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Yvette Vanden Bemden

(b Leuven, c. 1450; d Brussels, 1531).

South Netherlandish painter. He was one of several glass painters known from the archives to have been working in Leuven at the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th. Their works were thought to have been lost until in the mid-20th century Helbig attributed to Rombouts a series of stained-glass windows in Belgium. Son of Gauthier Rombouts, Nicolaas learnt his trade from the glazier Nicolas van Goethem, called Yenen, and married the sister of another glazier, Hendrik van Diependaele (d 1509). Around 1485 Nicolaas settled in Brussels, where he became official glass painter to Philip the Fair, Margaret of Austria and Charles V.

Between 1481 and 1482 Rombouts executed, with his brother-in-law, a window in the chapel of Onze-Lieve-Vrouwe (dedicated to Spain) in Antwerp Cathedral; a little later he made a window for the chapel of the Blessed Sacrament in the same cathedral. Numerous commissions followed both from the royal family and from noble families such as the ...

Article

Louise S. Milne

[Jean de Bruxelles]

(fl 1498–1521).

South Netherlandish painter and designer of tapestry cartoons, stained-glass windows, and sculpture. He is first documented in 1498, as a Brother of Our Lady of the Seven Sorrows, and later became court painter at Mechelen and Brussels to Margaret of Austria, Regent of the Spanish Netherlands. Jan’s widely imitated tapestry designs, filled with graceful, melancholic figures set in a mixture of Late Gothic and Renaissance architecture, helped to create a uniform style in Brussels tapestries in the first quarter of the 16th century. The basis for attributing tapestries to Jan, or his workshop, is the documented series of the Story of Herkinbald (Brussels, Musées Royaux A. & Hist.), which was made for the Confraternity of the Holy Sacrament at Leuven and for the design for which Jan was paid 2.5 Rhenish guilders and some wine in 1513. His collaborators were the painter ‘Philips’ [Maître Phillipe] and the weaver ‘...

Article

Scot McKendrick

(fl 1470–78).

Burgundian painter. He was probably the son of Guillaume Spicre of Dijon, a stained-glass painter in the service of Philip the Good, 3rd Duke of Burgundy, from 1450 to 1468. He is first recorded in June 1470 as an expert called to judge the newly completed tomb of John the Fearless and Margaret of Bavaria, Duke and Duchess of Burgundy, carved by Juan de la Huerta and Antoine le Moiturier for the Charterhouse (Dijon, Mus. B.-A.). On 4 March 1473, with the aid of money bequeathed by Bishop Georges de Saluces (d 1461), he was engaged to paint a retable (untraced) for the high altar of Lausanne Cathedral. On 13 September 1474 he was employed to make for the choir of Notre-Dame, Beaune, certain ‘patrons’ on cloth depicting 21 scenes (untraced) from the Life of the Virgin to include the figures of Cardinal Jean II Rolin and his dog. On their completion early in ...

Article

Ellen Konowitz

(b Groningen, c. 1500; d ?Antwerp, c. 1560).

North Netherlandish printmaker, painter and designer of stained glass. Van Mander recorded that Swart spent several years in Gouda (probably c. 1522–3), where he was the teacher of Adriaen (Pietersz.) Crabeth (d 1553), brother of the famous stained-glass designers Dirk and Wouter Crabeth. It must have been about this time that Swart executed his signed woodcut of Christ Preaching from a Ship (c. 1522–5; Hollstein, no. 5), which was described by van Mander. From van Mander it is also known that Swart travelled to Italy. He may have gone from Venice to Constantinople, before he designed another work mentioned by van Mander, the Procession of Turkish Riders, a set of five woodcuts (1526; Hollstein, nos 8–11) depicting Sultan Süleyman the Great and his entourage and executed by Willem Liefrinck (1490–1542). Van Mander did not know any paintings by Swart, but he reported that he did paint landscapes and figures, according to him, in the style of Jan van Scorel....

