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(b nr Freiburg im Breisgau; d Paris, March 6, 1785).

French cabinetmaker of German birth. Although nothing is known about his training, he was working in the workshop of Jean-François Oeben when he became the latter’s brother-in-law in 1759. He became a maître-ébéniste on 30 July 1766. He set up a workshop in the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Antoine, Paris, and produced luxurious furniture, which was sold by the dealers Simon-Philippe Poirier, Dominique Daguerre and Darnault to a distinguished clientele including the Comtesse de Provence, the Herzogin von Saxe-Teschen, Louise-Jeanne de Durfort, the Duchesse de Mazarin, the Marquise de Brunoy and the daughters of Louis XV, who decorated the Château Bellevue in Paris with some of Carlin’s most beautiful, lacquered furniture. Carlin was very assured in his use of materials and choice of bronzes. These characteristics are best illustrated in his construction of numerous pieces of furniture inset with porcelain plaques from the factory of Sèvres. His masterpieces include two commodes (...


Bernardina Sani

(b Venice, Oct 1675; d Venice, April 15, 1757).

Italian pastellist and painter. She was a daughter of Andrea Carriera, who worked in the mainland podesteria of the Republic of Venice, and of Alba Foresti, an embroiderer. She had two sisters: Angela, who married the painter Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini, and Giovanna, who, like Rosalba herself, never married. Pier Caterino Zeno (see Campori, 1886) and other, anonymous sources recorded that she was a pupil of Giuseppe Diamantini; according to Mariette, she originally painted snuff-boxes and later became a pupil of Federico Bencovich. There are more precise records of her life and of some of her works from 1700 onwards, when she started keeping the letters she received and rough copies of those she sent (Florence, Bib. Medicea-Laurenziana, MS. Ashburnham 1781).

During the early years of the century Carriera painted mainly miniature portraits on small pieces of oval-shaped ivory (e.g. Mrs Summers; London, V&A), which were often intended to adorn the inside of snuff-box lids. However, the portrait of ...


José Manuel Cruz Valdovinos

(b Córdoba, 1716; d Córdoba, 1793).

Spanish gold- and silversmith. He qualified as master of the guild of goldsmiths in Córdoba in 1736, and his earliest-known pieces follow the Baroque tradition prevalent there in the early 18th century and in particular the work of his father-in-law, Bernabé García de los Reyes (1696–1750). By the end of the 1750s his curving outlines and decoration (e.g. fonts in Caracas Cathedral) were Rococo in form, and this was the style that was to predominate in his work from the 1760s. He was appointed Cathedral Goldsmith in 1761 and made a number of ecclesiastical pieces (e.g. pyx, 1761, Córdoba, Mezquita; monstrance, 1768, La Orotava, Tenerife, Concepción Church; several pieces for the Bishop of Segovia, Martín Descalzo, 1769). He made several monstrances, including one (1769; in situ) for S Nicolás de la Villa, Córdoba, and one (1779–80; untraced) for Sigüenza Cathedral, for Cardinal Delgado, his most important patron. Castro’s work is characterized by the use of extended and twisted shafts (e.g. chalice, ...


Françoise de la Moureyre

(b Paris, 1677; d Paris, April 6, 1722).

French sculptor. He may have been trained by the elderly Etienne Le Hongre, but his supple and graceful style better reflects his long association with Corneille van Clève and is typical of the work produced by the sculptors working in France in the last decades of Louis XIV’s reign and during the Régence period. He executed decorative work at the Château Neuf de Meudon, Hauts-de-Seine (1706–7; destr.), and works in stone and bronze for the chapel of the château of Versailles (1709–10; in situ). He was received (reçu) into the Académie Royale in 1711 with a dramatic marble statuette of Dido Taking her Life (Paris, Louvre), and in 1713–15 he supplied gilt-bronze ornaments for the high altar of Notre-Dame, Paris, in conjunction with François-Antoine Vassé (1681–1736) under the direction of Robert de Cotte. In 1718 he carved a delightful Rococo marble statue of a nymph for the series ...


