41-60 of 64 results  for:

  • Architecture and Urban Planning x
  • Art Education x
Clear all

Article

Linda Wylleman

(b Ghent, Feb 29, 1820; d Cologne, March 19, 1895).

Belgian architect and teacher. He studied architecture and engineering at Ghent University, graduating in 1841, and completed his studies in Munich and in Italy. He worked mainly in Ghent, where he was town architect (1856–67), an early work being the pavilions (1851; destr. 1904) for the zoological gardens, designed in a style that combined Romanesque Revival with picturesque cottage characteristics. Other works in the Romanesque Revival style, designed by Pauli before 1865, include two large welfare institutions, the Dr Jozef Guislain psychiatric institute (1853–76) at Jozef Guislainstraat 43 and the Lousberg home for retired workmen (1862–5) at Lousbergkaai 89, as well as many schools (1858–66). His extension (1864–84) of the Bijlokehospital was in the Gothic Revival style in order to match the existing buildings. From 1865 he favoured the Renaissance Revival style, evident, for example, in the orphanage for boys (...

Article

Michael Spens

(b Vienna, March 18, 1928).

Austrian architect, writer, teacher and draughtsman. He studied (1949–53) under Clemens Holzmeister at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna. After establishing his own practice in Vienna in 1953, he designed buildings in a pure form inherited from the Modernism of the 1930s. The Krim Elementary School (1961) in Vienna was followed by school buildings (1963–5), including dormitories, a refectory and gymnasium, for the Dominican convent, Vienna, where facilities for varied activities are integrated harmoniously in one complex. In the late 1960s Peichl’s work became more expressive, while still maintaining absolutely rational planning principles. The Rehabilitationszentrum (1965–7) in Meidling, Vienna, demonstrated a growing interest in the expression of service functions at roof-level, whereby the building’s inherent characteristics are made more explicit to the onlooker. This tendency became more recognizable in the series of radio stations he designed for the ORF network across Austria from ...

Article

Michael Spens

(b Berlin, April 30, 1869; d Berlin, June 14, 1936).

German architect, designer and teacher. He was the father-figure of the Expressionist group of the Deutscher Werkbund, his vision and practical genius representing a link between the English Arts and Crafts Movement and later stages of Jugendstil and the fervour of the emerging Modern Movement after World War I. Poelzig studied architecture (1889–94) at the Technische Hochschule, Berlin, under Carl Schäfer, a neo-Gothicist. After military service and a period in the Prussian Office of Works, he left Berlin in 1900 to take a teaching post in the Königliche Kunst- und Kunstgewerbeschule, Breslau (now Wrocław), becoming its director from 1903 to 1916. There he introduced workshop-based courses that influenced the later teaching policy of Walter Gropius at the Bauhaus. Poelzig’s early buildings included two houses, one at an exhibition of applied art (1904) in Breslau and his own house (1906) at Leerbeutel, near Breslau. Both are examples of the influence in Germany at that time of English Arts and Crafts houses. Rough-cast rendering divided into rectilinear panels by smooth bands characterized his own house and also appeared in his evangelical church (...

Article

Simon Lee

Term applied to the premier student prize awarded by the successive state-sponsored academies in Paris. The successful painter, sculptor or architect was able to study at the Académie de France in Rome for three to five years. The Prix de Rome originated in two competitions for drawing held in 1663 at the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture to stimulate rivalry between pupils and thereby invigorate the Académie’s ailing teaching system. In 1664 Jean-Baptiste Colbert (see Colbert family §(1)) overhauled the Académie’s statutes. Article XXIV stipulated that an annual prize was to be awarded for representations of ‘the heroic actions of the King’: the initial ‘Prix Royal’ was won by Pierre Mosnier with Jason Capturing the Golden Fleece (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.), in which Louis XIV is shown as Jason.

There was no connection between the prize and the city of Rome until 1666, when the ‘Académie de France à Rome’ was established so that students might study approved examples of Classical and Renaissance art and produce high-quality copies of paintings and sculpture to be sent back to France to decorate the royal palaces (...

Article

Wilfried Posch

(b Klagenfurt, May 1, 1910; d Vienna, April 10, 2004).

