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Junghee Lee


Korean dynasty that ruled the Korean peninsula from 1392 to 1910. The founder of the dynasty, Yi Sŏng-gye, posthumously known as King T’aejo (reg 1392–8), established Neo-Confucianism as the official ideology, encouraging a modest and practical lifestyle. Thus the patronage of extravagant art was discouraged, and the status of the artist was reduced. Buddhism was often zealously suppressed but remained the private religion of the palace women, the common people and even some kings. T’aejo, for example, built Sŏgwang Temple in north-eastern Korea, the area of his origin; King Sejo (reg 1455–68) built the marble pagoda of the Wŏngak Temple in Seoul in 1466; and the Dowager Queen Munjŏng patronized painters (see Korea, §IV, 2, (i), (d)) and supported temple constructions during the reign of King Myŏngjong (reg 1545–67).

With the establishment of the capital at Hanyang (now Seoul), T’aejo built the Kyŏngbok and Ch’angdŏk palaces and city walls in ...


Noël Annesley

[Christie, Manson & Woods]

Auction house founded in London by James Christie (1730–1803). After a few years spent in the navy, James Christie worked as an assistant to an auctioneer named Mr Annesley in Covent Garden, London. He left Annesley in 1763 to set up on his own and in 1766 established his firm at the print warehouse of Richard Dalton in Pall Mall, where the Royal Academy held its exhibitions in its early years. In 1770 he moved his premises next door to Schomberg House, Pall Mall, where Thomas Gainsborough lived. The first known catalogue is dated 5 December 1766; it includes little of value except for a picture by Aelbert Cuyp. Christie rapidly established himself as one of the foremost auctioneers, however, cultivating a circle of friends and advisers that included Gainsborough, Reynolds, Horace Walpole, David Garrick, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, and Edmund Burke, and receiving many auction consignments from royalty and the nobility. During the French Revolution the firm did particularly well through the abundance of works then coming into Britain. Among the more notable early Christie sales were that of the former collection of Pope ...


S. J. Vernoit

(b New York, 1873; d Fulmer, Bucks, June 16, 1950).

Naturalized British radio industry innovator and executive, collector and patron of American birth. He was educated at the College of the City of New York and the Cooper Union School of Art and Science, New York. In 1889 he joined an organization set up by Thomas Edison to develop the phonograph, and in 1895 at the Edison Laboratory at Orange, New Jersey, he produced the first moving-picture films with continuity or plot. In 1896 he worked in Washington, DC, at the laboratory of Emile Berliner, inventor of the gramophone, then joined the Gramophone Company of London and in 1899 founded the French Gramophone Company in Paris. In 1907 he went on to establish the Musée de la Voix in the archives of the National Opera in Paris. From 1909 to 1931 he was Managing Director of the Gramophone Company and became a British subject by naturalization in 1928. From 1896...


Lillian B. Miller

(b New York, Dec 11, 1848; d New York, Jan 18, 1931).

American businessman, collector, patron and dealer. He began collecting art in 1869 with paintings by American Hudson River school artists and conventional European works, Chinese porcelain, antique pottery and 17th- and 18th-century English furniture. By 1883 his taste had focused entirely on American works, especially on paintings by George Inness and Winslow Homer. By dealing in such works and by giving frequent exhibitions, Clarke enhanced the popularity of these artists, while also realizing large profits for himself. His founding of Art House, New York, in 1890 confirms the profit motive behind his collecting practices. The most notable sale of his paintings took place in 1899, when he sold at auction 373 contemporary American works at a profit of between 60 and 70%. Four landscapes by Inness—Grey, Lowery Day (c. 1876–7; untraced), Delaware Valley (1865; New York, Met.), Clouded Sun (1891; Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mus. A.) and Wood Gatherers: Autumn Afternoon...


(b Paris, Sept 1, 1851; d Paris, March 24, 1922).

French politician, collector and patron. He had a long but unremarkable career in politics, serving as a député for Paris between 1893 and 1919. As a collector, he was interested in both Old Master and contemporary paintings; he purchased many of the highest quality, but some that were merely copies or even fakes. Among paintings by French Romantic artists, he owned numerous works by Delacroix, including Cleopatra and the Peasant (1838; Chapel Hill, U. NC, Ackland A. Mus.) and Christ on the Cross (1853; London, N.G.). Among works by modern painters, he owned the Schuffenecker Family by Gauguin (1889; Paris, Mus. d’Orsay) and several small works by Degas, among them the Lady with a Parasol (c. 1887–90; Glasgow, Burrell Col.). In 1896 he commissioned Maurice Denis to paint seven decorative panels, depicting the Legend of Saint Hubert (1896–7; in situ), for his house at Neuilly-sur-Seine. Two of Cochin’s sons were killed in World War I, after which he lost all interest in life. His collections were auctioned in ...


