You are looking at  41-60 of 148 results  for:

  • Nineteenth-Century Art x
Clear All

Article

Fintan Cullen

(b Dublin, Dec 6, 1819; d London, Nov 4, 1857).

Irish painter and designer of stained glass. He began his training at the Dublin Society’s Art Schools in 1827 (aged eight) and in 1837, when only eighteen, was made a Royal Hibernian Academician. He was a highly successful portrait painter and received much of his patronage from the Roman Catholic hierarchy, which had been liberated as a result of the Catholic Emancipation Act (1829). From the age of ten or eleven he exhibited portraits of these senior churchmen at the newly formed Royal Hibernian Academy, and he showed regularly there until his early death. His portraits of distinguished leaders of Irish Catholic society include that of Daniel Murray, Archbishop of Dublin (1846; Dublin, N.G.). Crowley also designed stained-glass windows for a number of the new post-Emancipation Roman Catholic churches in Dublin, for example the Baptisterium in St Nicholas of Myra (1840). In 1836 Crowley moved to London, where he exhibited at the British Institution (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1848; d 1926).

French potter, glass-maker and sculptor. He was the son of a porcelain modeller at Sèvres, where Albert-Louis was eventually to have his own studio, where he became an exponent of the Pâte-sur-pâte technique of ceramic decoration. His early work is maiolica designed under Italian influence, but from the early 1880s he turned to stoneware designed under Japanese influence. He designed for other manufacturers, notably the ...

Article

Claire Brisby

French family of glassmakers. In 1878 Jean Daum (b Bischwiller, 1825; d Nancy, 1885), from Alsace, acquired a glass factory, which he renamed Verrerie de Nancy, and there began to produce traditional tableware. His eldest son, Auguste Daum (1853–1909), joined the factory in 1879 and was followed by Antonin Daum (1864–1930), who managed the business from 1887. To save the company from financial ruin, the brothers enlarged the range of coloured glassware in the 1890s, producing etched, moulded and cameo glass with naturalistic motifs in the Art Nouveau style inspired by the work of their fellow townsman Emile Gallé. Painters and decorators, chief among them being Henri Bergé, provided designs executed by numerous skilled craftsmen under the supervision of Auguste. The originality of Daum glass lies in the diversity of such decorative techniques as enamelling, etching and casing developed for large-scale production, rather than in the quality of decoration. All pieces made after ...

Article

Joellen Secondo

(b Peckham Rye, London, Jan 29, 1845; d London, April 18, 1910).

English designer and writer. He was educated in France and Germany, but his interest in design was provided by visits to the South Kensington Museum, London (now the Victoria & Albert Museum). In 1865 he entered the office of Lavers & Barraud, glass painters and designers. Some time later he became keeper of cartoons at Clayton & Bell and by 1870 had joined Heaton, Butler & Bayne, for whom he worked on the decoration of Eaton Hall, Ches. In late 1880 Day started his own business designing textiles, wallpapers, stained glass, embroidery, carpets, tiles, pottery, furniture, silver, jewellery and book covers. He designed tiles for Maw & Co. and Pilkington’s Tile and Pottery Co., stained glass and wallpaper for W. B. Simpson & Co., wallpapers for Jeffrey & Co. and textiles for Turnbull & Stockdale where he was made Art Director in 1881.

Day was a founder-member and Secretary of the ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1880; d 1971).

French glassmaker who established a studio at Conches, where he was an early exponent of Pâte de verre, which he used from c. 1900 to produce small glass sculptures and figures, initially in an Art Nouveau style and later in a more austere idiom. By 1904 Décorchemont had developed a method of colouring glass to make it resemble translucent stones....

Article

Gordon Campbell

English ceramics factory in Denby, Derbys; the successor of Bourne, Joseph, & Son & Son. In the 19th century the company was a manufacturer of stoneware bottles, but in the late 19th century the competition from cheaper glass bottles forced the company to diversify. It chose in the first instance to concentrate on decorative and kitchen wares with richly coloured glazes. Its decorative and giftware products (vases, bowls, tobacco jars) were stamped ‘Danesby Ware’. In the 1930s the company introduced the bright ‘Electric Blue’ and the matt blue–brown ‘Orient ware’ giftware lines, and in the same period introduced kitchenware in ‘Cottage Blue’, ‘Manor Green’ and ‘Homestead Brown’, all of which continued in production till the early 1980s.