Ana Maria Rybko


(bapt Rome, May 8, 1663; d Rome, Dec 24, 1748).

Italian painter. At the age of 15 he was a pupil of Giuseppe Passeri in Rome and afterwards lived for a decade in northern Italy, especially in Turin. After returning to Rome he studied geometry and perspective with Andrea Pozzo. His style was first based on that of Carlo Maratti, but without the monumentality and tempered by the influence of Benedetto Luti; then he became a strong exponent of the Rococo, as can be seen in a series of light and charming decorations in Roman churches.

In 1691–3 Cerruti painted the figures in landscapes by other painters on the walls of some rooms in the Palazzo della Cancelleria, Rome, in a decorative scheme (destr.) commissioned by Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni. In 1697 he executed the Birth of the Virgin (Ponza, Santa Trinità), painted for S Venanzio ed Ansuino (destr.). He participated in the decoration of the ground-floor Sala delle Ninfe of the Palazzo Ruspoli, Rome, in ...


Bruce Tattersall

(b Exeter, 1711; d London, c. 1783).

English cabinetmaker. It is likely that he was apprenticed to his older brother Otho Channon (bapt 1698; d 1756), a chairmaker, in 1726. By 1737 he had established a cabinetmaking business in St Martin’s Lane, London. A spectacular pair of bookcases at Powderham Castle, near Exeter, Devon, bear brass plates engraved ‘J Channon Fecit 1740’. They are of architectural character featuring inlaid brass linear designs, arabesques and grotesques in a retardataire style associated with Jean Bérain I and are further embellished with highly finished, Rococo gilt-brass mounts in a style reminiscent of German, especially Dresden, furniture. On the stylistic evidence of engraved brass inlay combined with a flamboyant repertoire of ornamental mounts representing dolphins, satyr and female masks, foliage and waterfalls etc, other pieces are attributed to the Channon workshop, including a library desk (c. 1740; London, V&A) and the Murray writing-cabinet now in Temple Newsam House, Leeds. The latter masterwork embodies all the elements of the Powderham bookcases plus a plethora of drawers and concealed compartments, the pediment surmounted by classical figures in gilt bronze. The mounts feature satyrs and petrified fountains. The possibility of a connection with Germany arises from his father’s Christian name, Otho, and his mother’s maiden name, Sone, which may be German ...


James Yorke

English family of cabinetmakers. (1) Thomas Chippendale (i) probably learnt his craft in Yorkshire before establishing a cabinetmaking firm in London in the mid-18th century. His fame rests on his designs for Rococo and Neo-classical furniture. His son (2) Thomas Chippendale (ii) continued to run the family firm into the 19th century.

G. Beard and C. Gilbert, eds: Dictionary of English Furniture Makers, 1660–1840 (Leeds, 1986)

James Yorke

(bapt Otley, W. Yorks, June 5, 1718; bur London, Nov 13, 1779).

His father, John Chippendale (1690–1768), was a joiner. Little is known about Thomas’s early life, but he probably received some training from his father and later from Richard Wood (c. 1707–72), a York cabinetmaker. In his twenties Thomas moved to London; the earliest recorded reference to his presence there is his marriage to Catherine Redshaw at St George’s Chapel, Mayfair, on 19 May 1749...


Eva Zimmermann

(b Riedlingen an der Donau, Feb 12, 1706; d Riedlingen, June 22, 1777).

German sculptor. He studied under the sculptor Johann Eucharius Hermann (d 1727) in Biberach an der Riss, but it is possible that he may have been more strongly influenced by the sculptor and stuccoist Diego Carlone, then working at Weingarten Abbey. In 1728 Christian settled in Riedlingen, although he was not granted citizen’s rights there until 1736. Such early works as a Crucifixion group carved for the Hofkapelle at Messkirch (wood, 1738; Emmingen ab Egg, parish church) and a St Nicholas for the outside wall of the Provost’s chapel at Mochental (stone, 1738–44; in situ) are rather stiff but reveal in the treatment of the heads the attempt to achieve a heightened expression of spirituality, a characteristic of his mature work.

