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Gordon Campbell

(b Saint-Louis-les-Bitche, in the Münzthal (now D’Argental), Lorraine, Feb 21, 1835; d Somerville, MA, March 31, 1906),

French glassmaker, active in the USA. He was apprenticed in the Cristallerie de Saint-Louis, Lorraine (see Saint-Louis Glasshouse). In 1860 he moved to America and initially worked for Dorflinger, Christian in Brooklyn, following the company to Pennsylvania in 1865. He worked from 1867–9 for the New England Glass Company and thereafter for the Boston & Sandwich Glass Co. until ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Valognes, Manche, May 15, 1824; d Paris, Jan 25, 1887).

French furniture-maker and interior decorator, active in New York. In 1835 his sister Marie-Felicité married Auguste-Emile Ringuet-Leprince (1801–86), scion of a French dynasty of ébénistes who were exporting furniture to America; in 1840 the two men formed a partnership called Maison Ringuet-Leprince. In 1848 Marcotte and Ringuet-LePrince moved to New York, where they established Maison Ringuet-Leprince on Lower Broadway; the firm was later known as Ringuet-Leprince and L. Marcotte (1849–60) and, after Ringuet-Leprince’s retirement, L. Marcotte & Co. (1860–1918). Their furniture consisted largely of adaptations of the Louis XV and Louis XVI styles. Marcotte’s interiors included three rooms in the house of Samuel Clemens (now the Mark Twain House and Museum) in Hartford, CT.

P. M. Johnston: ‘Dialogues between Designer and Client: Furnishings Proposed by Leon Marcotte to Samuel Colt in the 1850s’, Winterthur Portfolio, 19 (Winter 1984), pp. 257–75 N. Gray: ‘Leon Marcotte: Cabinetmaker and Interior Decorator’, ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

American, publicly-owned glassworks founded near Utica, NY, in 1810. In 1833 the factory was bought by the Grainger family, who moved it in 1844 to Mount Pleasant, near Saratoga, where it was renamed the Saratoga Mountain Glass Works; it later became known as Congressville. The factory made bottles and flint-glass tableware....

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

American glass factory founded in 1837 by Deming Jarves (1790–1869), who was also instrumental in establishing the New England Glass Co. and the Boston & Sandwich Glass Co. Located in South Boston, the Mt Washington Glass Works was operated by Luther Russell until his death. Jarves’s son, George D. Jarves, was a partner in the firm with others from 1846 until it was sold in 1861 to William L. Libbey (1827–83) and Timothy Howe (d 1866). In 1866 Libbey became sole proprietor, and in 1870 he moved the works to a modern factory in New Bedford, MA. Although the early products were apparently mundane, including lamps, tubes for table lamps, shades and table glass, the art wares produced after 1880 established the firm’s reputation. Beginning in 1878 the company patented several types of opal and shaded effects including ‘Lava’, ‘Burmese’, ‘Peachblow’, ‘Albertine’, ‘Royal Flemish’ and ...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker and Gordon Campbell

American glass factory founded in 1818 in East Cambridge, MA, by Deming Jarves (1790–1869), who developed and managed the company, and his associates. By the early 1820s more than 100 employees produced $150,000 worth of plain, moulded and cut glass using 2 furnaces, 24 glass-cutting mills and a red lead furnace. In 1826 Thomas H. Leighton (1786–1849) became superintendent of the works. During the 1850s the firm had grown to include 500 employees who operated 5 furnaces of 10 pots each to produce $500,000 worth of ware. Following the Civil War (1861–5), the firm’s fortunes declined, although the quality of its products was always held in the highest esteem. In 1878 the works were leased to William L. Libbey (1827–83), who had been agent for the company since 1872. He ran the firm from 1880 until his death in 1883, with his son ...

Article

Peter Bermingham

(b Richmond, VA, Nov 10, 1827; d New York, March 31, 1912).

