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William Hauptman

(b Winterthur, Oct 7, 1763; d Aussersihl, Schwyz, April 10, 1830).

Swiss painter and engraver. He studied under Johann Rudolf Schellenburg in Winterthur and then, in 1778, with Heinrich Rieter (1751–1818) in Berne, where he was also influenced by the topographical landscapes of Johann Ludwig Aberli. He was adept at executing such sharply detailed engravings of Swiss cities as View of Lucerne (c. 1790; e.g. Lucerne, Zentbib.), which he sold to tourists. In 1802 he published an important series of views of Switzerland, which were widely circulated. His skill as a painter of animals was sometimes combined with his rendering of the landscape, as in View of the Lake of Bienne (c. 1800; Winterthur, Kstmus.). In 1807 he taught drawing in Basle and in 1814 was active in the area around Lake Constance. His paintings are often characterized by warm colours and frequently capture the atmosphere of late afternoon, as in Murg on the Lake of Walen...


Fabian Stein


German family of goldsmiths, furniture-makers and engravers. Lorenz Biller (i) (fl c. 1664–85) achieved prominence with works for Emperor Leopold I, for whom he made a centrepiece with a knight on a horse (1680–84; Moscow, Kremlin, Armoury) that was sent to Moscow as an ambassadorial gift. Lorenz Biller (i)’s sons, Johann Ludwig Biller (i) (1656–1732), Albrecht Biller (1663–1720) and Lorenz Biller (ii) (fl c. 1678–1726), supplied silverware of the highest quality to several German courts, especially that of Prussia, for which Albrecht made large wine-coolers and ‘pilgrim’ bottles (1698; Berlin, Schloss Köpenick). The strongly sculptural style of these pieces suggests familiarity with the work of Andreas Schlüter. Albrecht Biller’s abilities as a sculptor are also evident in his reliefs and in seven splendid silver vases he supplied to the court of Hesse-Kassel (c. 1700; Kassel, Hess. Landesmus.). The silver vases ordered by the court usually followed French fashions, yet the form and lavish decoration of these pieces are quite different. A pair of vases by ...


David Bindman

(b London, Nov 28, 1757; d London, Aug 12, 1827).

English printmaker, painter and poet. His reputation as a visual artist increased during the 20th century to the extent that his art is as well known as his poetry (see fig.). Yet in his own mind Blake never completely separated the two, and his most original work is to be found in hand-printed books of prophecy, which developed a personal mythology of limitless intellectual ambition. In these books, text and design are completely integrated in what he called ‘illuminated’ printing. He also made many pen and watercolour drawings, prints in various media and a small number of tempera paintings, but even in these his broader aims were primarily theological and philosophical: he saw the arts in all their forms as offering insights into the metaphysical world and therefore potentially redemptive of a humanity he believed to have fallen into materialism and doubt.


Marie-Claude Chaudonneret

(b La Bassée, nr Lille, July 5, 1761; d Paris, Jan 4, 1845).

French painter and printmaker. The son of a wood-carver, Arnould Boilly (1764–79), he lived in Douai until 1778, when he went to Arras to receive instruction in trompe l’oeil painting from Dominique Doncre (1743–1820). He moved to Paris in 1785. Between 1789 and 1791 he executed eight small scenes on moralizing and amorous subjects for the Avignon collector Esprit-Claude-Franĉois Calvet (1728–1810), including The Visit (1789; Saint-Omer, Mus. Hôtel Sandelin). He exhibited at the Salon between 1791 and 1824 and received a gold medal at the Salon of 1804. From the beginning his genre subjects were extremely popular with the public and collectors. In 1833, at a time when his popularity was declining, he was admitted to the Légion d’honneur and the Institut de France.

His early works (1790–1800) show a taste for moralizing, amorous and sentimental subjects inherited from Jean Honoré Fragonard and Jean-Baptiste Greuze that combine anecdote and a delight in the tactile qualities of textiles. Boilly sought the ‘sensibilité’ and the ‘émotion’ dear to Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Denis Diderot. His mannered colouring and precise techniques are almost those of a miniaturist, and recall such Dutch 17th-century genre painters as ...