In the 1950s giftware production was reduced and Denby introduced new lines of tableware, especially dinner services. ‘Echo’ and ‘Ode’ were introduced in the early 1950s, followed by ‘Greenwheat’ (1956), ‘Studio’ (...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

(b Alsace, March 16, 1828; d White Mills, PA, 1915).

American glass manufacturer of French birth. He was apprenticed to his uncle at the age of ten to learn glassmaking at the Compagnie des Verreries et Cristalleries de St Louis in eastern France and in 1846 moved to the USA with his family. He first worked in a small glasshouse in Philadelphia. Between 1852 and 1860 Dorflinger built three glasshouses in Brooklyn, NY, each larger than the one before, for the manufacture of lamps, of glass tubes for table lamps and later of blanks for other factories. In his third factory, the Greenpoint Glass Works, he produced blown, cut and engraved tableware of such superior quality that in 1861 it was chosen for use in the White House, Washington, DC, by Mrs Mary Todd Lincoln (1818–82).

In 1863 Dorflinger moved to a farm in White Mills, PA, where in 1865 he built a small glasshouse. Experienced glass workers from Greenpoint taught local farm boys their craft, and French glass artists from St Louis were invited to work there. About ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1876; d 1955).

French designer of furniture, glass, metal, ceramics and interiors. He was a pioneering exponent of Art Deco and a detractor of Art Nouveau, which in practice meant that he aspired to a style that was neither historical nor mannered. Dufrène was a founder-member in 1901 of the Société des Artistes-Décorateurs (SAD). He inaugurated a range of furniture in very dark native wood and defended functionalism and the use of mechanical processes and mass production. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

American glasshouse established in Philadelphia in 1773 as the Kensington Glassworks; in 1831 the company was acquired by Dr T. W. Dyott and was thereafter known as the Dyottville Glass Works. The factory produced flint-glass table ware and a variety of bottles (notably cylindrical whiskey bottles in the third quarter of the 19th century); it specialized in pictorial flasks, some with historical themes. Dyott withdrew from the company on being declared bankrupt in 1838, but the firm continued to produce glass (including coloured glass from the 1840s) until the end of the century.

T. W. Dyott, J. Sergeant and M. Carey: An exposition of the system of moral and mental labor: Established at the glass factory of Dyottville, in the county of Philadelphia: Embracing a description of the glass factory, together with the system of industry therein pursued, with the report of the committee chosen to investigate the internal regulations of the place...

Article

Portuguese ceramics and glass factory. It was founded in Ílhavo, near Aveiro, in 1824 by José Ferreira Pinto Basto (1774–1839), and the licence obtained on 1 July 1824 permitted the manufacture of earthenware, porcelain and glass (see Portugal, Republic of, §VIII). Pinto Basto’s son Augusto Valério Ferreira Pinto Basto (1807–1902) was the first managing director and spent some time at the Sèvres porcelain factory, where he learnt the various processes and techniques involved in porcelain production from the director Alexandre Brongniart (1770–1847). In 1826 Pinto Basto was granted a 20-year monopoly for his enterprise. However, as only very small deposits of kaolin were available in the early stages, the factory produced creamware, stoneware and a few pieces of poor-quality porcelain. Two Neo-classical enamelled and gilded cups and saucers (1827; Lisbon, Mus. N. A. Ant.) have inscriptions indicating that they were fired in the first kiln of ware from this factory and were painted by ...

Article

Damie Stillman

Architectural and decorative arts style that flourished in the USA from shortly after the acknowledgement of independence in the Treaty of Paris (1783) until c. 1820. The term is derived from the period surrounding the creation of the federal constitution in 1787 and was in use in a political sense by that year. Essentially it was a form of Neo-classicism, strongly influenced by manifestations of that style in England and, to a lesser extent, in France; but at times certain more conservative qualities inherited from the previous Colonial period are also present. The inspiration of European, and especially English, Neo-classical architecture was to be expected in a society grounded in that of 18th-century England; but an added impetus was the association often cited at the time between the fledgling American republic and the ancient Roman one.

Although a few indications of European Neo-classical influence are found in the American colonies before the Revolution began in ...

