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Christine Clark

(b London, 1767; d Hobart, Tasmania, July 11, 1851).

English painter, printmaker and sculptor, active in Australia. In London he exhibited six portraits at the Royal Academy (1817–23) and three genre paintings at the British Institution and engraved two colour plates for George Morland, before moving to Hobart, Tasmania, in 1832. At the Hobart Mechanics’ Institute in 1833 he delivered the first lecture in Australia on the subject of painting. In 1849 he contributed the paper ‘The School of Athens as it Assimilates with the Mechanics Institution’ to a series of seven lectures (later published) delivered at the Institute. Duterrau painted landscapes and portraits but is best known for his works depicting the Aborigines of Tasmania and their traditional way of life. He was very interested in the events that led to the exclusion of the Aborigines from Tasmania, and in a series of works begun in 1834 but not executed until the early 1840s he showed George Augustus Robinson under commission from the Governor of Tasmania to restore peace with them. ...

Article

Anne Gray

(b Alfredtown, Victoria, Sept 3, 1880; d London, Jan 21, 1938).

Australian draughtsman and printmaker. In his formative years he worked as a caricaturist for several Australian magazines. He moved to London in 1910 where he worked as a cartoonist for the Labour newspapers, the Daily Herald and New Age, and achieved great success with his biting cartoons (e.g. ‘Give Us this Day’; Cartoons, 1913), which made him a leading figure among English intellectuals. He worked in the humanist tradition of Honoré Daumier, Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen and Jean-Louis Forain. He was a determined satirist calling for a better world, concerned with political hypocrisy and social injustice, and his cartoons were admired for their apt captions as well as for the hard-hitting images that accompanied them. Dyson visited the Western Front as an Official War Artist during World War I to record the Australian involvement in the war. He worked in the trenches among battle-weary soldiers and was wounded, though not seriously, at Messines and Passchendaele. He made numerous compassionate and frank watercolour-wash drawings of the ordinary soldier (e.g. ...

Article

Miles Lewis

Australian architectural partnership formed by W(illiam) H(enry) Ellerker (b Birmingham, 1837; d Melbourne, 30 March 1891) and E(dward) G(eorge) Kilburn (b Australia, 1859; d 1894), active in Melbourne from 1886 to 1891. Ellerker came to Melbourne with his parents in 1853 and in 1856 was engaged as a draughtsman by Thomas Kemp. From 1858 he worked as a draughtsman in the Railways Department and then the Public Works Department. In 1863 he went to Queensland, where his design for Parliament House was recommended by a royal commission but did not proceed. He returned to Melbourne in 1867 and established a general practice in partnership with his brother John Ellerker, which was productive but designed nothing notable. He was a considerable investor in the Melbourne land boom of the 1880s and seems to have largely withdrawn from practice. The first major city buildings pre-date the partnership and were designed in association with ...

Article

Robert Smith

(b Maldon, Essex, Nov 8, 1831; d Melbourne, Jan 8, 1904).

Australian philanthropist and businessman of English birth. In Britain he was apparently apprenticed to an apothecary before migrating to Victoria in 1853, where he profited from transporting supplies to the gold-fields in a horse-drawn dray. This enabled him to go into business in Melbourne, where by 1857 he was established as an importer and agent, and four years later he was recorded as a wholesale pharmacist. In 1867 in partnership with F. Grimwade he acquired control of a chemical supply company of which Grimwade had been manager. They prospered as Felton Grimwade & Company, dominating the market and establishing subsidiaries in other Australasian colonies. They also expanded into related fields of manufacturing such as acid works, glass making, eucalyptus oil extraction and salt production. Felton also personally invested in several rural properties.

Although probably largely self-educated, Felton had a keen interest in art and literature. He is recalled as a moderately eccentric bachelor who lived frugally in modest lodgings at the Esplanade Hotel in St Kilda, where he kept his large collection of books and works of art. He was a dedicated philanthropist, and during his lifetime he regularly donated large sums to various charitable causes. He bequeathed his fortune for the equal benefit of the ...