American painter and stained-glass designer. He grew up in Clarksville, TN, where his stepfather was a tailor and his mother a milliner. In 1846 his request to be accepted as Asher B. Durand’s pupil was turned down, but Newman managed three years later to exhibit in the American Art-Union in New York. In 1850 he studied with Thomas Couture in Paris for five months. On a second trip to Paris in 1854, he visited Jean-François Millet in Barbizon. He worked as a portrait painter and occasional teacher of drawing, before serving briefly as an artillery lieutenant in the Confederate Army. After the Civil War, he apparently remained in New York, apart from a trip to Barbizon in 1882 and to Paris in 1908.

Although in 1872–3 he advertised himself as a portrait painter in Nashville, TN, and in the 1870s worked briefly as a stained-glass designer, Newman was primarily a painter of small compositions with a few figures, usually with a well-known religious, literary, or secular theme. One of his favourite subjects was the Virgin and Child (e.g. ...

Article

Bailey Van Hook

(b Bergen Heights, NJ, June 10, 1874; d Philadelphia, PA, Feb 25, 1961).

American painter, illustrator, stained-glass artist and author. Although she worked as an illustrator early on, Oakley is remembered as a muralist. Oakley attended the Art Students League, New York, Académie Montparnasse, Paris, and the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, but, most importantly, a class in illustration with Howard Pyle at the Drexel Institute, Philadelphia. Pyle teamed her together with Jessie Willcox Smith (1863–1935) to illustrate an edition of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s Evangeline (1897). Smith and Oakley and another illustrator, Elizabeth Shippen Green (1871–1954), rented adjoining studios in Philadelphia and subsequently lived together in a supportive camaraderie until Green’s marriage in 1911. During her brief career as an illustrator, Oakley completed over 100 illustrations, mostly for novels and short stories.

In 1900 she created a stained-glass window on speculation, which led to a major commission for stained-glass windows, mural decoration and a mosaic altarpiece for a church in Manhattan. That project brought her to the attention of architect Joseph Huston (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

American glass manufactory. In 1783 Captain Richard Pitkin and his sons established a glass factory at East Hartford (now Manchester), CT; it remained in production until c. 1830. The factory made flasks, bottles, cased demijohns (used to export vinegar and spirits to the West Indies) and green inkwells. The question of whether the so-called ‘Pitkin flasks’ (distinctive amber or green bottles designed to be carried in the pocket) were correctly thought to have been made at Pitkin has been resolved in recent excavations (...

Article

Jean A. Follett

(b Boston, MA, 1842; d Boston, MA, 1910).

American architect, stained-glass designer, furniture designer, and photographer. Preston was the son of Jonathan Preston (1801–88), a successful builder in Boston. William completed a year’s study at the Lawrence Scientific School in Cambridge, MA (later incorporated into Harvard University), and then went to Paris where he enrolled briefly in the Atelier Douillard. He returned to Boston in 1861 to work with his father, with whom he remained in partnership until the latter’s death. William then practised independently until his own death.

Preston was a prolific architect, designing over 740 buildings in the course of a career spanning 50 years. His early work was in the French Renaissance style, as seen in his Boston Society of Natural History building (1861–4), a tripartite structure with its floor levels arranged to equate with the proportions of the base, shaft, and capital of a Classical column. It has monumental Corinthian columns and pilasters and a central pediment flanked by a balustraded parapet. He worked in a typically eclectic manner during the 1870s and became an extremely fine designer in the Queen Anne Revival style in the 1880s and early 1890s. The varied massing, stained-glass windows, terracotta, moulded brick, and carved-wood detail of the John D. Sturtevant House (...

Article

American glass company founded in 1902 in Maspeth, Queens (New York) by five partners, led by Nicholas Bach (1862–1921), an Alsatian glass chemist who had previously worked for Tiffany. The company is named after a colourful Central American bird. The factory produced domestic iridescent glass (lampshades, vases, candlesticks) in an Art Nouveau style, often shaped like flowers, and also produced wares in historical styles. The factory closed in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Mary Chou

(b Highland Park, NJ, April 16, 1940).