Article

Sabine Kehl-Baierle

(b Leonfelden, Upper Austria, Nov 2, 1878; d Stockerau, nr Vienna, Nov 5, 1936).

Austrian designer, painter and illustrator. He studied from 1899 to 1902 under Kolo Moser and Karl Karger (1848–1913) at the Kunstgewerbeschule in the Österreichisches Museum für Kunst und Industrie in Vienna, and in 1903 under Ludwig Herterich (1856–1932) at the Kunstakademie in Munich. He was represented at the 15th exhibition of the Vienna Secession in 1902 and produced woodcuts for Ver Sacrum in 1903. He was co-founder of the Vereinigung Wiener Kunst im Hause; he designed the poster for the exhibition of 1903–4 and showed stained-glass windows, naturalistic watercolours of peasant types, and tapestry designs. He made numerous study trips to Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and especially Italy, where he studied the work of glassmakers and mosaicists in Ravenna, Rome and Venice. From 1906 he worked intensively to revive the art of the mosaic, prepared the foundation of the Wiener Mosaik Werkstätte (trade licence 1908) and added his own glassworks in ...

Article

(b Upper Norwood, Surrey, Jan 25, 1872; d Kensington, London, March 10, 1945).

English illustrator, painter and designer. She entered the Royal Academy Schools, London, and won a prize for a mural design in 1897. She specialized in book illustration, in pen and ink and later in colour. Among her many commissions were illustrations to Tennyson’s Poems (1905) and Idylls of the King (1911) and Browning’s Pippa Passes (1908). She was particularly popular with the publishers of the lavishly illustrated gift-books fashionable in the Edwardian era. She exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy and the Royal Water-Colour Society. She took up stained-glass design (windows in Bristol Cathedral), which modified her style of illustration to flat areas of colour within black outlines. She also painted plaster figurines and designed bookplates.

Fortescue-Brickdale continued the Pre-Raphaelite tradition, reworking romantic and moralizing medieval subjects in naturalistic and often strong colour and elaborate detail. Her most important oil painting is The Forerunner...

Article

Gottlieb Leinz

(b Stolp [now Stupsk, Poland], July 10, 1878; d Maidanek concentration camp, nr Lublin, March 9, 1943).

German painter, sculptor, stained-glass designer and writer. He studied art history (1903–4) in Berlin and Munich. After a visit to Florence (1905–6), he began to experiment with sculpture and studied with Lothar von Kunowski (b 1866) in Berlin (1907–8). He spent 1908–9 in Paris, where he met Picasso, Braque and Gris. Between 1910 and 1914 he divided his time between Paris, Berlin and Cologne: from 1910 he participated in the exhibitions of the Berlin Secession and from 1913 had contacts with the Sturm-Galerie in Berlin. His expressive early works included both sculptures and flat, geometric paintings (e.g. Composition with Figure, 1911; Pontoise, Mus. Pontoise). Having spent World War I in Cologne, from 1918 to 1924 he lived in Berlin, where he was one of the founder-members of the Novembergruppe in 1918, and contributed to the radical newspaper Die Aktion: Zeitschrift für Freiheitliche Politik und Literatur Aktion....

Article

Jon Whiteley

(b Paris, March 25, 1813; d Montigny-lès-Corneilles, nr Paris, Jan 16, 1880).

French painter, writer and lithographer. He was given his first art lesson by his uncle, Nicolas-Auguste Hesse, in Paris, then moved to the studio of Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. According to Auvray in the Dictionnaire général, he also studied with the sculptor Denys Foyatier. Like a number of Ingres’s pupils, Galimard was involved in decorating the newly built or newly restored churches of the July Monarchy and the Second Empire. At his first Salon in 1835 he exhibited Three Marys at the Tomb, a Châtelaine of the 15th Century and a portrait of his cousin, Mme Lefèvre (all untraced). The following year he exhibited one of his first attempts at glass painting, The Queen of the Angels (broken by a gust of wind during the exhibition), and a painting, Liberty Leaning on Christ Flanked by the Apostles James and John (untraced), a subject indicating sympathy with the social ideology of Charles Fourier or Saint-Simon. In ...

Article

(b Geneva, Jan 29, 1761; d Astoria, NY, Aug 12, 1849).

