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Article

Ellen G. Landau

(b Allegheny, PA, May 11, 1894; d New York, NY, April 1, 1991).

American dancer and choreographer. Graham is widely considered a major pioneer and exponent of modernism. Her collaboration with American sculptor Isamu Noguchi, who designed costumes and sets for the Martha Graham Dance Company from 1935 to 1966, and the extraordinary photographs of her in performance by Imogen Cunningham, Soichi Sunami (1885–1971), Philippe Halsman (1906–79) and especially Barbara Morgan, link Graham’s revolutionary accomplishments in dance to experimentation in the visual arts. During the late 1930s and 1940s, her belief in the ability of dance to tap the power of myth and the unconscious anticipated and was analogous to the tenets of Abstract Expressionism.

Brought up in California the daughter of a physician, in 1916 at age 22, Graham began studying dance under Ruth St Denis (1879–1968) and Ted Shawn (1891–1972). Ten years later she formed the Martha Graham Center of Contemporary Dance in New York. While her own performances were initially based on the Denishawn style, by ...

Article

Wiepke F. Loos

(b Amsterdam, April 2, 1837; d Amsterdam, May 14, 1891).

Dutch painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He initially wanted to be a musician like his father, but he decided to become a painter and studied with his uncle, the genre and figure painter P. F. Greive (1811–72). Thereafter he was taught by Cornelis Springer, and around 1861 he worked with L. Lingeman (1829–94) in the latter’s studio.

Greive painted river and harbour scenes and townscapes, mainly in Amsterdam, but also in Gelderland and Zeeland, for example the Shellproof Barracks in Flushing (Amsterdam, Hist. Mus.). In 1860 he made a series of 12 lithographs showing types of ships, Studies of Dutch Ships Drawn After the Original. After the death of his father, Greive was for a time obliged to take on much illustration work for magazines at home and abroad to support his family, and he briefly abandoned painting. He remained, however, active within the Amsterdam artistic world and for three years was chairman of the society Arti et Amicitiae....

Article

(b Epineuil, nr Tonnerre, Yonne, Jan 1827; d Saint-Mandé, Seine, May 5, 1892).

French printmaker and costume designer. After leaving school he became an apprentice draughtsman for the Paris-Lyon-Méditerranée railway company. While thus employed he also made his début as a caricaturist in the journal Gaulois, to which he contributed from 1858. In 1859 he had the first of many works published in the Journal amusant; his At the Opéra Ball (1860; Paris, Bib. N.) was for this publication. In 1860 he left the railway company and started to contribute to the Petit journal pour rire as well. He began working for Le Charivari in 1869, the year in which he co-founded, with Adrien Huart, the Almanach des Parisiennes, which published albums of prints for the next 19 years. It was about this time, when he began to concentrate on the manners and language of Parisian society, that Grévin established his mature style. Many of his designs, which were always accompanied by humorous captions, were inspired by the women of the demi-monde. Unlike many caricaturists of his age he avoided political topics....

Article

Alexandra Kennedy

(b ?Quito, 1818; d ?Quito, 1880).

Ecuadorean painter and Musician. He was involved in the foundation of the Escuela Miguel de Santiago in Quito in 1849 (transformed in 1852 into the Escuela Democratica Miguel de Santiago), and he won third prize for his painting Modesty (Quito, Mus. Fund. Hallo) when the school held the first public art exhibition in Ecuador. He criticized the dependence of Ecuadorean art on Spanish and other European models, and he fought for the liberation of oppressed social classes and particularly of the indigenous people, as well as for individual creativity and the autonomy of the artist from the ecclesiastical powers that remained dominant in Ecuador at that time. Stylistically, Guerrero represented the transition from Quito’s colonial Baroque style to Romanticism. He introduced watercolour painting into Ecuador and used the medium to illustrate, criticize and satirize leading figures of the time. His album of drawings and watercolours of landscapes, personalities and customs of the period (...

