and his student apprenticeship with Oscar Niemeyer (1944–8) influenced his approach to design. Emigrating to Israel in 1949, he worked in the office of Ze’ev Rechter and then as a partner of Heinz Rau until 1958. With Rau he designed two buildings at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem for which he was awarded the Israeli Rechter Prize for Architecture in 1964. In 1958 he opened his own practice in Jerusalem, designing many public buildings including the Engineers’ Institute and Journalists’ Association (both 1966). These buildings, executed in cut stone, represent simple block forms with horizontal openings and show modern influences. The Kennedy Memorial (1966), Soldier’s House (1970) and Jerusalem Centre for Near Eastern Studies (1988–9) are all inspired by local motifs of form and space, using load-bearing stone walls and arched openings....

Article

W. Iain Mackay and Pauline Antrobus

(b Cajabamba, Cajamarca, March 19, 1888; d Lima, Dec 15, 1956).

Peruvian painter, printmaker and teacher. From 1908 he visited Europe (Italy in particular) and North Africa before studying at the Academia Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires, from 1910. From 1913 to 1918 he taught art in Jujuy. He returned briefly to Buenos Aires before spending six months in Cuzco, where he became committed to portraying scenes of Cuzco and her inhabitants and thus pioneered Indigenism. The works from this period were exhibited in 1919 at the Casa Brandes, Lima, where they caused a considerable stir. In 1920 he began teaching at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes, Lima, becoming Director in 1932; his ‘resignation’ in 1943 was the result of the government’s gratuitous appointments of staff without consultation.

A short visit to Mexico in 1922 and contacts with Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco and David Alfaro Siqueiros engendered in Sabogal that determination to promote Peruvian art internationally. He was involved with José Carlos Meriátequi’s review, ...

Article

Uriel M. Adiv

(b Haifa, Palestine [now Israel], July 14, 1938).

Canadian–Israeli architect. When he was 15 his family moved to Canada where he later studied at McGill University school of architecture (1955–61), Montreal, under the guidance of H. P. D. Van Ginkel. In his thesis, Three Dimensional Modular Building System of 1960 (recalling Le Corbusier’s ‘plug-in concept’), he clearly drew on his early childhood experience combined with the ideas of modern architecture. During his apprenticeship with Louis Kahn in Philadelphia (1962–3), Safdie was impressed by Kahn’s integral use of composition, building materials, space and daylight to create structures that monumentalized the characteristics of regional forms. Also in Philadelphia he had his first introduction to the work of D’Arcy Thompson and his morphological theories of vernacular architecture. Both of these philosophies profoundly influenced Safdie’s future works.

Safdie saw the design of living spaces as a problem of fusing the spontaneous, unconscious yet individual and environmentally integrated architecture of traditional cultures with the modern need for the industrialization of buildings for dense population centres. He wanted to provide a way of mass-producing living spaces that could grow and change with the needs of the people while retaining the individual nature of a small community. He found his solution in nature, which builds with individual units (molecules) to create individual living spaces (habitats) on a mass-production scale (environment) that can expand and change to the individual’s needs (evolution). Safdie’s first architectural success, ...

Article

Joseph R. Givens

(b Abadan, May 15, 1943).

Iranian photographer, curator, and art dealer, active in the USA. Shafrazi introduced graffiti to the mainstream art market and contributed to the contemporary art boom of the 1980s. Raised in Abadan, a small port town that experienced an oil boom in the post-war years, Shafrazi was fascinated by Western popular culture and art. He moved to England in 1956 and three years later began formal art study at Hammersmith College of Art and Building, before continuing at the Royal College of Art, where he graduated in 1967. Following college, Shafrazi pursued a career as an artist while also teaching, first at the Manchester College of Art then at the School of Visual Arts in New York in 1969.

A newfound interest in political activism shifted his creative focus from art objects to art actions. His involvement with the latter culminated in an infamous incident that took place on 28 February 1974...

Article

Catherine M. Grant

(b Rehovot, Palestine, Feb 25, 1944).