Marie-Félicie Pérez

(b Lyon, Nov 30, 1736; d Lyon, March 1, 1810).

French printmaker, draughtsman and painter. Apart from studying briefly at the Ecole Gratuite de Dessin in Lyon, he was self-taught. His first concentrated phase as a printmaker was 1758–64, during which he published three suites of etchings. Boissieu spent 1765–6 in Italy in the company of Louis-Alexandre, Duc de la Rochefoucauld (1743–93), returning to Lyon via the Auvergne with a cache of his own landscape drawings. He remained in Lyon, where he published further prints at intervals, making occasional trips to Paris and Geneva. Boissieu’s prints earned him the reputation of being the last representative of the older etching tradition—he particularly admired Rembrandt van Rijn—at a time when engraving was being harnessed for commercial prints, and lithography was coming into use. For his landscape etchings Boissieu drew upon the scenery of the Roman Campagna, the watermills, windmills and rustic figures of the Dutch school (notably Salomon van Ruysdael) and the countryside around Lyon. He also engraved ...


Christian Michel

(b Paris, 1736; d Saint-Mandé, nr Paris, Oct 20, 1793).

French engraver and publisher. He came from a family of artisans and owed his training in engraving to his brother-in-law, the engraver Louis Legrand (1723–1808). Through Legrand, Bonnet became the pupil of Jean-Charles François in 1756, a year before the latter discovered the Crayon manner technique of engraving, designed to reproduce the effect of a coloured-chalk drawing. Around the end of 1757 Bonnet used the new technique to engrave a Cupid (see Hérold, no. 2A) after François Eisen. Gilles Demarteau, a rival of Jean-Charles François, enticed Bonnet to join his workshop and learnt the technique from him.

Bonnet engraved some 15 plates for Demarteau, and in 1760 he set up his own shop. During this period he strove to perfect the crayon manner by producing prints using several different plates, each inked with a different colour. Initially, he tried to reproduce drawings executed in black and white chalk on blue or buff paper; to do this he had to make a white ink that would not yellow with age. He was the first to use points of reference to print several plates one on top of the other. In ...


L. Fornari Schianchi

(b Arcisate di Como, 1727; d Parma, Nov 4, 1792).

Italian stuccoist, printmaker, painter and collector. Before studying anything else he learned stucco decoration from his father Pietro Luigi (d 1754), who worked in Germany from 1743 until his death. Stucco work always remained Bossi’s main activity, alongside that of printmaking, especially etching. His experiments in the latter field followed in the tradition of the great Venetian printmakers. He was encouraged by Charles-François Hutin, who was in Dresden from 1753 to 1757 and whom he followed to Milan and Parma. His first etching, based on a work by Bartolomeo Nazari (1693–1758), was done in Milan in 1758. From 1759 on he was in Parma, where he produced some plates for the Iconologie tirée de divers auteurs (1759) by Jean-Baptiste Boudard, and where he executed the stucco trophy decoration for the attic of S Pietro, the construction of which began in 1761. From this date Bossi also collaborated with the designer ...


Alastair Laing

(b Paris, Sept 29, 1703; d Paris, May 30, 1770).

French painter, draughtsman and etcher. Arguably it was he, more than any other artist, who set his stamp on both the fine arts and the decorative arts of the 18th century. Facilitated by the extraordinary proliferation of engravings, Boucher successfully fed the demand for imitable imagery at a time when most of Europe sought to follow what was done at the French court and in Paris. He did so both as a prolific painter and draughtsman (he claimed to have produced some 10,000 drawings during his career) and through engravings after his works, the commercial potential of which he seems to have been one of the first artists to exploit. He reinvented the genre of the pastoral, creating an imagery of shepherds and shepherdesses as sentimental lovers that was taken up in every medium, from porcelain to toile de Jouy, and that still survives in a debased form. At the same time, his manner of painting introduced the virtuosity and freedom of the sketch into the finished work, promoting painterliness as an end in itself. This approach dominated French painting until the emergence of Neo-classicism, when criticism was heaped on Boucher and his followers. His work never wholly escaped this condemnation, even after the taste for French 18th-century art started to revive in the second half of the 19th century. In his own day, the fact that he worked for both collectors and the market, while retaining the prestige of a history painter, had been both Boucher’s strength and a cause of his decline....