Article

Stephen Addiss

[Uragami Hitsu; Ki Tasuku; Gyokudō, Ryosai]

(b Ikeda, Bizen Province [now Okayama Prefect.], 1745; d Kyoto, 1820).

Japanese Musician, painter, poet and calligrapher. Although he was more famous in his lifetime as a musician and little appreciated as an artist, Gyokudō has come to be considered one of Japan’s great painters in the literati painting tradition (Jap. Bunjinga or Nanga; see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (d)) and his rough, bold works are among Japan’s most powerful and individualistic artistic expressions. He belonged to the third generation of Japanese literati artists, who returned to painting in a more Sinophile, orthodox manner in contrast to the more unorthodox, Japanese approach of second-generation masters such as Ike Taiga and Yosa Buson.

He was born to a samurai-official family, and in 1752, a year after his father died, he took up the Ikeda clan duties. He received a Confucian-style education and as a youth studied the Chinese zither (qin). He was skilled both as a player and composer on this subtle instrument. The creative processes that he developed for composition, particularly with respect to asymmetry and repetition, were transferred to the calligraphy and painting of his later years. He took his art name (...

Article

Julia Robinson

Term first formally used by the American artist Allan Kaprow for his 18 Happenings in 6 Parts, presented in early October 1959 at the Reuben Gallery, New York City, as the inaugurating event for that space. (Informal “happening-like” experiments had been presented by Kaprow in April 1958 at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, and at the Reuben Gallery in a pre-opening piece called Intermission [June 1959].) Through 1960, the artists pioneering the Happenings form were: Kaprow, Robert Whitman (b 1935), Claes Oldenburg, Simone Forti, Red Grooms, Al Hansen and Jim Dine. Happenings appeared at experimental downtown spaces such as Groom’s “Delancey Street Museum” (his studio on the lower East Side), the Judson Church (on Washington Square) and the Reuben Gallery, as well as in New Jersey, at George Segal’s farm, and on the campus of Rutgers University, New Brunswick, where Kaprow was teaching and Whitman was a student. According to Whitman, when Kaprow named ...

Article

Julia Robinson

(b Valrico, FL, 1930).

American performance artist and sculptor. Hay started out in the performance scene at Judson Memorial Church in downtown New York City in the early 1960s. He arrived in New York from Florida in 1959, after studying at the Florida State University (1953–8). His wife, the dancer Deborah Hay, was a key figure in the Judson Dance Theater, launched in the summer of 1962, and Alex Hay performed in many of its productions. In the early 1960s he assisted Robert Rauschenberg on set designs for Merce Cunningham, and danced with him with roller-skates and parachutes in Rauschenberg’s now famous performance piece Pelican (1963). After these collaborations, Hay was invited to participate in 9 Evenings: Theater & Engineering at New York’s 69th Regiment Armory (fall 1966). This initiative, conceived by Rauschenberg with critical contributions from the engineer Billy Klüver, was an idealistic effort to pair artists with engineers, to merge art and new technologies. That project evolved into ...

Article

Andrzej Rottermund

In 

Article

Lee M. Edwards

(b Waal, Bavaria, May 26, 1849; d Budleigh Salterton, Devon, March 31, 1914).

English painter, illustrator, printmaker, stage designer, film maker, writer and teacher of German birth. He was the only child of Lorenz Herkomer (d 1887), a wood-carver, and Josephine (née Niggl), an accomplished pianist and music teacher. They left Bavaria for the USA in 1851 and lived briefly in Cleveland, OH, before settling in Southampton, England, in 1857.

Herkomer received his first art instruction from his father and from 1864 to 1865 he attended the Southampton School of Art. Later he often criticized the crippling academic methods to which he was exposed as a student. In 1865 he briefly attended the Munich Academy and spent the summer terms of 1866 and 1867 at the South Kensington Art School in London, where he found the teaching ‘aimless and undirected’. With the encouragement of his fellow student Luke Fildes, Herkomer took up black-and-white illustration; his first wood-engraving appeared in Good Words...