American politician and glassmaker of Swiss birth. Gallatin is best known for his public roles as Secretary of the Treasury under President Jefferson and President Madison, but he was also an important glass manufacturer. He moved to America in 1780, and in 1797 founded the New Geneva Glassworks in Western Pennsylvania. The factory began production in ...

Article

Elisabeth Lebovici

(Charles Martin)

(b Nancy, May 4, 1846; d Nancy, Sept 23, 1904).

French glassmaker, potter and cabinetmaker. He was the son of Charles Gallé-Reinemer, a manufacturer of ceramics and glass in Nancy, and as early as 1865 he started working for his father, designing floral decoration. From 1862 to 1866 he studied philosophy, botany and mineralogy in Weimar, and from 1866–7 he was employed by the Burgun, Schwerer & Cie glassworks in Meisenthal. On his return to Nancy he worked in his father’s workshops at Saint-Clément designing faience tableware. In 1871 he travelled to London to represent the family firm at the International Exhibition. During his stay he visited the decorative arts collections at the South Kensington Museum (later the Victoria and Albert Museum), familiarizing himself with Chinese, Japanese and Islamic styles. He was particularly impressed with the Islamic enamelled ware, which influenced his early work. In 1874, after his father’s retirement, he established his own small glass workshop in Nancy and assumed the management of the family business....

Article

Roger Billcliffe

(b Glasgow, Nov 7, 1865; d Glasgow, June 18, 1936).

Scottish painter, stained-glass designer and illustrator. He attended evening classes at the Glasgow School of Art from 1882 to 1885 while an apprentice lithographer. In 1887 he worked as an illustrator on a Glasgow newspaper and in 1889 provided illustrations for a book of poetry by James Hedderwick. His paintings of this period were realist in subject and low in tone, but these illustrations show an awareness of Pre-Raphaelite technique and symbolism, particularly that of Dante Gabriel Rossetti.

Symbolism of a similar kind appeared in his oil paintings in 1889. In two works, Music (priv. col., see Billcliffe, pl. 232) and St Agnes (London, Andrew McIntosh Patrick priv. col., see Billcliffe, pl. 233), the change in subject was accompanied by a more colourful palette and more thickly applied paint. Perspective is flattened, and a dark outline surrounds each figure and other objects in the composition. The religious symbolism and outlined technique, which may have influenced his close friend Charles Rennie Mackintosh, almost certainly reflect Gauld’s involvement in designing stained-glass panels. Throughout the 1890s he worked freelance for some of the many stained-glass manufacturers in Glasgow. For ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

American glasshouse founded in Philadelphia in 1861 by William Gillinder, an English glassworker who had moved to America in 1854. For the first few years it was called Franklin Flint Works, and manufactured glass chimneys and glassware. When William’s sons, James and Frederic, joined the company in 1867, the name was changed to Gillinder & Sons and the product range expanded. In 1876 the company built and operated a complete glass factory on the Centennial International Exhibition in Philadelphia, making and selling popular pressed souvenir pieces as well as cut and engraved glass. The attention that Gillinder's displays of cut glass attracted at the exhibition led to a boom in the cut-glass industry. In 1912 the brothers William and James Gillinder bought the Bronx and Ryal glasshouse in Port Jervis, NY, and operated there as the Gillinder Brothers. The Philadelpha glasshouse closed in the 1930s, but the Port Jervis factory continues to produce fine glass....

Article

(Ivanovich)

(b 1856; d 1914).

Russian architect based in St Petersburg. One of the first of his designs to be built was the church of the Virgin of Joy for All Sorrowing (Bogomater’ vsekh skorbyashchikh radosti) attached to the glass factory on Obukhovskaya Oborona Prospect (1894–8, destr. 1932; chapel survives), with Aleksandr Ivanov. This was a fantasy on the theme of 17th-century national religious architecture: a three-part structure (bell-tower, refectory, church), with the orthodox five domes and kokoshniki typical of the Moscow school of architecture. The church was an example of the ‘Russian style’ of the reign of Alexander III (reg 1881–94), leading to the Russo-Byzantine style of Konstantin Ton and Nikolay Yefimov. Gogen’s use of the ‘Russian style’ was highly original, as in the central market building in Nizhny Novgorod (end of the 1880s; with K. Treyman, A. Trambitsky and Nikolay Ivanov), with its fairytale decoration and use of kokoshniki, ogee arches and other elements from Old Russian architecture....