(bapt Brussels, Oct 3, 1644; d Brussels, 1711).

Flemish painter, draughtsman and engraver. He was the son of Nicolas Boudewijns and Françoise Jonquin. On 5 October 1664 he married Louise de Ceul, and on 22 November 1665 he became a master in the Brussels Guild of St Luke, after having been registered as a pupil of Ignatius van der Stock (fl 1660) in the same year. By 1669 he had fled to Paris, where he met fellow Flemings, Pieter Boel, Abraham Genoels, Adam Frans van der Meulen and Jan van Hughtenburgh (1647–1733), and where he was mainly active as an engraver. He engraved van der Meulen’s Battles of Louis XIV and numerous works by Genoels, van Hughtenburgh and by himself. These prints combine bold execution with careful attention to detail. In 1669–70 he was sent to the southern Netherlands with Genoels and van Hughtenburgh to draw three views of the château of Mariemont as tapestry designs for the ...


Manfred Sellink


(bapt Brussels, Dec 5, 1658; d Brussels, Jan 28, 1719).

Flemish painter, draughtsman and etcher. He enrolled at the Brussels guild of painters in 1671; his teacher is not known. From c. 1675 he spent several years in Paris, where he frequently collaborated with Adriaen Frans Boudewijns, a fellow countryman, as in the Village Fair (1686; Antwerp, Kon. Mus. S. Kst.), for which he painted the figures. He was then active in Brussels, where he married in 1695. He probably visited Italy.

Almost all Bout’s dated works were made before 1700. He painted views of towns, villages, ports and beaches in the tradition of Jan Breughel I. They are similar to the paintings of Boudewijns and Jacques d’Arthois, for whom he also often painted staffage. He also painted Italianate landscapes in the manner of Nicolaes Berchem, such as the Resting Place (c. 1680; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.). His paintings have an easy and lively character, and he used the brush with precision, as in the ...


Shearer West

(b Dorrington, Salop, Jan 19, 1719; d London, Dec 12, 1804).

English engraver and print-seller. The son of a land surveyor, Boydell at first pursued his father’s occupation. In 1731 the family moved to Hawarden in Flintshire (now Clwyd), Wales, where he began making copies of book illustrations. He saw an engraving of Hawarden Castle (c. 1740) by William Henry Toms (c. 1700–c. 1750) that induced him to go to London in 1740 to become Toms’s apprentice. He also enrolled in the St Martin’s Lane Academy. In 1746 he established himself as an independent engraver with a shop on the Strand, where he produced inexpensive topographical prints and published his first collection of engravings, The Bridge Book (c. 1747). In 1751 he moved to a larger shop in Cheapside, where he began to import landscape prints after Claude Lorrain and Salvator Rosa. Boydell paid unprecedented sums to William Woollett to engrave Claude’s Temple of Apollo...


(fl London, 1770–90).

English etcher. He exhibited three etchings at the Society of Artists in 1771, two after portraits of Oliver Cromwell and Prince Rupert of the Rhine by Samuel Cooper, the miniature painter, and one after an unattributed portrait of a lady. The following year he exhibited an etching ‘from a drawing by Mr. Bunbury’ there and thus found his true métier as an etcher of robust satirical prints. He produced over 60 plates after Henry William Bunbury, in etching and aquatint, between 1772 and 1783, including Snip Français and Snip Anglais (both 1773), Hyde Park (1781) and Symptoms of Rearing (1783; all London, BM). His original works include Pot Fair (1777) and Trip to Scarborough (1783; both London, BM), which satirizes contemporary fashions.