Article

(b Paris, Feb 11, 1795; d Neuilly-sur-Seine, April 28, 1878).

French collector. He was the son of the writer Charles-Antoine-Hyacinthe His, and grew up in the sophisticated Parisian society of his mother, Hélène de Nervo, a talented musician. He attended military school and in 1815 served Louis XVIII at Ghent. He left the military in 1826 to accompany his ailing mother to Italy, where she died. His de la Salle began collecting prints and lithographs, especially military subjects by Nicolas-Toussaint Charlet and Théodore Gericault, while he was still in the army. His knowledge and taste grew more sophisticated through his travels and informal study in Italy, Germany, Holland and France, and his frequent visits to auction rooms and art dealers in Paris. After his return to Paris, he was closely associated with the collectors Louis Lacaze and Frédéric Reiset, the conservator at the Musée du Louvre. Like them, he emphasized quality over quantity in collecting. The strength of his collection lay in drawings by early Italian masters, including ...

Article

(b Bruyères-sous-Laon, March 28, 1815; d Paris, Feb 27, 1896).

French writer, theatre director and museum official. He came from an important and wealthy provincial family—his two grandfathers had been successive mayors of Bruyères, his father was a farmer and his uncle a court painter. He developed an interest in literature and the arts in the library that had been left to his grandfather by the daughters of King Louis XV. His first published works were two novels that appeared in 1836, and in 1838 he moved to Paris and wrote exhibition reviews for the Revue de Paris. While projecting himself as a bohemian and a liberal, he also wished to be at the centre of Parisian society and so, on arriving in Paris, he changed his name from Housset to the more aristocratic Houssaye. In 1844 he became the editor of L’Artiste, publishing works by such unknown contemporary writers as Charles Baudelaire and writing reviews under the pseudonym of ‘Lord Pilgrim’. Among other periodicals, he wrote for ...

Article

Salme Sarajas-Korte

[Erik] (Nikolai)

(b Viipuri [now Vyborg, Russia], Nov 8, 1863; d Helsinki, Nov 15, 1937).

Finnish painter. He came from a Swedish-speaking Finnophile family of artists, writers and composers descended from the Baltic aristocracy. He studied at the Academy of Art in St Petersburg (1883–6) under his uncle Mikhail Klodt (1832–1902), and at the Académie Julian in Paris (1886–91). In Paris he embraced the plein-air naturalism favoured by Jules Bastien-Lepage and Pascal-Adolphe-Jean Dagnan-Bouveret, among others, as well as by Järnefelt’s fellow countryman Albert Edelfelt. He then became interested in the problem of the depiction of light in plein-air painting, as in Lefranc, Wine Merchant, Boulevard de Clichy, Paris (1888; Helsinki, Athenaeum A. Mus.). The depiction of Finnish folk themes in a plein-air style, however, is most typical of his work of the 1880s, for example Boat from Savo (1888; Hämeenlinna, A. Mus.), which won him a gold medal at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1889.

Järnefelt was an extremely important portrait painter. In his portraits of the 1880s he concentrated on showing his subjects in realistic and familiar settings. Among the most striking are those of ...

Article

P. Knolle

(b Leeuwarden, Sept 24, 1770; d Amsterdam, Oct 6, 1836).

Dutch painter, illustrator, printmaker and actor. He received his training from his father, Rienk Jelgerhuis (1729–1806), and from the landscape painter Pieter (Pietersz.) Barbiers II. While travelling with his father through the Dutch Republic he produced illustrations for almanacs, political cartoons and engravings of current events. In 1806 he settled in Amsterdam.