Christian worked for more than two decades for the Benedictine monasteries at Zwiefalten (1744–55) and Ottobeuren (1755–67). Johann Michael Feichtmayer from Augsburg worked at the same time on the decorative stucco, and ...


Geoffrey Beard

(b ?London, c. 1710; fl 1740–60).

English stuccoist. He is first recorded working in 1740 in Edinburgh for the architect William Adam at Drum House and the palace of Holyroodhouse; his work at the latter has not survived. There are numerous mentions of Clayton in the Hamilton manuscripts at Lennoxlove, Lothian (Box 127), which reveal he was employed in the 1740s by James Douglas-Hamilton, 6th Duke of Hamilton (1724–58), both at Holyroodhouse and at Hamilton Palace (destr.), where he also decorated the imposing Châtelherault garden pavilion (rest. 1988). Clayton’s major documented work (1747–51) was undertaken at Blair Castle, Strathclyde, for James Murray, 2nd Duke of Atholl (?1690–1764). The dining-room (c. 1750), one of the finest interiors in Scotland, includes Clayton’s hybrid of Baroque and Rococo plasterwork. The reclining stucco figures over the doors may have been the work of the Italian stuccoist Francesco Vassalli (fl 1724–63...


Françoise de la Moureyre

(b Paris, baptJune 10, 1646; d Paris, Dec 31, 1732).

French sculptor and bronze-caster. He came from a family of goldsmiths of Flemish origin who settled in Paris in the early 17th century. Early biographers state that he trained with Michel or François Anguier and at the Académie Royale. He spent six years at the Académie de France in Rome, where he is said to have studied above all the sculpture of Bernini. This was followed by four years in Venice. He applied for admission to the Académie in 1678, and he was received (reçu) in 1681 with a marble statuette of Polyphemus (Paris, Louvre), inspired by Annibale Carracci’s fresco in the Palazzo Farnese, Rome. From this time until 1720 he enjoyed a highly successful career in royal service and in the employ of the Church and of private clients. He devoted much energy to the affairs of the academy, eventually holding the office of Chancellor. He worked in every branch of sculpture, from monumental marble and bronze statues to small bronze statuettes and candlesticks....



Glenn F. Benge

[Michel, Claude]

(b Nancy, Dec 20, 1738; d Paris, Mar 28, 1814).

French sculptor. He was the greatest master of lyrical small-scale sculpture active in France in the later 18th century, an age that witnessed the decline of the Rococo, the rise of Romanticism and the cataclysms of revolution. Clodion’s works in terracotta embody a host of fascinating and still unresolved problems, questions of autograph and attribution, the chronology of his many undated designs, the artistic sources of his works, and the position of his lyric art in the radically changing society of his time. Little is known of the sculptural activity of Clodion’s brothers (see 1992 exh. cat., nos 90–93): Sigisbert-Martial Michel (b13 Jan 1727); Sigisbert-François Michel (b Nancy, 24 Sep 1728; d Paris, 21 May 1811; see 1992 exh. cat., p. 29, nos 11 and 12); Nicholas Michel (b17 Nov 1733); and Pierre-Joseph Michel (b2 Nov 1737).

Clodion trained in Paris with his uncle ...


Ana Maria Rybko

(b Foligno, July 23, 1739; d Rome, March 18, 1816).

Italian painter and decorator. Active in Umbria and the Lazio region, he worked initially in a Rococo language that revealed his links with the art of Rome in the first half of the 18th century, especially with Sebastiano Conca. Later he moved closer to the Neo-classical taste, always tempered by an exquisitely decorative flair. During his initial period of activity in Umbria, he produced the Virgin and Child with SS Peter and Paul (signed and dated 1775) at S Pietro in Foligno and decorated some rooms in the Palazzo Benedetti di Montevecchio (signed) and in the Palazzo Morelli at Spoleto (signed and dated 1773–5). After moving to Rome, where he was highly esteemed by Pope Pius VI, he produced decorations with grotesques and landscapes as well as biblical and mythological scenes in some of the most notable palaces of the city: at the Palazzo Chigi (1780–86; in collaboration with ...