Austrian architect, urban planner, writer and teacher. He studied architecture (1928–33) at the Technische Universität, Vienna, and then worked from 1937 at the Deutsche Akademie für Städtebau in Berlin. After World War II he began writing books that proposed solutions to urban planning and housing problems. He also established a practice as an independent architect in Vienna, working mainly in the functionalist tradition. During his career he completed more than 50 projects of the most diverse kinds and scale: office buildings, schools, kindergartens, swimming-baths, churches, multi-purpose halls, factories, a radio and television centre and numerous residential buildings including an influential estate of prefabricated detached houses (1954; with Carl Auböck), Vienna, that served as a model for much post-war reconstruction work in Austria. Other well-known examples of his work are his multi-purpose halls: the Stadthalle (1952–8), Vienna, the Friedrich-Ebert-Halle (1962–5), Ludwigshafen am Rhein, and the Stadthalle (...

Article

Nadja Rottner

French critic and philosopher Nicolas Bourriaud adopted the term ‘relational aesthetics’ in the mid-1990s to refer to the work of a selected group of artists, and what he considers their novel approach to a socially conscious art of participation: an art that takes as its content the human relations elicited by the artwork. Its key practitioners, most of them emerging in the 1990s, include Rirkrit Tiravanija , Philippe Parreno (b 1964), Liam Gillick, Pierre Huyghe, Maurizio Cattelan, Carsten Höller , and Vanessa Beecroft . For example, Carsten Höller installed Test Site (2006) at the Tate Modern in London so that visitors could enjoy the amusement park thrill of large playground slides in the museum’s Turbine Hall, and bond with fellow viewers over their experience. Bourriaud’s collected writings in Relational Aesthetics (1998, Eng. edn 2002) helped to spark a new wave of interest in participatory art.

While Bourriaud omits acknowledging the historical roots of relational art, Marxist-influenced critiques of the changing conditions of modern life, and arguments for art’s ability to improve man’s relationship with reality have a long history in 20th-century art. Critics Walter Benjamin and Siegfried Kracauer were among the first to developed new models for an art of politicized participation in the 1920s. The relational art of the 1990s and early 2000s is a continuation and an extension of traditions of participatory art throughout the 20th century (such as ...

Article

Jean van Cleven

(b Nieuwpoort, Jan 3, 1786; d Ghent, April 5, 1864).

Belgian architect. He was the son of a carpenter; from 1803 he trained at the Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Ghent, where he was awarded a first prize in 1808. He went to Paris, where he worked in the important studio of Charles Percier(-Bassant) and Pierre-François-Léonard Fontaine. Together with L. Renard, Tieleman-Frans Suys and others, he contributed to the Choix des plus célèbres maisons de plaisance de Rome et de ses environs (1809–12), with drawings by Fontaine and Percier. In 1811 he won the Prix de Rome but did not go to Italy for health reasons. The fall of the Empire brought him back to Belgium in 1815, and he was appointed City Architect and professor at the Academie voor Beeldende Kunsten in Antwerp. His entry for a competition in London to make a monument commemorating the Battle of Waterloo, and above all his design (1816) for the auditorium of Ghent University, instantly established his reputation. He returned to Ghent, where he held the post of City Architect from ...

Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

(b Barrow-in Furness, 1935).

British historian of Islamic art. After studying philosophy, politics and economics at Oxford and teaching philosophy there, his interests gradually shifted to Islamic art, particularly the art and architecture of Seljuq Anatolia, about which he eventually wrote his Ph.D. He taught at the American University of Cairo from 1965 until 1977, when he joined the Department of Oriental Antiquities at the British Museum. From 1991 to 2000 he was the Nasser D. Khalili Professor at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London and has been Honorary Curator of the Khalili Collection of Islamic Art since 1992. His extensive and meticulous scholarship, largely found in hundreds of learned articles, chapters, and reviews, is marked by his fluency in many languages and vast knowledge of primary sources.

J. M. Rogers: The Spread of Islam (Oxford, 1976) J. M. Rogers: Islamic Art and Design 1500–1700 (exh. cat., London, BM, 1983)...

Article

Roy R. Behrens

(b Lafayette, AL, Nov 7, 1903; d Columbus, OH, Dec 1, 1981).