Jelgerhuis was famous primarily as an actor; his manual for actors, Theoretische lessen over de gesticulatie en mimiek, was published in 1827 by Pieter Meijer Warnars, whose bookshop Jelgerhuis had depicted in an attractive painting in 1820, The Bookshop of Pieter Meijer Warnars on the Vijgendam, Amsterdam (Amsterdam, Rijksmus.). With his drawings and paintings of towns (e.g. A Street in Amersfoort, 1826; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.), landscapes and church interiors and his portraits he achieved a distinctive place for himself among Dutch artists. His scenes are remarkable for their lively rendering of human activity, unusual in topographical drawings of the period, although the figures in his subtle, brightly lit paintings often seem somewhat clumsy....

Article

Julia Robinson

American artists’ space located at 239 Thompson Street at the south edge of Washington Square in New York City. Beginning in the late 1950s the Judson Church hosted experimental avant-garde activities—art installations, Happenings, the beginnings of postmodern dance—launching a now celebrated group of artists, dancers, poets and composers, and fueling the radical downtown art scene. The platform of free expression Judson provided for the untested work of the 1960s generation, at a time when these artists were far from established, was a critical contribution to the invention, originality and ultimate international renown of these preeminent American artists.

Built in 1890 and designed by the renowned architect Stanford White (of McKim, Mead & White), the church’s original mission was to serve the immigrant population of Lower Manhattan with health and recreational programs as well as religious services. In the 1950s Reverend Bob Spike (1949–55) asked his seminary intern, Budd Scott, to go into the neighborhood and spend time with the locals—including a significant contingent of struggling artists—to discover their needs. Scott found out that the artists urgently needed a place to present their work. Judson’s national reputation for fostering radical artistic practice came under the tenure of Reverend Howard Moody (...

Article

Vivian Endicott Barnett

[Vassily; Wassily] (Vasil’yevich)

(b Moscow, Dec 4, 1866; d Neuilly-sur-Seine, Dec 13, 1944).

Russian painter, printmaker, stage designer, decorative artist and theorist. A central figure in the development of 20th-century art and specifically in the transition from representational to abstract art, Kandinsky worked in a wide variety of media and was an important teacher and theoretician. He worked mainly outside Russia, but his Russian heritage continued to be an important factor in his development.

Kandinsky grew up in Odessa and from 1886 to 1893 studied economics, ethnography and law in Moscow, where he wrote a dissertation on the legality of labourers’ wages. He married his cousin Anya Shemyakina in 1892 (divorced 1911). In 1896 Kandinsky decided to become an artist and went to Munich. There he studied from 1896 to 1898 at the art school of Anton Ažbe, where he met Alexei Jawlensky and Marianne von Werefkin, and then in 1900 at the Akademie with Franz von Stuck. The following year he was a co-founder of the ...

Article

John E. Bowlt

(Nikolayevich)

(b Pereslavl’-Zalessky, Yaroslavl’ province, Sept 6, 1866; d Pereslavl’-Zalessky, Feb 9, 1943).

Russian illustrator and stage designer. After studying law at Moscow University, he enrolled in 1892 at the Academy of Arts in St Petersburg, where his principal mentors were Pavel Chistyakov (1832–1919) and Il’ya Repin. In 1896 he moved to Munich and with Grabar’ attended the private studio of Anton Ažbé. In 1900 he returned to St Petersburg, receiving his Academy diploma (1902) and in 1907 becoming a professor there. Kardovsky was one of the foremost students of the great draughtsman Chistyakov, whose graphic principles he maintained in his precision, sobriety and sense of measure. Although Kardovsky explored various styles, including Impressionism and Jugendstil, and enthusiastically supported Mikhail Vrubel’, whose posthumous exhibition he organized in 1912, he was concerned more with faithful representation than with formal experiment, demonstrating his consistency and common sense from 1902 in his prolific output as a book illustrator. Occasionally Kardovsky explored the discipline of political caricature, as in his illustrations for the radical journals ...

Article

(b Hamburg, Sept 14, 1876; d Pansdorf, nr Lübeck, May 13, 1954).