Maria Leonor d’Orey

(b S Payo de Ruilhe, Braga, 1710–20; d Oporto, Nov 11, 1784).

Portuguese silversmith. Nothing is known of his early career. He was established in Oporto as a member of the Confraria de S Eloi (Confraternity of St Eligius) by 1747, as his name appears in a list of signatories to the ‘Covenant and Statutes of the workers in silver of the city of Oporto’ and to later additions to the Covenant, which was of major importance for the regulation of the craft in the city. In 1755 he was a guarantor for another goldsmith, Domingos Sousa Coelho, and he worked on the silver altarpiece (in situ) of Oporto Cathedral. This altarpiece was designed by the architect Nicolau Nasoni, whose work greatly influenced Sampaio. He also worked for the church of Clérigos from 1756 and for the church of S Ildefonso between 1760 and 1781. He was considered one of the best silversmiths in Oporto, being elected a judge of the goldsmiths’ guild in ...


Françoise Hamon

(b Paris, May 11, 1698; d Paris, Oct 1, 1777).

French architect. He belonged to a family of gardeners from Ivry, in the inner suburbs of Paris. He did not make the traditional trip to Italy to complete his education and appears to have learnt his trade with Nicolas Dulin.

The career and works of Contant are known chiefly from the praise of his contemporaries and through the publication of his executed buildings and designs, the Oeuvres d’architecture (1769), which includes drawings dating from 1739 onwards. This collection of 71 engravings has no written text, and many of the designs for doors and fountains are difficult to identify or date. The fountains are characterized by the use of a generally Baroque vocabulary: various types of rustication, columns with alternating bands, rockwork etc. The triumphal arches, on the other hand, remain close to the style of the reign of Louis XIV (see Louis XIV style).

Contant worked independently for the first time in ...


D. Signe Jones

(b Bologna, 1688; d Naples, 1772).

Italian sculptor. He worked within the tradition of late Baroque classicism in Rome, moving, in his mature works, towards a Rococo style. He studied painting with Giovanni Maria Viani or Domenico Viani and sculpture perhaps with Giuseppe Mazza. Little of his early Bolognese work remains. He went to Rome in the 1730s and participated in numerous decorative schemes for major architectural projects. His contribution included several over life-size, marble statues: a St Jerome (1735), for the façade of S Giovanni in Laterano (balustrade: sixth from right); Abundance (1735), for the Trevi Fountain (attic: far left); Pope Gregory the Great (1742–3), for the façade of S Maria Maggiore (upper balustrade: second from left); and a St Luke (1744), for the façade of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme (second from left).

Corsini also sculpted a number of portrait busts depicting cardinals for memorial tomb monuments by ...


Robert Neuman

(b Paris, 1656–7; d Passy, Paris, July 15, 1735).

French architect and urban planner. The most influential French Baroque architect during the Régence, he was Premier Architecte du Roi between 1708 and 1734. Financial constraints limited his work for the Crown, but he built many hôtels for the nobility, involved himself in numerous urban planning schemes and was frequently consulted by patrons abroad, particularly in Germany.

By 1676 de Cotte was working for Jules Hardouin Mansart, whose brother-in-law he later became. In 1681 Hardouin Mansart was appointed Premier Architecte du Roi to Louis XIV, and during his absence from court in 1687 de Cotte first attracted the attention of the King with his own drawings for the colonnade of the Grand Trianon at Versailles. Destined to play an important role in the Service des Bâtiments du Roi, in 1689 de Cotte embarked on a trip to Italy lasting six months in order to complete his architectural education.

Although the King’s costly wars brought a temporary halt to royal projects in the 1690s, the Treaty of Ryswick of ...