American artist, designer and teacher . His childhood interest in drawing was counterbalanced by parallel involvements in science and engineering. He took high school courses in engineering drawing, which he went on to study at Ohio State University (OSU) in 1921. Soon after, he changed his major to architecture, then art, eventually earning a degree in fine arts in 1927. Hired the following year to teach basic drawing, he remained on the OSU art faculty until his retirement in 1974. The most eventful phase of his life began in 1941, when, in response to the bombing of Pearl Harbor, he devised an extraordinary method (which he credited to Rembrandt) of using drawing to improve the visual acuity of students, with the intention that they might then better detect the presence of enemy airplanes. This teaching method, for which he also admitted indebtedness to Paul Cézanne and the Gestalt psychologists, consisted of asking his students to draw from projected slides in a pitch black room called a flash laboratory. Each slide was projected for only one-tenth of a second, in response to which the students drew from memory in total darkness. By collaborating with non-art members of the OSU faculty (especially educational psychologist Ross L. Mooney and optical physiologist Glenn A. Fry), Sherman was able to argue persuasively that the accuracy of his students’ perception had improved markedly by drawing in the flash laboratory, so much so that members of the university football team were required to work with him daily, with the goal of improving their passing. The results of this teaching method were formally presented in ...

Article

Lloyd C. Engelbrecht

(b Detroit, MI, Aug 2, 1913; d Chicago, IL, Feb 1, 1978).

American photographer and educator. Siegel is known for a vast body of black-and-white and color photographs that include documentary images as well as creative experiments (e.g. photograms). His importance as an educator was in integrating photography into a four-year university-level curriculum and in establishing photography as a field in graduate study. An avid collector of vintage photographs, Siegel integrated insights from his vast knowledge of photographic history into his studio classes. At a time when the importance of Chicago’s architectural heritage was still little understood, he and his colleagues and students at the Institute of Design in Chicago documented this heritage in a vast body of skillful and sensitive photographs; one result of this effort was a book edited by Siegel, Chicago’s Famous Buildings, first published in 1965.

Siegel graduated from Wayne State University in 1936 with a degree in sociology; by that time he had begun his career as a photographer, and following graduation he taught photography as a part-time instructor at Wayne State. His early work included portraits as well as photographs sold to newspapers and newswire services, including New York Times/Wide World Picture Service....

Article

Elizabeth Meredith Dowling

(b Oakland, CA, April 23, 1948).

American architect, educator, historian and writer. Smith’s lasting contribution to architecture was reintroducing the teaching of classical and traditional design that had been supplanted in American architectural education by modernist precepts. These modernist ideas originated in the early 20th-century at the Bauhaus in Germany.

Smith’s academic training began in 1970 with a Bachelor of Arts in painting from the University of California at Berkeley. After an extensive period of study and travel in Europe, including trips to Rome and Vicenza, he refocused his training on architecture and received a Master of Architecture in 1975 from the University of California at Berkeley. Smith’s early architectural projects expressed the current Postmodern style that incorporated historic elements in an otherwise modern building. His growing interest in canonical classicism influenced his decision to apply for the Rome Prize in Architecture, which allowed him to study at the American Academy in Rome in 1979. He was included in the seminal ...

Article

Lisbet Balslev Jørgensen

(Marius)

(b Germany, 1893; d 1979).

Danish landscape architect, teacher and writer. After training as a horticulturist he worked in Copenhagen from 1914 to 1922 as a draughtsman for the landscape architect, Erik Erstad-Jørgensen (1872–1945). From 1922 he ran his own practice, and from 1924 to 1929 he collaborated with another Danish landscape architect, G. N. Brandt (1878–1945). He became a lecturer in landscape gardening at the Kunstakademi, Copenhagen, in 1940, and as the first professor of landscape and garden architecture from 1954 to 1963 he devised training courses for the modern landscape architect. He evolved his theories in discussion and collaboration with Povl Baumann, Ivar Bentsen, Kaare Klint, Kay Fisker, Aage Rafn and Steen Eiler Rasmussen. Carl Petersen’s concepts of ‘Contrasts’ and ‘Textural Effects’ were the basis of their aesthetic views.

Sørensen aimed to avoid monotony, to create harmony and unity, and to give significance to landscape through spatial experience and sculptural forms. His materials were earth and plants. He learnt his art by visiting European gardens and saw the new ideas put into practice in Frankfurt am Main and Berlin. Through his prolific writings, his teaching and close collaboration with leading architects he had a profound influence on the cultivation of physical surroundings, on parks and woods, roads and motorways, architecture and environment in housing developments, residential suburbs and country-house gardens. The circle and the oval were Sørensen’s favoured forms. He saw in the Greek amphitheatre the divine idea projected down upon earth, citing as an example the Viking settlement at Trelleborg in Scandinavia. His own garden, created in ...