Article

Barbara B. Kane

(b Melbourne, March 12, 1865; d Melbourne, Oct 8, 1915).

Australian painter and teacher. From 1878 to 1886 he trained at the National Gallery of Victoria Art Schools, Melbourne, and in 1887 left to study in Europe. In Paris he attended the Académie Julian and was taught by Jean-Léon Gérôme at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and by the American artist T. Alexander Harrison (1853–1930). He was involved with the plein-air artists at Etaples, Pas-de-Calais, and in Brittany and also visited Giverny, where from 1883 Monet was living. By 1890 he had moved to England, to the artists’ colony at St Ives, Cornwall. In 1892 he returned to Melbourne where he chiefly painted portraits and landscapes. He was a member of the Victorian Artists’ Society, exhibiting with them between 1892 and 1900. In 1893 he established the lively Melbourne Art School with Tudor St George Tucker (1862–1906). There an academic training coupled with a modified Impressionist technique was taught, as can be seen in Fox’s painting the ...

Article

(b Uxbridge, nr London, Feb 7, 1872; d Melbourne, June 17, 1952).

Australian painter of English birth. She trained under the English painter Francis Bate (1858–1950) and from 1898 to 1902 she studied at the Slade School of Fine Art in London under Henry Tonks and Frederick Brown. She then went to the artists’ colony in St Ives in Cornwall where she met Emanuel Phillips Fox, whom she married in 1905. The two painters then travelled around France, North Africa and Spain, visiting Australia in 1908 and 1913. In 1915 her husband died and she then travelled between Australia and Europe, running an art school for American and Australian students in Paris. She exhibited in Paris at the Salon d’Automne from 1904 to 1930 and at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts from 1906 to 1937, and she was also a regular exhibitor in London. During the two World Wars she organized art unions for the relief of artists. In the 1930s she campaigned to persuade the Australian national art collections to buy works from modern French artists, such as Degas, Renoir and Toulouse-Lautrec. Her paintings were influenced by Post-Impressionism and were of genre, flower and landscape subjects, as in the ...

Article

Christopher Johnstone

[Friström, Clas Edvard]

(b Torhamn, nr Karlskrona, Sweden, Jan 23, 1864; d San Anselmo, CA, March 27, 1950).

Sweden-born painter and teacher, active in Australia, New Zealand, and America. In 1884, Fristrom joined his older brother, the painter Oscar Fristrom (1856–1918), in Queensland, married in 1886, and became an Australian citizen in 1888. Employed as a photographic retoucher, Fristrom was a self-taught artist and from 1899 to 1902 he exhibited 53 paintings, including landscapes and figure studies, some featuring Aborigines, at the Queensland Art Society exhibitions. Fristrom’s artistic success is indicated by two commissions from the state government and enthusiastic reviews in the press.

In 1903 Fristrom travelled to the United States and then to New Zealand, settling in Auckland and joining the Auckland Society of Arts. He exhibited 60 paintings there, almost all landscapes, from 1904 to 1914. Until 1911 Fristrom regularly travelled around New Zealand, from Gisborne to Hokitika, selling his paintings at auctions. He also taught at the Elam School of Art, Auckland from ...

Article

(b Birmingham, March 15, 1863; d Waverley, Oct 1, 1930).

Australian painter, etcher and illustrator, also active in England. In his formative years he undertook illustrative commissions for the Picturesque Atlas of Australasia, as well as for the Australian Town and Country Journal and other publications. For a time he painted with his friends Tom Roberts, Arthur Streeton and Charles Conder at their camps around Mosman, or on trips to Richmond and along the Hawkesbury River. In his best paintings of this period he achieved a lyricism and sure handling of paint that resembles the work of Conder. During this period he also became interested in etching. In 1900 he moved to New York and the following year he travelled to London, where he continued to work as a black-and-white artist with the London Graphic and Black and White. He painted landscapes depicting picturesque sights and developed an interest in monotypes, using the delicacy of this medium to create soft, low-key images of atmospheric subjects. He worked in the tradition of English landscape painters, such as John Constable and John Sell Cotman, producing calm, quiet, understated images....