American painter . In 1962 Snyder earned a BA in sociology from Douglass College in New Brunswick, NJ. From 1964 to 1966 she attended Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, where she graduated with an MFA. Snyder is well known for her highly expressive, tactile paintings filled with narrative, symbolism and politics.

In the early 1970s Snyder gained fame for her stroke paintings, in which bold brushstrokes in vivid colours traverse the width of the canvas, leaving pools and drips of paint in their path. Applied over a grid loosely sketched with pencil on canvas, these gestural marks both enforce and obscure the geometry and orderly containment of the grid (e.g. Lines and Strokes , 1969; artist’s col.). In contrast to Minimalism and colour field paintings, Snyder’s vibrant, energetic and expressive strokes seem to tell a story. Music has always been an integral part of her artistic process, as evidenced in such early works as ...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

American glass manufactory in Corning, NY, named after the county in which it is located. In 1903 the Steuben Glass Works were incorporated by T. G. Hawkes (1846–1913), his son Samuel Hawkes (d 1959), a cousin Townsend Hawkes and Frederick Carder, who in 1903 accepted Hawkes’s offer to join the firm. The works originally supplied blanks for cutting to T. G. Hawkes & Co., but later a great variety of decorative effects were produced at Steuben under Carder. ‘Aurene’, trademarked in 1904, was the most popular effect; this lustred surface was made by spraying the glass at-the-fire in blue, gold or in combination, with coloured bases on which a feathered effect was sometimes drawn. Jade glass, which has the appearance of jade stone, was produced in rose, white, blue, green, amethyst and two shades of yellow. Many different colours of transparent glass were made in a single hue or with shaded effects. In ...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

[Heinrich Wilhelm ]

(b Cologne, May 13, 1729; d Charming Forge, PA, Jan 10, 1785).

American glass manufacturer of German birth. He moved to Pennsylvania in 1750 and became associated with iron manufacturing through his marriage in 1752 to Elizabeth Huber, whose father owned an iron furnace in Lancaster Co., PA. At Elizabeth Furnace, near Brickerville, PA, Stiegel built in 1763 his first glasshouse, where window glass and bottles were made. Several of the craftsmen employed there had probably come from Caspar Wistar’s operation in southern New Jersey. Beginning in 1762 Stiegel was involved with other investors in the creation of Manheim, PA, a village for his workers. In 1764–5 he built there a glasshouse, and produced, in addition, some tableware.

In anticipation of the demand following the levying in 1767 of a tax on imported glass, and despite generally poor economic conditions, Stiegel opened in 1769 a second glasshouse at Manheim, the American Flint Glass Manufactory, for the production of fine tablewares in lead glass and coloured glass (...

Article

Deborah Cullen

(Robert)

(b Aguadilla, Puerto Rico, 1960).

Puerto Rican sculptor, active in the USA. Torres created plaster and fiberglass casts from life, depicting people in their communities. These include portrait busts, figurative tableaux, freestanding figures, and major outdoor murals. Torres worked both independently and in collaboration with John Ahearn (b 1951), with whom he regularly partnered from 1980.

When Torres was 4, his family moved to upper Manhattan and then to the Bronx. Torres began his art practice in 1979 at age 18 while working in a family factory casting religious statues. He visited Fashion Moda, an alternative space in the South Bronx. There, he met John Ahearn, who was making plaster body casts of neighborhood people. Torres became one of Ahearn’s subjects, and Torres’s first heads were cast there and exhibited alongside Ahearn’s. Torres convinced Ahearn to move to Walton Avenue in 1980, where they worked closely with the community. That year they participated in the historic Times Square Show. Between ...

Article

Richard J. Boyle

(b Cincinnati, OH, Aug 4, 1853; d Gloucester, MA, Aug 8, 1902).