Article

Simone Rümmele

(b Purmerend, Aug 5, 1899; d Goldach, Switzerland, Feb 23, 1986).

Dutch architect, urban planner, designer, theorist and teacher. He was a leading figure in the Modern Movement, and his experiments in minimum expenditure of material and effort for the maximum social benefit were highly influential in the 1920s and 1930s. After serving an apprenticeship as a joiner, he attended a seminar for drawing teachers at the Rijksnormaalschool voor Tekenonderwijs in Amsterdam from 1917 to 1919, obtaining a diploma. He trained during the vacations in the office of J. M. van der Meij, gaining his first experience in architecture, and from 1919 to 1922 in the office of Marinus Jan Granpré Molière in Rotterdam. During this period he met the Swiss architects Hans Schmidt and Werner Moser, and in 1920 he joined the avant-garde architects’ association Opbouw, De. In 1922 he moved to Berlin, where he worked as a draughtsman with Werner von Walthausen (1887–1958), Max Taut and Hans Poelzig. There he also produced his project (...

Article

Roger White

(b Woodford, Essex, 1714; d London, Sept 27, 1788).

English architect and sculptor. His father Robert (1690–1742), a master mason and monumental sculptor with a successful business in and around the City of London, apprenticed him at the age of 18 to the sculptor Henry Cheere. On completion of the apprenticeship he was given ‘just money enough to travel on a plan of frugal study to Rome’, but his studies there were cut short by news of his father’s death. On his return home he found the family finances in disarray; nevertheless he took over his father’s yard and soon prospered, even though it was some time before the debts were paid off. His own reputation as a sculptor was sufficiently advanced by 1744 for Parliament to commission from him a monument to Capt. James Cornewall in Westminster Abbey, London. In the same year he won the commission for the carved pediment of the Mansion House, London (a building on which his ...

Article

Ramón Alfonso Méndez Brignardello

(b Rome, c. 1740; d Santiago de Chile, 1799).

Italian architect, active in Chile. He began his career in the office of Francesco Sabbatini, who at that time was working for the Spanish authorities in Naples. In 1759 Charles IV of Naples assumed the Spanish throne as Charles III (reg 1759–88) and took Sabbatini to Madrid as architect to the Crown, together with his best assistants, including Toesca. Toesca’s career in Madrid was pursued under Sabbatini’s shadow, but he came into his own when he was seconded to Chile in 1778 to rebuild Santiago Cathedral, burnt down in 1769. Reusing the existing foundations, Toesca produced a Neo-classical design, now obscured by late 19th-century additions. His major work was the mint in Santiago, the Real Casa de Moneda, now the executive residence. The plan is laid out around several courtyards behind a Neo-classical elevation that features a three-storey central block in three bays flanked by two-storey wings. The central block is articulated below by four sets of coupled columns of a giant order, to which coupled pilasters correspond on the third floor. In lieu of columns, the six-bay wings are marked off by clustered pilasters and surmounted by a heavy balustrade. The composition recalls Luigi Vanvitelli’s backdrop to the Piazza Dante, which was going up in Naples while Toesca was working on ...

Article

Ramón Gutiérrez

(b Enguera, Valencia, 1757; d Mexico City, Dec 24, 1816).

Spanish architect, sculptor, and teacher, active in Mexico. He studied at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Carlos, Valencia, at a time when Baroque forms were being rejected in Spain and Neo-classicism was being promoted. He was apprenticed to the sculptor José Puchol Rubio (d 1797), who also taught him extensively about architecture. In 1780 Tolsá moved to Madrid, where he studied under Juan Pascual de Mena and at the Real Academia de Bellas-Artes de S Fernando, where his subjects included painting. There he also designed several reliefs, including the Entry of the Catholic Kings into Granada (1784; Madrid, Real Acad. S Fernando). He was selected as an academician in 1789.