Article

Graeme Sturgeon

(b Cockatoo, Victoria, March 18, 1867; d Melbourne, Sept 27, 1925).

Australian sculptor. After inauspicious beginnings and apprenticeship to a pastry cook, Gilbert was led, through his skill in modelling cake decorations, to attend part-time drawing classes at the National Gallery School, Melbourne (1888–91). He also enrolled in night classes at the Victorian Artists’ Society, where he found sympathetic encouragement from the sculptor Charles Douglas Richardson (1853–1932). At that time there was no instruction available in the traditional techniques of sculpture so Gilbert taught himself, continuing to earn his living as a chef at a fashionable Melbourne restaurant. In 1914, aged 47, Gilbert left for London to see the work of the great European sculptors of the past, but the outbreak of World War I only weeks after his arrival left him stranded in England. Too old for either military service or art school, he went on working at his sculpture, submitting it each year to the Royal Academy exhibitions. In ...

Article

Bridget Whitelaw

(b Perritorn, Somerset, May 21, 1818; d Melbourne, Oct 27, 1880).

Australian painter of English birth. Educated at Dr Seabrook’s Academy, Plymouth, and employed as a draughtsman and watercolour painter by the Hubard Profile Gallery in London, he had some experience of the English watercolour tradition before he departed in 1839 for South Australia. In 1840 he established a studio in Adelaide, working primarily in watercolour, which suited the immediacy of his style; he completed many views of the city as well as portraits. His best works were the landscapes that record the explorations of the South Australian desert, their immediacy and fluency of style comparable to the finest Australian landscape artists of the day. Gill’s reputation rests largely on the appeal and interest of the documentary side of his work, seen for example in Sturt’s Overland Expedition leaving Adelaide, 10 August 1844 (watercolour, 1844; Adelaide, A.G. S. Australia).

In 1852 Gill travelled to the Victorian goldfields, where he sketched life on the fields with spontaneity and humour. He lived in Sydney from ...

Article

Patrick Conner

(b Houghton-on-the-Hill, Leics, Feb 18, 1767; d Launceston, Tasmania, Dec 9, 1849).

English painter, active also in Australia. He was employed first as a schoolteacher at Appleby (Cumbria) and after 1794 as a drawing-master at Lichfield (Staffs), from where he sent drawings to London each year; on his occasional visits to the capital he received lessons from William Payne and was clearly influenced by him. In the 1790s he also began to practise in oils, some of which were exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1795 onwards. At the first exhibition of the Society of Painters in Water-Colours (April–June 1805) Glover’s pictures were priced more highly than those of any other exhibitor; he was elected President of the Society in 1807 and again in 1814–15. A typical watercolour is his Landscape with Waterfall (U. Manchester, Whitworth A.G.). As a painter of large landscapes in oils he appeared to many contemporaries as the chief rival to J. M. W. Turner—much to the irritation of John Constable. In palette and composition Glover remained conservative; among his characteristic mannerisms was the use of a split brush to paint sun-dappled foliage....

Article

Roger Blackley

(b Auckland, Oct 20, 1870; d Auckland, July 11, 1947).

New Zealand painter, specializing in portraits of Maori. He trained at the Académie Julian in Paris for five years from 1893, undertaking copying in the Louvre and other galleries and travelling widely in Europe. He was the only New Zealand artist of his generation to undertake such extensive European training. Back in Auckland in 1898, he capitalized on this cachet by opening the ‘French Academy of Art’ in collaboration with his former teacher, Louis John Steele (1842–1918). That year they collaborated on a large historical painting, the Arrival of the Maoris in New Zealand (1898; Auckland, A.G.), loosely based on Théodore Gericault’s famous Raft of the Medusa in the Louvre.

Goldie’s career took off from 1900 when he exhibited the first of the Maori portraits on which his fame rests. Following a path established by Steele’s portraits of tattooed chiefs, these mainly half-length portraits are painted in a naturalistic manner with careful attention to minute details of dress and ...

