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Philip J. Jacks

(b Florence; d Rome, 1517–21).

Italian antiquary. He was appointed chaplain of S Lorenzo in Florence in 1493 and canon of the basilica six years later. In Florence he learnt painting from Domenico Ghirlandaio and poetry from the Medici courtier Naldo Naldi. In 1502 he went to Rome, where from 1505 he served as chaplain to the cardinal of S Sabina, Fazio Santori. Only one copy of Albertini’s Memoriale di molte statue e pitture della città di Firenze (Florence, Bib. N. Cent.), published by Antonio Tubini in Florence on 2 October 1510, survives; there is also a revised and corrected manuscript copy of the printed text (Rome, Bib. Angelica, MS. 2053). Dedicated to the Florentine sculptor Baccio da Montelupo, it was written as a brief guide to the city by quartieri, beginning with the Baptistery. Albertini is better known for his Opusculum de mirabilibus novae et veteris urbis Romae, published in Rome by Giacomo Mazzochio on ...

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Janet Southorn

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Peter Strieder

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Zilah Quezado Deckker

(b Alhandra, nr Lisbon, 1500; d Lisbon, 1580).

Portuguese statesman, patron and writer. He was the natural son of Afonso d’Albuquerque (1453–1515), who was involved in the Portuguese conquest of India. In 1506 he was legitimized by Manuel I, who ordered that he take the name of Afonso in honour of his father. Marriage to Dona Maria de Noronha, daughter of the Conde de Linhares, a minister of the King, together with royal favours, brought him a substantial fortune; he later became the Inspector of Finances to John III and President of the Senate of Lisbon. His Commentarios de Affonso d’Albuquerque (1557), based on his father’s memoirs, became a standard history of the Portuguese in India. In 1521 Albuquerque travelled to Italy in the suite of the Infanta Dona Beatriz and developed an interest in Italian Renaissance architecture. This is apparent in the work carried out to the late 15th-century Quinta da Bacalhoa, Azeitão, which he purchased in ...

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Alcaraz  

Gordon Campbell

Spanish centre of carpet production in Murcia. Alcaraz was one of the two principal centres (together with Cuenca) of carpet production in 15th- and 16th-century Spain. The hand-knotted carpets are tied with a single-warp symmetrical knot (known as the Spanish knot) on an undyed woollen foundation. Several surviving 15th-century examples imitate Turkish carpets of the ‘Holbein’ variety, but the colouring is often different (Turkish red being replaced by blue and gold) and in the borders the Kufic inscriptions are replaced by geometrical or floral patterns. In the 16th century the red colouring became less vivid, possibly because of problems with the cochineal dye imported from Mexico. There was considerable variety of design, but in the 15th century the most common pattern consisted of wheels in rectangular compartments; in the 16th century the wheels softened into wreaths and the compartments assumed a variety of shapes or disappeared altogether.

A. Bartolomé Ariza...

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Alchemy  

Laurinda Dixon

Ancient science from which modern chemistry evolved. Based on the concept of transmutation—the changing of substances at the elemental level—it was both a mechanical art and an exalted philosophy. Practitioners attempted to combine substances containing the four elements (fire, water, earth, and air) in perfect balance, ultimately perfecting them into a fifth, the quintessence (also known as the philosopher’s stone) via the chemical process of distillation. The ultimate result was a substance, the ‘philosopher’s stone’, or ‘elixir of life’, believed capable of perfecting, or healing, all material things. Chemists imitated the Christian life cycle in their operations, allegorically marrying their ingredients, multiplying them, and destroying them so that they could then be cleansed and ‘resurrected’. They viewed their work as a means of attaining salvation and as a solemn Christian duty. As such, spiritual alchemy was sanctioned, legitimized, and patronized by the Church. Its mundane laboratory procedures were also supported by secular rulers for material gain. Metallurgists employed chemical apparatus in their attempts to transmute base metals into gold, whereas physicians and apothecaries sought ultimately to distill a cure-all elixir of life. The manifold possibilities inherent in such an outcome caused Papal and secular authorities to limit and control the practice of alchemy by requiring licences and punishing those who worked without authorization....