Michelle P. Brown

(b Brighton, July 16, 1867; d Kew, May 1, 1962).

English museum curator and collector. He was the son of a coal merchant and in 1884 joined the family firm, where he remained until the end of 1891. He had early on been attracted by the aesthetics and politics of the Arts and Crafts Movement and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, and had met and assisted such figures as John Ruskin, William Morris and Octavia Hill (1838–1912). His role as secretary to the Kelmscott Press (1892–8) fostered a particular love of books. From 1900 to 1904 he was in partnership with the process-engraver Sir Emery Walker (1851–1933). As a private collector of printed books and manuscripts and as director (1908–37) of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, Cockerell was responsible for developing this area of study, as well as other aspects of medieval and Renaissance art. In 1908 he organized the first major exhibition of illuminated manuscripts at the Burlington Fine Arts Club, also editing the catalogue. He subsequently published a number of scholarly works. As both a curator and a collector of manuscripts he did much to influence British bibliophily, ranking alongside the bibliophiles Eric Millar and Henry Yates Thompson (...


Claire Brisby

(b Saint Martin de Ré, nr La Rochelle, Charente, Oct 2, 1839; d Paris, Feb 21, 1928).

French collector. From a large family of modest means, he started work in a draper’s shop in Paris at the age of 15 and then sold trifles under a red umbrella on the Pont Neuf. In 1870 he rented his first shop on the corner of Rue du Pont Neuf and Rue de la Monnaie, thereby initiating La Samaritaine, a department store renowned for its modern methods of display. He made a fortune selling cloth to the Garde Nationale during the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71) and in 1872 married Louise Jay, whose business acumen contributed considerably to the success of the enterprise. At his death he left a successful commercial business, a foundation for the social welfare of his employees and a substantial collection of works of art bequeathed to the town of Paris as the Musée Cognacq–Jay.

Cognacq began buying works of art early in the 1880s and made consistent acquisitions from ...


Linda Whiteley

[Coquelin Cadet]

(b Boulogne-sur-Mer, Pas-de-Calais, 1848; d Suresnes, Hauts-de-Seine, 1909).

French actor and collector. He was the son of a well-known baker in Boulogne-sur-Mer and from an early age a friend of the painter Jean-Charles Cazin, who painted a view of the Coquelin bakery (1879; Samer, Mus. Cazin). Ernest and his brother Constant Coquelin went to Paris and established careers as actors. From 1878 to 1909 Ernest was a member of the Comédie-Française and was known for his delivery of drawing-room monologues. He was a frequent visitor to the home of the wealthy socialite Nina de Callias (1844–84), whose portrait (c. 1874; Paris, Mus. d’Orsay) was painted by Manet. Coquelin met Manet and Cézanne at her salon, which was frequented by poets and painters. During the 1870s he began to collect Impressionist paintings and in 1879 loaned one of Degas’s paintings of laundresses (England, priv. col.) to the fourth Impressionist exhibition. His friendship with Cazin must have encouraged his interest in painting, and probably formed his taste, and 20 landscapes by ...


(b Puits, Côte d’Or, 1865; d Paris, June 6, 1926).

French critic and collector. He trained at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris but soon devoted himself to literary and artistic criticism, producing a series of monographs on writers and artists. One of his more important books is Cubistes, Futuristes, Passéistes (1914), in which he briefly surveyed the work of a number of young artists. He praised Picasso’s virtuosity and adaptability and, whilst calling him the foremost Cubist, claimed Braque’s version of Cubism to be more accessible and decorative. The Futurists, with the exception of Umberto Boccioni’s sculpture, are all grouped together with a reprint of two of their artistic manifestos.

In 1924 Coquiot published two complementary books, Des Gloires déboulonnées and Des Peintres maudits. The first of these deals with ten artists, including Degas, Gustave Moreau and Félicien Rops, who he claimed had been falsely idolized by critics and dealers. These were contrasted with the ten artists of the second book, such as van Gogh, Cézanne and Gauguin, whom he regarded as largely ignored despite what he saw as their greater ability. In the latter book he included Rouault, whom he was one of the first to support as a critic and collector. He emphasized the ferocity of Rouault’s work, writing: ‘…he tracks the Woman, the Woman of all ages … As soon as Rouault seizes a woman, he pickles her in vinegar, in acids’ (p. 119). In addition to works by ...