F. G. Stephens and M. D. George: Catalogue of Political and Personal Satires, London, BM cat., v (London, 1935/R 1978)...


(b Speyer, 1709; bur; Mannheim, Dec 21, 1760).

German painter, draughtsman and etcher. Trained by Johann Georg Dathan (1703–c. 1748) in Speyer, he was a court painter in Mannheim from 1733 until his death, from 1755 gallery director and from 1757 a privy councillor. Of the religious works that, as a court painter, he was obliged to produce, the only ones that survive are frescoes (spandrel paintings) depicting the Four Quarters of the World (after 1748; Mannheim, former Jesuit church of SS Ignaz und Franz Xavier) and ceiling paintings in Electress Elizabeth Augusta’s library in Schloss Mannheim.

Brinckmann’s landscapes show two opposing trends. On the one hand, there are small, detailed picturesque landscapes in courtly or rural settings with suitable accessories, often with many figures. According to the terms of his contract, he had to produce two such paintings each year; typical examples are the Court Gardens at Mannheim (1745) and Wolfbrunnens near Heidelberg...


Fintan Cullen

Irish family of painters and engravers. Active from the 1780s to the 1860s, the Brocas family included five landscape painters who worked on a small scale, largely in the media of watercolour and engraving. Views of Dublin and other Irish towns and paintings of animals and antiquities predominate, together with engraved portraiture. Henry Brocas sr (1762–1837) was a prolific engraver and an occasional landscape painter. His achievements in landscape were recognized in 1801, when he was appointed Master of the Landscape and Ornament School of the [Royal] Dublin Society. As an engraver, he is memorable for his many portraits of Dublin figures of the late 18th century. Many of these were published in the Hibernian Magazine. He had four sons who became artists, of whom James Henry Brocas (c. 1790–1846) is remembered chiefly as an animal painter. Like his father and brothers, he exhibited at the Society of Artists of Ireland in Dublin between ...


John Turpin and Gordon Campbell

(b Dublin, c. 1710; d Chester, after 1756).

Irish mezzotint engraver, active also in England. He learnt the technique of mezzotint engraving in London and on his return to Dublin opened a workshop with Andrew Miller (d 1763). Their workshop became the training ground for a group of Irish engravers who moved to London, where they influenced the development of mezzotints of Old Master and contemporary paintings. On returning to London in ...


(b Edinburgh, 1749; d Leith, Sept 5, 1787).

Scottish draughtsman and printmaker. He was the son of a goldsmith and watchmaker, and studied at the Trustees’ Academy, Edinburgh, before moving to Rome in 1769 to join his friend Alexander Runciman. He produced small-scale or miniature works, using pencil, pen and wash. For his Scottish employers, William Townley and Sir William Young, he drew antiquities, landscapes and archaeological ruins in Italy and Sicily, such as the Basilica of Constantine and Maxentius (c. 1774–6; Edinburgh, N.G.). Among the more personal works that survive from his 11 years in Italy are a number of strange little genre scenes, such as Two Men in Conversation (c. 1775–80; U. London, Courtauld Inst. Gals), which clearly show the influence of another friend, Henry Fuseli. Brown’s reputation rests principally on his great skill as a portrait draughtsman. He returned to Scotland in 1780, and spent his later years executing fine pencil and pen portraits of various dignitaries, such as ...


David Alexander

(b Finchingfield, Essex, April 26, 1741; d London, Oct 2, 1801).

