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Robert G. Calkins

[Luchino di Giovanni Belbello]

(fl c. 1430; d after 1473).

Italian illuminator. He was one of the principal and most distinctive manuscript illuminators active in Lombardy in the mid-15th century. Filippo Maria Visconti, 3rd Duke of Milan, commissioned him to complete a Book of Hours (Florence, Bib. N. Cent., MS. Landau Finaly 22) left unfinished by Giovannino de Grassi and Salomone de Grassi. Three miniatures in an Acta sanctorum (Milan, Bib. N. Braidense, MSS AE. XIV. 19–20), the first volume of which is dated 1431, are close in style, and probably in date, to Belbello’s work in the Visconti Hours. He also contributed to the illumination of the Breviary of Marie of Savoy (Chambéry, Bib. Mun., MS. 4). This is likely to have been painted after Marie’s marriage to Filippo Maria in 1428, but before 1434, the year Belbello completed a Bible (Rome, Vatican, Bib. Apostolica, MS. Barb. lat. 613) for Niccolò III d’Este, Marchese of Ferrara.

In 1449 Belbello went to Mantua to work on a Missal, begun in ...


E. S. Welch

(fl Milan, 1430–6).

Italian painter and illuminator. He was one of a large family of painters and illuminators working in Milan in the 15th century. He appears frequently in the registers of the building works of the city’s cathedral and as a creditor of the influential Borromeo family. First recorded in 1430 as the painter of two altarpieces for the cathedral, he is mentioned again in 1433 and 1444 for the gilding of sculpture and in 1442, 1446 and 1448 for further paintings. None of these works survives.

In 1445 and 1446 Giovanni was paid by Vitaliano Borromeo for the illumination of family imprese. However, Cipriani has suggested that these payments were for a group of decorated diplomas (Milan, Trivulziana) granted to the Borromeo family in 1445, and on this basis says that the designs may be by the much better-known Master of the Vitae Imperatorum. A miniature of Filippo Maria Visconti in Galessio da Correggio’s ...


Hans-Joachim Eberhardt

[Liberale di Jacopo dalla Biava]

(b Verona, c. 1445; d Verona, 1527–9).

Italian illuminator, painter and woodcut designer. His father, the baker Jacopo, came from Monza; his mother, Jacoba, was the daughter of the Veronese painter Zeno Solimani (fl c. 1438) and sister of the painter Nicolò Solimani (fl c. 1462–1493). The latter, according to Vasari, was Liberale’s teacher (but mistakenly called Vincenzo di Stefano in the Vite). Liberale is documented in Verona in 1455 and 1465, but works from this period are not known. His career thereafter may be divided into two periods: as a young artist he was based in Siena, where his work on a group of choir-books for the cathedral demonstrates his originality as an illuminator; in or soon after 1476 he returned to Verona, where he established himself as one of the city’s major painters. During both periods he travelled and worked in other centres.

Called to Siena before 1467 by the Olivetans, Liberale illuminated four choir-books (Chiusi, Mus. Cattedrale, Cods A, Q, R and Y) for the abbey of Monte Oliveto Maggiore. The miniatures show a mixture of styles: Sienese influences, especially the Late Gothic ornament of Sano di Pietro, are combined with such stylistic components from the Veneto and Emilia as sculpturally modelled, animated draperies, expressive physiognomies and tense, nervous gestures. Liberale worked as an illuminator for Siena Cathedral from ...


Milvia Bollati

(fl Padua, 1469; d Padua, 1511).

Italian illuminator. His place of origin is cited as ‘Villa Fuora Territorii Policinis’; the surname Sforza, sometimes attributed to him, belonged only to his adopted son Bartolomeo. Antonio Maria is mentioned in a document of 1482 among the illuminators of the law faculty at Padua University, and numerous payments were made to him there during the years 1481–1511 for the decoration of philosophical and legal texts, mostly commissioned by Pietro Barozzi, Bishop of Padua (1487–1507). Although they were produced in the Veneto, these manuscripts have strong Ferrarese characteristics, which have convinced some scholars that the artist was of Emilian origin, but there is no evidence for his identification with the Antonio Maria Casanova documented in Ferrara in 1470 and 1475, nor for the inclusion of three Olivetan graduals (Modena, Bib. Estense, MSS lat. 1013, 1014, 1022) among his early works (Mariani Canova, 1987). There is no doubt, however, about the Ferrarese background to his work, which shows the influence of Guglielmo Giraldi and especially ...