Stephen T. Clarke, Harley Preston and Lin Barton

English family of silversmiths, industrialists, collectors, and patrons, of French origin. The family originated from the town of St Pierre on the Ile d’Oléron off La Rochelle. They arrived in London a few years after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, and between 1708 and 1780 three generations of Courtauld silversmiths were registered at the Goldsmiths’ Company. Augustine Courtauld (c.1686–c. 1751) was apprenticed to Simon Pantin in 1701 and, after becoming a freeman of the Goldsmiths’ Company in 1708, he started a business as a plateworker in Church Court, off St Martin’s Lane in London. The majority of his work is of high quality, for example a silver tea-table (1742; St Petersburg, Hermitage) and the state salt of the Corporation of the City of London (1730; London, Mansion House). Augustine’s brother Pierre Courtauld (1690–1729) registered a mark in 1721...


Janet Southorn

(b Busto Arsizio, Oct 18, 1833; d Milan, Jan 5, 1920).

Italian businessman and collector. His family owned a successful cotton-spinning business, which Crespi and his four younger brothers inherited and ran as a flourishing concern. With the help of such friends as the art historian Giovanni Morelli and the painter Giuseppe Bertini, who was also curator of the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera and the Museo Poldi Pezzoli, Crespi created one of the finest private collections of turn-of-the-century Milan and displayed it on the first floor of his palazzo at 18 Via Borgonuovo. An illustrated catalogue by Adolfo Venturi, published in 1900, shows that the collection included a wide range of Italian art from the 16th to the 18th century. Lombard painters were particularly well represented, with paintings, for example, by Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio, Daniele Crespi and Luigi Crespi (ii). Examples of Venetian painting included a Risen Christ (Florence, Contini-Bonacossi priv. col., see Wethey, p. 177, cat. no. X-31) by ...


Joseph R. Givens

The sociologist Pierre Bourdieu (1930–2002) developed cultural capital theory as way to examine the influence of intangible resources on the phenomena of social reproduction and social mobility. He described a society of competing classes, arranged in a hierarchy of prestige. The classes are composed of individual agents who attempt to climb the socio-economic ladder by maximizing the use of capital resources, which include both material objects of symbolic value and intangible attributes that imply prestige and power. Bourdieu identified four types of capital: economic, social, symbolic, and cultural. Economic capital represents one’s financial resources, social capital consists of one’s social support system, symbolic capital describes one’s prestige, and cultural capital includes the knowledge, values, and skills that support an understanding of cultural relations and cultural artefacts. The forms of capital are inequitably distributed among classes, and one form of capital can be converted to another. Since the value of capital is defined by social relations within a specific field, agents strategize the best way to leverage their capital for maximum gain of the valued capital within that field....


Franco Bernabei

(b Pescara, March 12, 1863; d Gardone Riviera, nr Brescia, March 1, 1938).

Italian writer and collector. In his youth he was a militant critic of figurative art, especially in newspaper articles: his interest was limited to contemporary painting. All his life he was a collector of art objects, although not always of refined taste. In the early 1880s he went to Rome, where he frequented fashionable literary and journalistic circles and wrote news articles on art for periodicals such as La tribuna, Il fanfulla and the Cronaca bizantina, of which he was editor for a few months in 1885. His preferences as an art critic were for naturalistic painting, such as that of his great friend Francesco Paolo Michetti. He commented on Michetti’s painting The Vow (in Il fanfulla, 14 January 1883), giving a symbolic interpretation of its descriptive and narrative qualities, an approach that was to pervade Italian culture a few years later.

The new aestheticism appears most prominently in the novel ...


Geneviève Monnier

(b Paris, July 19, 1834; d Paris, Sept 27, 1917).

French painter, draughtsman, printmaker, sculptor, pastellist, photographer and collector. He was a founder-member of the Impressionist group and the leader within it of the Realist tendency. He organized several of the group’s exhibitions, but after 1886 he showed his works very rarely and largely withdrew from the Parisian art world. As he was sufficiently wealthy, he was not constricted by the need to sell his work, and even his late pieces retain a vigour and a power to shock that is lacking in the contemporary productions of his Impressionist colleagues.

The eldest son of a Parisian banking family, he originally intended to study law, registering briefly at the Sorbonne’s Faculté de Droit in 1853. He began copying the 15th- and 16th-century Italian works in the Musée du Louvre and in 1854 he entered the studio of Louis Lamothe (1822–69). The training that Lamothe, who had been a pupil of Ingres, transmitted to Degas was very much in the classical tradition; reinforced by the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, which he attended in ...


Laura Suffield

(b Paris, May 7, 1869; d Paris, Nov 9, 1927).