American sculptor and installation artist of Israeli birth. He studied for his BFA at the Pratt Institute, Brooklyn between 1962 and 1968 after gaining US citizenship in 1962. Between 1971 and 1973 he studied for his MFA at Yale University, New Haven, CT. In the early 1970s he subverted the language of Minimalism in paintings, such as Brown Painting with Bars #3 (1973; see 1999 exh. cat., p. 66) by using linoleum strips instead of paint. This led to one of his first installations, Display #7 (1979; see 1999 exh. cat., pp. 74–5), for which he covered the walls of the reception room at the Artists Space, New York, with strips of wallpaper, and displayed various knick-knacks on shelves. Such presentations of everyday objects, which reference the ready-mades of Marcel Duchamp, continued to be a vital part of Steinbach’s practice. In 1985 the triangular shelves (hand-made and Minimalist in appearance) became a dominant motif, used to support a variety of mass-produced objects including boxes of cornflakes and other such prosaic items, often repeated (as in the Pop paintings of Andy Warhol) to emphasize the link between factory production and the commodification of art. His use of digital clocks, lava lamps and stacked saucepans in a work such as ...

Article

Daniel E. Mader

(b Cairo, Egypt, Feb 28, 1935).

American sculptor of English origin. He returned with his family to England in 1937 and studied history at Oxford University from 1955 to 1958 and sculpture in London, at the Central School of Art and Design and at St Martin’s School of Art, from 1959 to 1960. Like Phillip King and other British sculptors who took part in the influential exhibition The New Generation: 1965, in his early work he favoured simple geometric shapes and industrial materials such as fibreglass and sheet metal painted in bright colours. The works that he showed in this exhibition, such as Meru II (fabricated steel, 962×2324×410 mm, 1964; London, Tate), which consists of a series of stepped units rounded on the outside and rectilinear on the inside, bear a superficial resemblance to Minimalist work of the same period. In distinction to the work of Americans such as Donald Judd, however, Tucker suggested an organic development of form and even hinted at narrative, rather than proposing basic geometric forms that could be perceived in their entirety almost at a glance. In the 1970s, with works such as ...

Article

Carlos Lastarria Hermosilla

(b Santiago, Sept 9, 1931; d Santiago, May 18, 1993).

Chilean sculptor. He studied at the Escuela de Bellas Artes in Santiago under the Chilean sculptors Julio Antonio Vásquez (b 1900), Lily Garáfulic (1914–2012), and Marta Colvin. He left Chile in 1958 for Spain, France, and Morocco, settling in Spain in 1961 but returning to Chile in 1974 to produce a number of works, including an important commission for the Parque de las Esculturas in Santiago (Bandaged Torso; stone, h. 1.62 m, installed 1989), before leaving again for Spain.

Valdivieso worked in bronze and in stone (granite, limestone, diorite, and basalt). Much of his work was concerned with natural forms, conveyed with a directness of feeling. Approaching mass through a process of gradual abstraction, Valdivieso sought a balance between the visual and tactile qualities of his materials and the meanings implicit to their forms. He often formulated his sculptures first in easily molded, ductile materials, which he then translated into the final work. He particularly favored chrome-plated bronze for its accentuation of the surface with its brilliant finish....

Article

Sheila R. Canby

( Kyrle )

(b London, Oct 13, 1897; d Sharon, CT, April 18, 1986).

American archaeologist, curator and collector . Trained as an artist at the Slade School, University College, London, in 1920 he joined the graphic section of the Egyptian Expedition to Thebes, organized by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. During the 1920s and 1930s Wilkinson painted facsimiles of Egyptian tomb paintings in the museum collection, and he joined museum excavations in the Kharga Oasis (Egypt) and Qasr-i Abu Nasr and Nishapur (Iran). Transferred to the curatorial staff of the museum in 1947, he became curator in 1956 of the new Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art, which merged with the Department of Islamic Art in 1957. Through his energetic collaboration on major excavations at Hasanlu, Nimrud and Nippur, Wilkinson greatly expanded the Ancient Near Eastern collections at the Metropolitan Museum. After his retirement from the museum in 1963, he taught Islamic art at Columbia University and was Hagop Kevorkian Curator of Middle Eastern Art and Archaeology at the Brooklyn Museum, New York (...