Article

George Tibbits

(Howard)

(b Mangotsfield, nr Bristol, Nov 20, 1777; d nr East Maitland, NSW, bur Sept 26, 1837).

Australian architect of English birth. His architectural training included working for John Nash in London where he also submitted work to the Royal Academy. However, his architectural practice in the Bristol area ended when he was convicted of forgery and transported with his wife Mary in the General Hewitt to Australia in February 1814. As a result his standing was never secure, and his arrogant nature made him many enemies among those he criticized in colonial society in and around Sydney. His support and patronage in Sydney came from Governor Lachlan Macquarie (governor 1810–22), who has become a model in Australian culture of enlightened public support for architecture. Greenway’s important surviving buildings include St Matthew (1817) and the Court House (1821), both in Windsor, NSW; St Luke (1818), Liverpool, NSW; and St James (1819), Queens Square, Sydney, the adjacent Hyde Park (Convicts) Barracks (...

Article

(b Vienna, Nov 7, 1811; d London, April 17, 1901).

Austrian painter, draughtsman and lithographer, active in Australia. He was the son of Bernhard von Guérard (d 1836), a miniaturist who was court painter in Vienna to Francis II (reg 1792–1806). In 1826 he left with his father for Italy, and from 1830 he studied for a period in Rome. In 1832 they went to Naples and travelled extensively in southern Italy. After his father’s death, he returned to Germany in 1838 and studied at the Staatliche Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf from 1839/40 to 1845/6, including landscape classes under Johan Wilhelm Schirmer. Sometime before 1852 he travelled to London; while there he succumbed to the lure of the Victorian Gold Rush, the subject of much excitement in England, and in 1852 he emigrated to Australia. He recorded his goldfield experiences of 1853–4 in a series of sketches (Ballarat, F.A.Gal.) and years later produced an important painting, ...

Article

Roger Blackley

(b Bath, bapt March 21, 1819; d Nelson, NZ, Nov 1, 1888).

New Zealand painter of English birth. He arrived in New Plymouth in 1852, first working as a shopkeeper, teaching privately and advertising for commissions. On the outbreak of the Taranaki land wars, Gully moved to Nelson where he again struggled to establish himself as an artist and art teacher, eventually finding full-time work as a draughtsman in the provincial Survey Office. Specializing in lake and mountain views in the style of J. M. W. Turner (e.g. In the Southern Alps, 1881; Wellington, Mus. NZ, Te Papa Tongarewa), and frequently working on a very grand scale, Gully exhibited regularly in New Zealand and Australia, and in Europe. A portfolio of chromolithographs based on his watercolours, New Zealand Scenery, was published in London in 1877. The vast number of works he exhibited, and the high prices he asked for them, indicate that Gully was one of the more successful New Zealand artists of the period....

Article

Roslyn F. Coleman

(Joseph)

(b London, Feb 25, 1866; d Melbourne, May 16, 1929).

Australian architect, theorist and writer of English birth. He trained as an architect in London from 1881 and then worked in various architectural offices there. He emigrated to Australia in 1889 and worked in various states before settling in Melbourne in 1899. He designed a number of offices, residences, churches and other public buildings, often for other architects. Through this work and his teachings and writings, he influenced many Australian architects by his strong principles of originality and simplicity in design, harmony and balance in composition, and national sentiment. These principles were closely allied with those of English architects working in the Arts and Crafts Movement; however, his use of nature for inspiration and his relaxation of past rules of composition and decoration also place him within the Art Nouveau movement. Haddon’s designs were characterized by plain façades, the careful use of simple ornament and the positioning of elements to produce a distinctive and often delicately balanced composition. Examples of this work include his residence, Anselm (...

Article

Ian Molyneux

[Fra Jerome]

(b Richmond [now in London], Sept 7, 1876; d Florida, June 26, 1956).