Robert G. Calkins

(fl 1380–1416).

Franco-Flemish draughtsman. He signed a sketchbook (Berlin, Staatsbib., lib. pict. A 74) consisting of studies of a variety of physiognomic types, occasional drawings of animals and a few more developed scenes of a pilgrimage, an innovative Man of Sorrows, an Annunciation and a Coronation of the Virgin. The stylistic, thematic and compositional similarities of some of these drawings, executed in grisaille on boxwood leaves, with manuscript illumination produced for Jean, Duc de Berry, especially those for the Hours of the Holy Ghost in the Très Belles Heures de Notre Dame (Paris, Bib. N., MS. nouv. acq. lat. 3093), suggest that Daliwe was employed at the Duc de Berry’s court c. 1380–1416. The drawings are thought to be trial sketches. They fall into four stylistic groups: one showing affinities with the style of Jacquemart de Hesdin and André Beauneveu; naturalistic studies related to the miniatures of the Livre de chasse (...


Mark Jones

French family of medallists. Philippe Danfrie the elder (b 1531–5; d Paris, 1606) went to Paris in the 1550s and set up as an engraver of letter punches. He produced a number of books in partnership with Richard Breton in 1558–60 and later with Pierre Haman and Jean Le Royer. He also made mathematical instruments, globes and astrolabes and dies for marking bookbindings. In 1571 he cut his first dies for jettons. As Engraver-General of the French coinage from 1582, he provided the puncheons from which the dies used in every mint in France were taken. He also produced a number of medals (e.g. London, BM) commemorating the events of the first 15 years of Henry IV’s reign. His son Philippe Danfrie the younger (b ?Paris, c. 1572; d Paris, 1604) was appointed Controller-General of effigies in 1591. On his appointment it was claimed that he had demonstrated great skill in modelling portraits in wax and engraving puncheons. His most famous and only signed medal (e.g. London, BM) is cast rather than struck and celebrates the victory of Henry IV over the Duke of Savoy in ...


M. Smeyers

[Esdin; Esdun; Hodin; Odin; Oudain]

(b ?Hesdin, Artois; fl 1384; d after 1413).

South Netherlandish illuminator, active in France. He was one of the Netherlandish artists who moved to France to work for the French royal family from the middle of the 14th century. By studying the work of Jean Pucelle and Italian painters he not only evolved his techniques of modelling and rendering of space but also modified the realism characteristic of Netherlandish painting to develop his own more refined style. On 28 November 1384 Jacquemart was paid for the first time by the administration of Jean, Duc de Berry (see Valois, House of family, §3). The payment concerned expenses that he and his wife had incurred in Bourges; he was also reimbursed for his clothing for the following winter months. Thereafter he was paid a regular salary by the Duc. In 1398, while he was working in the castle of Poitiers, he, his assistant Godefroy and his brother-in-law Jean Petit were accused of having stolen colours and patterns from Jean de Hollande, another painter in the service of the Duc de Berry. Jacquemart stayed temporarily in Bourges the following year....


(fl 1463–8).

French illuminator and painter. He is documented in the service of Charles, Duc de Berry, and, on one occasion, working for his older brother, King Louis XI. In all probability Jean de Laval is the true identity of the artist referred to as the Master of Charles of France (see Masters, anonymous, and monogrammists family, §I). Three painters have been connected with Charles of France: Jean de Laval, Henri de Vulcop and Jean Guillemer. Of these, Jean de Laval is the only one mentioned in ducal accounts as ‘peintre de mondit seigneur’. He was paid in 1463–4 the substantial sum of 66 livres tournois, 100 sous in 1467 and, in 1468, 8 livres, 8 sous and 12 livres for unspecified works. In May and September 1464 Laval is also mentioned in a royal account as ‘peintre de Mgr le duc de Berry’ when he painted a scarlet war pennant for the captain of Louis XI’s guard. ...