English engraver. He was apprenticed to the engraver John Tinney (d 1761), who was also the master of William Woollett, to whom Browne transferred his apprenticeship in 1761–3. He remained with Woollett until 1766, and Woollett found in him the ideal assistant for his system of preliminary etching. According to Blake, ‘Woollett’s best works…all that are called Woolletts were Etchd by Jack Brown’ (William Blake’s Writings, ed. G. E. Bentley jr, Oxford, 1977, ii, p. 1035); in fairness to Woollett, however, Browne’s contribution was acknowledged on the prints and in advertisements. Browne engraved many plates of his own and made his name with a number of large prints of pictures by Claude Lorrain, Meindert Hobbema, Peter Paul Rubens and Salvator Rosa, which he engraved for John Boydell in the late 1760s. In 1770 he was one of the first Associate Engravers elected to the Royal Academy. Browne was a specialist engraver and all his prints, which include four after his own drawings (published in the late 1790s), have a landscape element....


(b Paris, July 3, 1755; d Paris, March 26, 1804).

French painter and etcher. A pupil of Martin Roeser (1757–1804) and Jean-Philippe Sarazin (d ?1795), Bruandet was a wild and dissolute character who achieved posthumous fame as a precursor of the Barbizon School of landscape painters. Inspired by the Dutch masters of the 17th century, he favoured a naturalistic depiction of landscape and painted extensively in the open air. His most frequent subjects were the forests of the Ile-de-France, notably that of Fontainebleau, where he became a familiar if solitary figure: Louis XVI noted in his diary on 14 July 1789 that, while out hunting in the forest of Fontainebleau, he had encountered nothing but boars and Bruandet. Bruandet exhibited a View in the Forest of Fontainebleau (untraced) at the Salon of 1789, but, though he continued to exhibit regularly until his death, he met with no great critical acclaim. He was a good friend of his contemporary Georges Michel, and, like Michel, he often called on other artists to paint the figures in his landscapes, especially ...


[Giovanni Battista]

(b Venice, 1712; d Venice, Oct 16, 1796).

Italian printmaker. His family was from Belluno. He studied with Josef [Giuseppe] Wagner (1706–80) (Moschini). An able reproductive engraver, Brustolon mostly employed a technique that combined etching and engraving, and his work was done for the best Venetian publishers. He is known mainly for his reproductive prints after works by Canaletto. In 1763, for the publisher Ludovico Furlanetto, Brustolon produced a series entitled Prospectuum aedium, viarumque insigniorum urbis Venetiarum (see 1983 exh. cat., pp. 83–7, nos 53–8), dedicated to the Doge Marco Foscarini (reg 1762–3) and initially composed of 12 views of Venice after Canaletto. It was later completed by the addition of 10 more plates after Michele Giovanni Marieschi and Giambattista Moretti in addition to further plates after Canaletto. Brustolon’s most famous series, also published by Furlanetto, was Feste dogali (1766–c. 1770; see 1983 exh. cat., pp. 87–93, nos 59–66), featuring 12 large engravings of ceremonies and festivals attended by the Doge, derived from drawings by Canaletto. Around ...


Susan Morris

English family of draughtsmen and engravers. The earliest known publications by Samuel Buck (b Richmond, N. Yorks, 1696; d London, 17 Aug 1779) are engraved prospects of English towns issued in the early 1720s. He was acquainted with the Yorkshire antiquaries Ralph Thoresby (1658–1725) and John Warburton (1682–1759); a volume of over 250 drawings by Buck formerly in Warburton’s possession survives (London, BL, Lansdowne MS. 914). By 1724 he had moved to London; that year he issued his first series of engraved views of ancient ruins. The second series, showing ruins in Lincolnshire and Nottinghamshire, was probably based on sketches made c. 1724–6 when Buck was drawing antiquities for William Stukeley (e.g. Gatehouse of Thornton College, Lincs; Oxford, Bodleian Lib.). From 1728 to 1754 Buck collaborated with his brother Nathaniel Buck (fl 1724–after 1753) and others to produce prints of antiquities and town prospects, based on sketches made on their annual tours. Among the earliest and most systematic antiquarian illustrators in Britain, the Bucks were influenced both by the panoramic approach of such Dutch artists active in England as Jan Wyck and by the compositional detail of French topographers, for example ...