American painter and printmaker. He began as a painter of window-shades but developed one of the most personal and poetic visions in American landscape painting, portraying nature on canvases that were, in the words of Childe Hassam, ‘strong, and at the same time delicate even to evasiveness’. His first artistic training was under Frank Duveneck, with whom he studied first in Cincinnati and then in Munich (1875–7). His absorption of the Munich style, characterized by bravura brushwork and dextrous manipulation of pigment, with the lights painted as directly as possible into warm, dark grounds derived from Frans Hals and Courbet, is reflected in such paintings as Venice Landscape (1878; Boston, MA, Mus. F.A.) and Landscape (c. 1882; Utica, NY, Munson–Williams–Proctor Inst.)

Twachtman became increasingly dissatisfied with the Munich style’s lack of draughtsmanship, so he went to Paris in 1883 to study at the Académie Julian. In the winter he concentrated on drawing, and in the summer he painted in the Normandy countryside and at Arques-la-Bataille, near Dieppe. ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Regina Soria

(b New York, Feb 26, 1836; d Rome, Jan 29, 1923).

American painter, illustrator, sculptor, and writer (see fig.). He studied under Tompkins Harrison Matteson in Shelbourne, NY, and went to Paris in March 1856. After eight months in the studio of François-Edouard Picot, he settled in Florence until the end of 1860. There he learnt drawing from Raffaello Bonaiuti, became interested in the Florentine Renaissance and attended the free Accademia Galli. A more significant artistic inspiration came from the Italian artists at the Caffè Michelangiolo: Telemaco Signorini, Vincenzo Cabianca (1827–1902), and especially Nino Costa (1827–1902). This group sought new and untraditional pictorial solutions for their compositions and plein-air landscapes and were particularly interested in the experiences of Gustave Courbet and the Barbizon painters. They became known as Macchiaioli for their use of splashes (macchia) of light and shadows and for their revolutionary (maquis) attitude to prevailing styles. Among Vedder’s most notable Florentine landscapes are ...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

American glass-cutting shop formed in 1880 by Thomas Gibbons Hawkes (b Surmount, Ireland, 1846; d Corning, NY, 1913). Hawkes was born into a glass-cutting family in Surmount. He arrived in the USA in 1863 and first worked at the Brooklyn Flint Glass Works, which moved to Corning, NY, in 1868; in 1871 he became supervisor of the Corning Glass Works. Hawkes’s glass-cutting shop was founded in 1880, and he purchased blanks, which are plain, unadorned objects for cutting from the Corning Glass Works. After 1904 his craftsmen used blanks from the newly established Steuben Glass Works, which Hawkes had formed in partnership with members of his family and Frederick Carder. In addition to blanks Carder also provided designs for Hawkes’s cutters. After Steuben became a subsidiary of the Corning Glass Works in 1918, Hawkes’s blanks came from the Libbey Glass Co.

T. G. Hawkes & Co. is perhaps best known for its ‘Russian’ pattern, a heavy, rich-cut design that decorated a service ordered for the ...

Article

Michelle Yun

[ James, Christopher Mallory ]

(b Vineburg, CA, June 11, 1943; d New York, NY, Nov 17, 1987).

American sculptor. Born Christopher Mallory James, Wilmarth moved to New York in 1960 to attend the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art. He took a year off in 1962 after the suicide of his brother but returned, receiving a BA in 1965. There he met and later married fellow artist Susan Rabineau. Wilmarth worked briefly as a studio assistant for Tony Smith from 1967 to 1969. He was appointed an adjunct instructor of art at Cooper Union in 1969, where he taught until 1980.

Wilmarth’s Minimalist sculptures composed of glass and metal are meditations on light and space. A critical turning point occurred when he first introduced glass into his sculptures in 1967. These early constructions made from highly polished birch and sheets of tempered glass were inspired by his work as a cabinetmaker. The atmospheric translucence of glass achieved by etching the surface with hydrofluoric acid captivated the artist and by ...