Bodo Brinkmann

(b c. 1420; d Bruges, 1479).

South Netherlandish illuminator. He was court illuminator to Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, who appointed him valet de chambre in 1467. From 1469 he was a member of the Bruges illuminators’ guild.

In 1467 Philippe de Mazerolles was commissioned by the municipal authorities of Bruges to decorate a Book of Hours with miniatures (‘diverse figuren ende historien’). The municipal accounts for 1465–6 record the purchase of this manuscript, which contained the Office of the Virgin and other prayers, for 200 Parisian livres. It was said to have been written and illuminated in gold and silver on black parchment. In February 1466 it was offered by the citizens of the free town of Bruges as a gift to the Comte de Charolais, later Duke Charles the Bold. At this time, the gatherings of the manuscript were still unbound, as the municipal authorities also purchased an ell of white silk to cover the work before its presentation, and the illumination was also incomplete. Philippe de Mazerolles was paid 420 Parisian livres for his work, more than twice the price of the original purchase; his contribution to the decoration of the manuscript must have been correspondingly large....


E. S. Welch


(b Piacenza; fl Milan, 1454–85).

Italian painter. He is first documented in 1454 as a native of Piacenza. Between 1456 and 1470 he appears frequently in the account-books of Milan Cathedral working on commissions from various members of the Sforza court. He is also recorded working for the Borromeo family during the same period. His work seems to have consisted of minor tasks, such as the gilding of statues and the design of processional banners and embroidered altarcloths.

In 1472 Gottardo and the painter Giacomo Vismara (fl 1470s) estimated Zanetto Bugatto’s frescoes in S Maria delle Grazie outside Vigevano. He may have been at work on Duke Galeazzo Maria Sforza’s chapel in the Castello Sforzesco, Milan, in 1473 and was part of the team that painted the ducal chapel in Pavia in 1474. In 1475 he was commissioned to paint a Maestà (untraced) for the high altar in Milan Cathedral and was listed as a member of the Milanese painters’ guild in ...


[Gioacchino d’Alemagna; Giacchino miniatore]

(fl 1453–85).

German illuminator, active in Italy. He may originally have come from Rothenburg ob der Tauber. He went to Rome via Florence in 1453 and illuminated books for Pope Pius II. Between 1460 and 1469 he stayed at Siena several times in the papal retinue and was occasionally employed by the cathedral chapter. On 1 April 1471 he was appointed as scribe and illuminator in the library of King Ferdinand I of Naples, and payments to ‘Gioacchino di Gigantibus’ are recorded on both 23 March and 1 April 1471. He copied a volume of Plutarch in 1473 and works by Pliny and Ovid in 1474. Two further manuscripts, also produced for the King of Naples, are dated 1476: Super libros sententiarum quaestiones (London, BL, Add. MSS 15270–73) by the 9th-century scholar John Scotus Erigena and Cardinal Bessarion’s Adversus calumniatorem Platonis (Paris, Bib. N., MS. lat. 12946). He received a payment for the latter book as early as ...


Francesco Paolo Fiore and Pietro C. Marani

(Pollaiolo) [Francesco di Giorgio]

(b Siena, bapt Sept 23, 1439; d Siena, bur Nov 29, 1501).

Italian architect, engineer, painter, illuminator, sculptor, medallist, theorist and writer. He was the most outstanding artistic personality from Siena in the second half of the 15th century. His activities as a diplomat led to his employment at the courts of Naples, Milan and Urbino, as well as in Siena, and while most of his paintings and miniatures date from before 1475, by the 1480s and 1490s he was among the leading architects in Italy. He was particularly renowned for his work as a military architect, notably for his involvement in the development of the Bastion, which formed the basis of post-medieval fortifications (see Military architecture & fortification, §III, 2(ii) and 4(ii)). His subsequent palace and church architecture was influential in spreading the Urbino style, which he renewed with reference to the architecture of Leon Battista Alberti but giving emphasis to the purism of smooth surfaces. His theoretical works, which include the first important Western writings on military engineering, were not published until modern times but were keenly studied in manuscript, by Leonardo da Vinci among others; they foreshadowed a number of developments that came to fruition in the 16th century (...