Article

Christopher Lloyd

[Paolo di Dono]

(b Florence, c. 1397; d Florence, Dec 10, 1475).

Italian painter, draughtsman, mosaicist and designer of stained glass. His work vividly illustrates the principal issues of Florentine art during the first half of the 15th century. Trained within the tradition of the Late Gothic style, he eventually became a leading exponent of the application of linear perspective based on the mathematical system established by Filippo Brunelleschi and Leon Battista Alberti. It is the merging of these two diametrically opposed tendencies that forms the basis of Uccello’s style. As well as painting on panel and in fresco (many of his works in this medium have been severely damaged), he was also a master mosaicist and produced designs for stained glass.

The documents are relatively informative about Uccello’s life and movements, but less so about his artistic output. His proper name was Paolo di Dono, but he was commonly referred to as Uccello. According to Vasari, this was simply a sobriquet adopted as a result of the painter’s love of birds (It. ...

Article

J. P. Filedt Kok

[Aert Claessoon; Aernt Claesz.]

(b Leiden, 1498; d Leiden, 1564).

Dutch painter, draughtsman and designer of stained glass. Van Mander’s extensive biographical account forms the basis of knowledge of the life and work of this otherwise elusive artist. According to him, Aertgen was the son of a Leiden ‘fuller’ or cloth finisher, but in 1516 he chose to become a painter and apprenticed himself to Cornelis Engebrechtsz. Van Mander describes the uneven quality and vast stylistic changes within Aertgen’s work: at first he painted in the style of his master, then he was influenced by Jan van Scorel and later by Maarten van Heemskerck. Van Mander further reports that Aertgen’s paintings represented mainly biblical stories from the Old and New Testament and that they were often beautifully composed, though painted in a ‘loose and unpleasant manner’. Leiden city records confirm that a painter called Aert Claesz. was working in Leiden between 1521 and 1564 and living, as van Mander states, on the Zijdegracht (at least in ...

Article

[Theodoricus Iacobi]

(b ?Amsterdam, c. 1480–85; d Antwerp, after Dec 30, 1547).

South Netherlandish stained-glass designer, printmaker and glasspainter. Guicciardini referred to him as one of the three leading glass painters in Flanders, along with Aerdt Ortkens and Theodore Stas. Until 1901, when Glück identified him with the Monogrammist DV, he appeared in the literature as ‘Dirk van Staren’. Glück associated a woodcut device of the Antwerp Guild of St Luke, signed with this monogram and dated 1526, with a reference in the guild records stating that Vellert executed a device for the guild the second year he was dean (1526).

Vellert is probably the glazier ‘Theodoricus Iacobi Amstelredamus’ mentioned by Gerardus Geldenhauer in his journal of 1522. It has been suggested that his father was a priest living in Amsterdam named Jacob Vellert. However, Jacob Vellert was apparently dead by 1460, too early to be Dirk’s father, although it is possible that the artist was related to him. It has also been claimed that Dirk Vellert received his early training in Mechelen ...

Article

Peter Strieder

(b Nuremberg, 1434–7; d Nuremberg, Nov 30, 1519).

German painter and woodcutter. The head of a large workshop which produced altarpieces, memorial pictures, portraits, and designs for glass paintings in late 15th-century Nuremberg, he also provided notable innovations in the art of the woodcut. He is famed as the teacher of Dürer family §(1); after Wolgemut’s death in 1519, Dürer added that date to a portrait of his former master done in 1516, but the 82 years mentioned in the inscription could either be Wolgemut’s lifespan or his age when painted.

He was the son of the painter Valentin Wolgemut (fl 1433/6; d 1469–70), who may have been the Masters, anonymous, and monogrammists family §I (see Masters, anonymous, and monogrammists family §I), though the latter’s work does not begin until after mid-century. He was probably first trained in his father’s workshop. Michael Wolgemut is first mentioned as a painter when instituting legal proceedings in Nuremberg in ...