Australian architect of English birth. He was articled to Edmerton and Gabriel, London, and he studied at the Architectural Association School, the Polytechnic and Central Arts and Crafts School, London (1892–6), under W. R. Lethaby and E. S. Prior. He began practice at Bognor Regis in 1897, and there built The White Tower (1898) in a style influenced by C. F. A. Voysey. Ordained an Anglican priest, he went as a curate-architect to rebuild churches after a hurricane in the Bahamas (1909–11), where he discovered Spanish Mission architecture. He then became a Franciscan priest and went as a missionary to Geraldton, Western Australia. Between 1915 and 1939 he designed a number of convents, presbyteries and churches in the region, using local materials and building much of the work with his own hands. Hawes was a romantic: based on Arts and Crafts principles and vernacular eclecticism, his work was distinguished by a powerful expressionism and interiors with mysterious lighting. The façade of his masterpiece, the Cathedral of St Francis Xavier (...

Article

Jane Clark

Group of artists active in the late 19th century in Heidelberg, a suburb of Melbourne, who introduced plein-air Impressionism to Australia. The most important members were Tom Roberts, Frederick McCubbin, Arthur Streeton and Charles Conder.

Most of the group began their careers at the National Gallery of Victoria’s School of Art in Melbourne; several later studied overseas. Roberts, Streeton and Conder painted in each other’s company both at their various outer suburban plein air camps (Box Hill, mainly 1885–6; Mentone, Port Phillip Bay, 1887–8; for illustration see Conder, Charles; the ‘Eaglemont’ estate at Heidelberg 14 km from Melbourne, 1888–90; for illustration see Streeton, Sir Arthur; and in Sydney) and in Melbourne where they often shared or occupied adjoining studios. McCubbin often worked with them. When apart they corresponded regularly, recalling their artistic camaraderie with great nostalgia. Davies and many lesser-known figures, such as Jane Sutherland, Clara Southern, John Mather (...

Article

Barbara B. Kane

(Felix)

(b Sisteron, Provence, 1850; d Le Pave, St Léonard-de-Noblat, Haute Vienne, March 10, 1896).

French painter, sculptor, designer and teacher, active in Australia. He trained under the architect Viollet-le-Duc and at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, under Jean-Léon Gérôme. In 1871 he was sentenced to death for his political activities in the Paris Commune; this was commuted to transportation to New Caledonia. He arrived in Sydney in 1879 after the granting of political amnesty. He was appointed instructor in modelling at the Sydney Mechanics’ School of Arts and in 1883 became the first lecturer in art at the Sydney Technical College. He also taught privately. His influence on a generation of students that included Lucien Dechaineux (1870–1957), later director of the Hobart Technical College, A. G. Reid, the sculptor, B. E. Minns (1864–1937) and Sydney Cathels, was profound. A founder-member of the Art Society of New South Wales, his frequent contributions to their exhibitions included portraits and busts. Henry sought to establish a national style in the applied arts through the use of distinctive colours and motifs based on native flora and fauna. His delight in the Australian shrub waratah is seen in the design for two large stained-glass windows in the Sydney Town Hall and in the curious designs for a folio of 50 graphic works to be entitled ...

Article

(Franz)

(b Hamburg, Oct 8, 1877; d Hahndorf, nr Adelaide, July 2, 1968).

Australian painter and printmaker of German birth. His family settled in South Australia in 1884. Having attended the Norwood Art School under James Ashton (1859–1935), he studied in Paris at the Académie Julian, Colarossi’s academy and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and travelled in Europe. He was particularly influenced by Constable, the Barbizon school, George Clausen, Ernest Atkinson Hornel and Frank Brangwyn. In 1904, after returning to Adelaide, he sold major oils to the National Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney (Coming Home), and the National Gallery of South Australia, Adelaide (Mystic Morn). In 1908 he moved to Hahndorf in the Adelaide Hills. Heysen recorded the labours of the German farmers who had settled in the area, in oils, watercolours, drawings and (occasionally) etchings: for Heysen the rural labourers of Hahndorf were the equivalent of Millet’s Fontainebleau peasants. This aspect of his work reached its peak in ...