Following the endorsement of Juan Adán and Manuel Francisco Alvarez de la Peña, in 1790 Tolsá succeeded José Arias (c. 1743–88) as director of sculpture at the Real Academia de S Carlos de la Nueva España in Mexico City. He took with him a collection of plaster casts for sculptures, many books, and 154 quintals (7 tonnes) of plaster for the Academia. He arrived in ...

Article

J. James Read

(b March 6, 1821; d Paris, Oct 30, 1907).

French architect, teacher and writer. He trained as an engineer at the Ecole Centrale des Arts et Métiers, Paris, where he later taught (1854–95). After training he ran a ceramics factory before enrolling as a pupil of the architect Louis-Tullius-Joachim Visconti. He developed a particular interest in hygiene in buildings and in 1849 was appointed to a government commission to study the design of public baths. In 1865 he founded the Ecole Centrale d’Architecture in Paris. Set up in opposition to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, it was intended to lead reform in architectural education, giving it a more practical, scientific basis and relating it to the current debate on such social issues as housing. One of the school’s directors was Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, who had been involved in the ultimately unsuccessful attempts to reform the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1863. The school was financed by private shareholders, among them many engineers and industrialists but few architects. The architectural profession was in fact critical of Trélat’s venture and ensured that the school never really became established, so that, from ...

Article

Marita Sturken

Culture of images and visuality that creates meaning in our world today. This includes media forms such as photography, film, television, and digital media; art media such as painting, drawing, prints, and installations; architecture and design; comic books and graphic novels; fashion design, and other visual forms including the look of urban life itself. It also encompasses such social realms as art, news, popular culture, advertising and consumerism, politics, law, religion, and science and medicine. The term visual culture also refers to the interdisciplinary academic field of study that aims to study and understand the role that images and visuality play in our society; how images, gazes, and looks make meaning socially, culturally, and politically; how images are integrated with other media; and how visuality shapes power, meaning, and identity in contemporary global culture.

The emergence of the concept of visual culture as a means to think about the role of images in culture and as an academic field of study is a relatively recent phenomenon, emerging in the late 1980s and becoming established by the late 1990s. There were numerous factors that contributed to the idea that images should be understood and analysed across social arenas rather than as separate categories, including the impact of digital media on the circulation of images across social realms, the modern use of images from other social arenas (such as news and advertising) in art, and the cross-referencing of cultural forms displayed in popular culture and art. It was also influenced by the increasingly visible role played by images in political conflict and a general trend toward interdisciplinarity in academia....

Article

Christina Lodder

[Vysshiye (Gosudarstvennyye) Khudozhestvenno-Tekhnicheskiye Masterskiye ; Rus.: Higher (State) Artistic and Technical Workshops]

Soviet school of art and architecture, active in Moscow from 1920 to 1930. It was established by state decree on 29 November 1920, on the basis of the first and second State Free Art Studios (Svomas), which had themselves been set up in December 1918 by fusing the old Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture with the Stroganov School of Applied Art. The Vkhutemas was conceived explicitly as ‘a specialized educational institution for advanced artistic and technical training, created to train highly qualified master artists for industry, as well as instructors and directors of professional and technical education’. Official concerns reflected contemporary artistic discussions on the role of art in the new society and its participation in industrial production; this was called ‘production art’, although the term covered a wide range of approaches, from applied and decorative art to the emerging concept of design promoted by the First Working Group of ...

Article

Krystyna Sroczyńska

[pseud. Ptaszek ]

(b Warsaw, June 15, 1764; d Warsaw, April 20, 1826).

Polish painter, printmaker and teacher. He trained as a master builder and then from 1780 studied under André Lebrun (1737–1811) in the school of painting at the Royal Castle in Warsaw, as well as under Jakub Monaldi and Simon Bogumił Zug. In 1785 Vogel produced several watercolour copies of vedute of Warsaw by Bernardo Bellotto, which laid the foundations of his future career. He also became Bellotto’s first successor in the field of veduta painting. From 1785 Vogel painted over 100 vedute of the capital and its environs (e.g. Panoramic View of Warsaw from Praga, 1816; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.), many of which, because of their detail and precision, were later used to reconstruct monuments destroyed during World War II. From 1787 until 1800, on the recommendation of Stanislav II Poniatowski, who appointed him his Government Illustrator, and later, on his own initiative, Vogel made several trips around Poland, painting views of castles and their ruins, and of large and small towns mainly in the Wisła River basin. From ...