Ellen Callmann

(di Tomaso) [Dido Master; Master of the Jarves Cassoni; Virgil Master; Compagno di Pesellino]

(b Florence, c. 1416; d Florence, 1465).

Italian painter and illuminator. He was trained by illuminators in the circle of Bartolomeo di Fruosino and Battista di Biagio Sanguini (1393–1451) and became a member of the Arte dei Medici e degli Speziali in 1442 and of the Compania di S Luca in 1443. Apollonio was influenced by Filippo Lippi, Lorenzo Ghiberti and Paolo Uccello. For much of his working life, from c. 1446 to 1458 and perhaps later, he was in partnership with Marco del Buono di Marco (?1403–after 1480). Apollonio specialized in work for the secular sphere, painting cassoni (chests; see Cassone), deschi da parto (birth trays), spalliere (panels attached to furniture or set into wall panelling; see Spalliera), images for private devotion and other furnishings, as well as illuminating manuscripts. His clients were Florentine merchants, bankers, notaries and others.

In 1902 Heinrich Brockhaus found a 17th-century copy of Apollonio di Giovanni’s and Marco del Buono’s workshop book, a fragmentary record of commissions, which Schubring published in ...


Cynthia Coté

(di Meo del Guasta)

(b Siena, Sept 13, 1436; d Siena, after 1518).

Italian painter. He was the son of a bricklayer and lived and worked in or near Siena all his life. He is first recorded working as an artist in 1453 when he was painting in the Siena Baptistery, probably with il Vecchietta. In a tax return of 1465, Benvenuto declared himself to be without property or relations and to be living near the baptistery. The following year he married Jacopa di Tommaso da Cetona with whom he had seven children. They owned a vineyard, and Benvenuto served at least two terms in public office. Among his extant works, nine are signed and dated altarpieces, four are identifiable through documents and many others can be attributed to him on stylistic grounds. Their dates span 43 years, and they include panel paintings, frescoes, manuscripts and designs for the decorative pavement of Siena Cathedral.

Benvenuto was probably trained in Vecchietta’s workshop, although stylistic affinities with ...


Patrizia Ferretti

(di Domenico)

(b Florence, 1445; d Florence, March 28, 1527).

Italian illuminator and stationer. He was trained in the climate created by such painters and illuminators as Zanobi Strozzi and Apollonio di Giovanni, who were important during the 1450s. Their influence accounts for the dynamism and the sculptural treatment of his figures, which gives them a courtly flavour reminiscent of the work of Andrea del Verrocchio or Antonio del Pollaiuolo. Antonio di Niccolò di Lorenzo’s interest in larger-scale works—frescoes or panel paintings—is apparent from his repeated depiction, especially in border decoration, of metal objects, individually characterized interiors, portraits and contemporary fashions. He took his inspiration from scenes painted on cassoni, and from Apollonio’s late work. Stylistic affinities between Antonio and Francesco di Antonio del Chierico have sometimes led to confusion between their work; however, enough of Antonio’s works have been traced to distinguish him substantially from the del Foro bottega, Giovanni Boccardi and many other illuminators.

The discovery of a catalogue recording the sale in ...


Giovanna Damiani

(di Grazia)

(b Siena, c. 1399; d Siena, 1482).

Italian painter and illuminator. With Sassetta and Domenico di Bartolo, he was one of the greatest Sienese painters of the 15th century. He created a lyrical figural style capable of conveying both exaltation and pathos.

Giovanni was born probably towards the end of the 14th century, as he was given significant commissions as early as 1420. His training is not recorded, but certain influences can be inferred. An early contact with Lombard culture is suggested by a document showing that on 5 September 1417 he received a payment from Fra Niccolò Galgani (d 1424), librarian of S Domenico, Siena, for miniatures in a Book of Hours (untraced) for the wife of Cristoforo Castiglione (1345–1425). Castiglione, a Milanese professor of law at Pavia, was from 1400 to 1404 a member of the supervising board of works of Milan Cathedral. He and his wife lived in Siena c....