French collector, writer and etcher. He began to collect prints at the age of 13 and rapidly established a reputation as a connoisseur and expert, particularly in the field of modern prints. His principal work is the 31-volume series Le Peintre-graveur illustré (Paris, 1906–30); his other publications include works on 19th- and 20th-century prints and c. 500 auction-room catalogues. His own etchings were exhibited at the Salons of 1888 and 1897, and he was an officer of the Société des Peintres-graveurs Français and the Société pour l’Etude de la Gravure Française. His first print collection was sold at auction in 1890, the second in Paris, 13–15 June 1928, comprising 404 lots of modern prints.

with N. A. Hazard: Catalogue raisonné de l’oeuvre lithographié de H. Daumier (Paris, 1904) Le Peintre-graveur illustré, 31 vols (Paris, 1906–30) Manuel de l’amateur d’estampes du XVIII siècle (Paris, 1910) Manuel de l’amateur d’estampes des XIX et XX siècles...


Melissa McQuillan

[Dyagilev, Sergey (Pavlovich)]

(b Grusino estate, Novgorod Province, March 19, 1872; d Venice, Aug 19, 1929).

Russian collector, patron and impresario. He is best known as the director of the Ballets Russes. He arrived in St Petersburg in 1890 to study law, at the same time taking music lessons from Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov; he became involved with the Nevsky Pickwickians, a circle of young musicians, writers and artists including Alexandre Benois, Léon Bakst, Konstantin Somov and Yevgeny Lansere, who later became known under the name World of Art (Mir Iskusstva). Diaghilev edited the group’s periodical Mir Iskusstva from its first edition in November (October) 1898 (dated January 1899) to its last, in December 1904.

Diaghilev organized eleven exhibitions between 1897 and 1906, six under the auspices of the World of Art; these introduced western European artists to Russia (e.g. Monet, Renoir, Gustave Moreau, Puvis de Chavannes, Whistler and Frank Brangwyn). He wrote a monograph on Dmitry Levitsky and began one on Vladimir Borovikovsky, tracking down many works subsequently lost in the Revolution of ...


Laura Suffield

(b Crayford, Kent, Aug 13, 1867; d London, July 11, 1948).

English museum official and collector. He read theology and classics at Oxford, then abandoned the idea of ordination and in 1893 was appointed to the Department of Prints and Drawings at the British Museum. In 1912 he succeeded Sir Sidney Colvin (1845–1927) as Keeper of the Department, a post he held until his retirement in 1932. Dodgson quickly established an international reputation as an authority on early German prints, his numerous contributions in this field including the Catalogue of Early German and Flemish Woodcuts in the British Museum and a catalogue raisonné of Dürer’s intaglio prints. Among his publications on other prints are Old French Colour Prints, the Roxburghe Club catalogue of the proof states of Goya’s Desastres de la guerra and catalogues of the oeuvre of seven contemporary British etchers, including Muirhead Bone and Augustus John. Dodgson was co-editor of the Dürer Society publications (1898–1908), on the advisory council of the ...


Molly K. Dorkin

The world’s oldest auction house, founded in Vienna in April 1707 by Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor (reg 1705–11). Originally called the Versatz- und Fragamt zu Wien (‘The Pawn and Query Bureau of Vienna’), the firm moved in 1777 to the site of an old monastery, the Dorotheerkloster, from which the name ‘Dorotheum’ is derived. By the end of the 19th century the premises were outdated, so Emperor Francis-Joseph I (reg 1848–1916) commissioned the architect Emil von Förster (1838–1909) to design a suitably grand building. This new structure, called the Palais Dorotheum, was completed and formally opened in 1901 by the Emperor, in whose honour the central hall was named. In the early years of the 20th century the Dorotheum introduced many innovations to their auctioneering process, such as the division of sales into categories by object type. The first unique categories, introduced in 1900, were art and numismatics....


Malcolm Gee

revised by Pamela Elizabeth Grimaud

(b Paris, Feb 19, 1853; d Paris, July 17, 1929).

French couturier, patron, collector and bibliophile (see fig.). He joined his family’s clothing business in 1875 and played a central role in its development into one of the premier haute couture houses in Paris. Refined, exacting and possessed of an unerring appreciation for beauty, Doucet was an avid patron of the arts whose taste was reflected in the fashions designed under his name. He may initially have bought art for public relations purposes; however, it became the central interest in his life, partly, it seems, because the superior exercise of taste allowed him to compensate for social disappointments. Following a vogue that was already quite widespread by 1880, he built up an outstanding collection of 18th-century French art and design, which he housed in a magnificent 18th-century style hôtel in the Rue Spontini: it included Jean-Honoré Fragonard’s Le Feu aux poudres (Paris, Louvre), Jean-Siméon Chardin’s House of Cards...