Stephen T. Clarke, Harley Preston and Lin Barton

English family of silversmiths, industrialists, collectors, and patrons, of French origin. The family originated from the town of St Pierre on the Ile d’Oléron off La Rochelle. They arrived in London a few years after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, and between 1708 and 1780 three generations of Courtauld silversmiths were registered at the Goldsmiths’ Company. Augustine Courtauld (c.1686–c. 1751) was apprenticed to Simon Pantin in 1701 and, after becoming a freeman of the Goldsmiths’ Company in 1708, he started a business as a plateworker in Church Court, off St Martin’s Lane in London. The majority of his work is of high quality, for example a silver tea-table (1742; St Petersburg, Hermitage) and the state salt of the Corporation of the City of London (1730; London, Mansion House). Augustine’s brother Pierre Courtauld (1690–1729) registered a mark in 1721...


Robert Neuman

(b Paris, 1671; d Paris, 1739).

French architect. He was the most important member of a family of architects active in Paris. His early work included adding a storey to the Hôtel de Sillery (1712) and additions to the Hôtel de Vendôme (1715) in the Rue d’Enfer, but his most significant contribution was the design of two hôtels particuliers in the Faubourg Saint-Germain, the fashionable neighbourhood on the west bank of the Seine. About 1720 he drew up plans for the first of these, the Hôtel de Matignon (in the Rue de Varenne), built 1722– 4 for Christian-Louis de Montmorency-Luxembourg, Prince of Tingry. In his initial project Courtonne organized the plan of this ‘hôtel-entre-cour-et-jardin’ around a single longitudinal axis, thus conforming to current practice. However, in his definitive plan the axes of the court and garden façades were made discontinuous, and although the circulatory path through the building lacked symmetry, this arrangement allowed both the court façade and the stable court to gain in breadth and prominence. His plan also placed an unusual emphasis on the public rooms, apparently as a means of accommodating the collections of the owner. In ...


William Garner

(fl Dublin, 1755–72).

Stuccoist, active in Ireland. In 1755 he was engaged by Bartholomew Mosse (1712–59), Master Builder of Dublin’s Rotunda Hospital, to ‘execute the stucco-work which is to be done in the chapel’. He was further employed in 1757 to ‘execute the stucco-work of the altar-piece … according to the plan and draft made by him’. In the Rotunda accounts he is described as a ‘statuary and stucco-man’. This is significant since the modelling of the figures in the chapel is by a different hand from that of the framework, foliage and other ornament, and there would appear to have been two plasterers at work on the background, both of them less assured than the modeller of the figures. The chapel’s ceiling plasterwork is full of Rococo movement, where allegorical groups of Faith, Hope and Charity are framed by angelic caryatids bearing texts. These caryatids have decisive gestures and keen expressions and yet wear an air of languid elegance, while the putti heads might easily have been modelled from those of babies in the Hospital. The ceiling’s centre and four corner panels were left empty in order to receive paintings by Giovanni Battista Cipriani, but these were never executed. The altarpiece itself displays angels adoring a lamb and is placed against a curtain hanging from a lambrequin. No further stucco work by Cramillion has been identified. However, in ...


(b London, 1694; d Southampton, Jan 25, 1770).

English goldsmith. He was the son of French Huguenot refugees who had settled in England in 1687. Apprenticed in June 1713 to Jean Pons, he entered his first marks between July 1720 and December 1721 and established a workshop in Old Compton Street, Soho, London, close to that of Nicholas Sprimont. During the 1720s Crespin’s reputation grew rapidly, and he attracted a number of commissions from the Portuguese court. An early example of his chasing skill can be seen on a cruet stand (1721; Colonial Williamsburg, VA), the rim of which is decorated with hunting scenes. Although brought up in England, he corresponded with clients in French and was aware of, and responsive to, stylistic developments in France. The silver gilt ice buckets (1732; Blenheim Pal., Oxon), for example, which he made for Charles Spencer, 3rd Duke of Marlborough (1706–58), relate closely to a Parisian engraving published in the 1720s. He maintained a high standard of workmanship and was an innovative designer, one of the few English goldsmiths to adopt the Rococo manner as early as the mid-1730s. His clients included ...