Cecilia Alessi

[Ansano di Pietro di Mencio]

(b Siena, bapt Dec 2, 1405; d Siena, 1481).

Italian painter and illuminator. In 1428 he was listed in the guild of painters in Siena just before Sassetta, with whom he probably trained. The same year he was paid for gilding and colouring a Baptism (untraced), possibly Sassetta’s design for the Siena Baptistery font made in 1427. In 1432 he assessed Sassetta’s Virgin and Child with Saints (the ‘Madonna of the Snow’; Florence, Pitti), and after Sassetta’s death in 1450, Sano completed works left unfinished by him, including the fresco of the Coronation of the Virgin over the Porta Romana (1458–66), Siena, and the St Francis (Siena, Pin. N., 240; see Pietrasanta, 1971).

From the 1440s Sano’s career is copiously documented, and many of his works are dated. In 1446, for example, he was paid to add a figure of the Emperor Barbarossa to Spinello Aretino’s fresco of the Pardon of Frederick Barbarossa of 1407–8 in the Sala di Balía, ...


(b Topeka, KS, April 27, 1899; d Nashville, TN, Feb 3, 1979).

American painter and illustrator. He was a leading artist of the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s and 1930s (see African American art §I 2.). He studied at the University of Nebraska and then in Paris with Charles Despiau and Othon Friesz (1925–31). Douglas was the earliest African American artist consciously to include African imagery in his work, which emphasized the creativity and continuity of African American culture, despite slavery and segregation. He was, however, criticized by his contemporaries for his idealism. In 1934, under the sponsorship of the Public Works of Art project (see United States of America, §XII), he designed a number of murals, including four panels depicting Aspects of Negro Life for the Schomburg Library in Harlem (New York, Pub. Lib.); this work and such others as Judgment Day (1939; USA, priv. col., see exh. cat., no. 99) and Building More Stately Mansions...


(b Warburg, 1553–4; d Warburg, 1603).

German goldsmith, engraver and draughtsman. Probably from a long-established Warburg family of freemen, he is first fully named in 1578, in an engraving that shows his connections with scholars as an illustrator of academic works. One of these was Michele Mercati, for whom Eisenhoit worked during a stay in Rome c. 1580 on the Metallotheca Vaticana, a work cataloguing the Vatican’s scientific collections. His style draws principally on the Roman Late Renaissance. Back in Germany by c. 1582–5, Eisenhoit began to work primarily for patrons residing near Warburg, where he had settled by 1587 at the latest. Commissions of these years show work for the Hessian courts in Kassel and Marburg and the beginning of his cooperation with Jost Bürgi, instrument-maker and mathematician to the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel. Between c. 1582 and 1594 Eisenhoit decorated Bürgi’s mechanical celestial globes with engravings and illustrated with etchings a treatise on engineering.

Eisenhoit’s first works in gold (...


Hans Georg Gmelin

( fl ?c. Konstanz, 1486; d Nuremberg, 1517).

German painter and illuminator . Although there is no documentary reference to him in Nuremberg, he may have been the son of the wealthy Sebald Elsner, who became a citizen there in 1456. Elsner had apparently established his reputation as a portrait painter by c. 1490, but there is no evidence of his activity as a miniaturist before 1500. His skill as a lutenist led to friendship with Sebastian Imhof, Wilhelm Haller, and Lorenz Staiber, whose patronage probably promoted his work. The earliest portraits attributed to him, of long-since-dead participants in the Council of Konstanz (1414–18), suggest that he began his journeyman years in the Upper Rhine area, in Konstanz. In the portrait of the councillor Heinrich Schilther (c. 1486; Vienna, Akad. Bild. Kst.) the head fills out the picture, with highly lifelike features; Thomas Reuss (c. 1486; Austrian priv. col.) presents the first front-view portrait in German painting, pre-dating Dürer’s ...