German painter, printmaker, poster and stage designer. He attended the Kunstgewerbeschule in Hamburg (c. 1894), and art academies in Düsseldorf and Berlin (c. 1897). In the first decades of the 20th century he exhibited with the New Secessionists. He drew and painted still-lifes and figures in landscapes and interiors in a strongly Expressionist style, which revealed his admiration for Cubism and for the work of Ferdinand Hodler. He was an assiduous worker; besides paintings, woodcuts and lithographs, he designed stained-glass windows, mosaics (e.g. Kaiser Wilhelm-Gedächtniskirche, Berlin), murals and painted ceilings. He also decorated the interiors of a number of Berlin theatres, as well as the Marmorhaus cinema (1913). Klein and Gerhard Marcks joined Gropius to organize the 1914 Deutscher Werkbund exhibition in Cologne.

In the post-World War I ferment of cultural and political activity, Klein, with Max Pechstein and others, founded the Novembergruppe in Berlin in ...

Article

Julia Robinson

(b Monaco, Nov 13, 1927; d Berkleley Heights, NJ, Jan 11, 2004).

Swedish–American engineer. Klüver was known for his important collaborations with artists at the dawn of media art. Having grown up in Sweden, he came to the USA in 1954, and pursued a PhD in electrical engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. After relocating to the East Coast, he worked as a staff scientist at Bell Telephone Laboratories (1958–68). In 1960, Klüver’s compatriot, the renowned museum director H. K. G. Pontus Húlten, introduced him to the artist Jean Tinguely, to help the latter with his landmark, self-destroying, kinetic sculpture, Homage to New York (a 27-minute event staged in the Garden of New York’s Museum of Modern Art). This led to numerous collaborations, initiated by Klüver, in which he (and other engineers) would work with artists, dancers, and composers (e.g. Robert Rauschenberg, Robert Whitman (b 1935), Andy Warhol, Nam June Paik, Yvonne Rainer, and John Cage), culminating in ...

Article

Midori Yoshimoto

(b New York, NY, 1933).

American printmaker, sound artist and performance artist. She was one of the founding members of Fluxus, the international avant-garde collective formed in 1962. Transferring from Middlebury College to Pratt Institute in New York, Knowles studied painting and drawing with Adolph Gottlieb and Richard Lindner and graduated in 1956. By the late 1950s she had lost interest in painting and burnt all her early paintings in a bonfire. It was then that she befriended artists Dick Higgins (1938–98), George Brecht and composer John Cage whose meditation on everyday life and music of indeterminacy inspired her to pursue a new artistic path.

After marrying in 1960, Knowles and Higgins were invited by George Maciunas to perform in the Fluxus inaugural concert series in Europe. There Knowles started to write her “Propositions,” radical reinterpretation of Cagean text scores, which transferred the artistic agency to the audience. Among her early events, Make a Salad...

Article

Alkis Charalampidis

[Nicolas]

(b Zakynthos, 1741; d Zakynthos, 1813).

Greek painter, poet and Musician. He was a pupil of Nikolaos Doxaras (1754–9) and perhaps of Giambattista Tiepolo in Venice, the city that decisively influenced both his art and his life. After his return to Greece he was ordained (c. 1770), but due to his idiosyncratic character he suffered many personal vicissitudes. He worked chiefly on religious painting and portraits, his most important works being Litany (1766; Zakynthos, St Dionysios), modelled on Venetian images of religious processions, Pietà, Joseph and Nicodemus (both Zakynthos, Church of the Ascension), Mary Magdalen, Mary Cleopas, St John, St Peter, Six Scenes from the Life of the Blessed Virgin, Five Hierarchs (all Zakynthos, Mus.), Self-portrait (Zakynthos, D. Romas priv. col., see Lydakes, p. 200) and Portrait of a Nobleman (Athens, N. G.).

S. Lydakes: Lexiko ton hellenon zographon kai charakton [Dictionary of Greek painters and engravers] (1976), p. 200, iv of ...