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François Quiviger

(b Milan, May 8, 1492; d Pavia, Jan 12, 1550).

Italian lawyer, writer and scholar. A distinguished jurist, who applied humanist philological methods to legal studies, he enjoyed immense fame throughout Europe. He taught at the universities of Avignon (1518–22; 1522–7) and Bourges (1529–33); he worked at Milan, Pavia and Bologna and was patronized by Ercole II d’Este (ii) at Ferrara. His phenomenally successful Emblematum liber was composed in his spare time in 1520–21. In its original form this was a collection of Latin epigrams, almost a third of which were based on the Anthologia Graeca (Florence, 1494). Alciati had intended them for a circle of friends and acquaintances but the first edition appeared in Augsburg in 1531 without his consent. Commercial reasons inspired the printer, Heinrich Steiner (fl 1522–48), to add images illustrating each epigram, so creating the first emblem book (see Emblem book, esp. §2). An emblem consists of a vignette, a proverb or title and an epigram which explains the whole. In contrast to imprese (...

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Rosemarie Bergmann

(b Paderborn, 1502; d Soest, Westphalia, 1555–61).

German engraver, painter and designer. He was the most important graphic artist in Westphalia in the 16th century. His reputation rests largely on his ornamental designs, which make up about one third of his c. 300 engravings. They were principally intended as models for metalworkers but were also adapted by other craftsmen for such decorative arts as enamel, intarsia and book illustration. Aldegrever followed Dürer and the Nuremberg Little Masters, deriving models for his paintings and subject prints as well as a full repertory of Renaissance ornamental motifs: fig and Acanthus foliage, vases and cornucopia, combined with putti and satyrs, tritons, mermaids and dolphins, sphinxes, masks and medallions. From the beginning of his career Aldegrever was aware of the artistic trends of the time: the Dürer influence was strongest at its outset yielding somewhat in work of the 1530s to Mannerist tendencies under Netherlandish influence, though never waning entirely.

Aldegrever was the son of Hermann Trippenmeker (...

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Gordon Campbell

Style of late 15th- and early 16th- century North Italian bookbinding associated with Aldus Manutius but not restricted to the publications of the Aldine Press. The design of the bindings, which were usually in brown or red morocco, was relatively simple, consisting of geometrical strapwork or rectangular panels of gold fillets. The arabesques in the corners of the panels are called ‘Aldine fleurons’ or ‘Aldine knot leaves’....

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Italian family of lawyers, ecclesiastics and patrons. The family was Florentine, of ancient origin but modest distinction. Silvestro Aldobrandini (1499–1558) was a lawyer whose republican leanings forced him into exile after the restoration of the Medici in Florence in 1527. In 1548 he secured the protection of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, under whose aegis his career and family flourished in Rome in the service of successive popes. Silvestro’s son, Ippolito, who became (1) Pope Clement VIII, elevated the family to the pinnacle of its fortune. He created his nephews (2) Pietro Aldobrandini and Cinzio Passeri (1551–1610) cardinals in 1593 and made them his principal secretaries of state. Cinzio was the son of Clement VIII’s sister; he took the name Aldobrandini on his uncle’s election, but was generally known as the Cardinal di S Giorgio in Velabro. He is chiefly distinguished as the last patron and protector of the poet Torquato Tasso and was also an avid collector of antiquities, including the then recently discovered ancient Roman fresco known as the ...

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Alessandra Frabetti

[l’Argenta]

(b Argenta, nr Ferrara, 1546; d Ferrara, Dec 9, 1636).

Italian architect, engineer and designer. He was the son of Vincenzo Aleotti (not Francesco Aleotti, as is sometimes erroneously stated), from whom Giovanni Battista claimed he ‘learnt the art … as much as from all the other teachers I had’ (letter, 1583; see Coffin, p. 121). In 1575 he succeeded Galasso Alghisi as architect to Alfonso II d’Este (ii), Duke of Ferrara and Modena, who nicknamed him l’Argenta after the town of his birth. When, on the death of the Duke, the Este duchy devolved to the Papal States (1598), Aleotti was confirmed as official architect, with a stipend of 20 scudi per month. His activity extended to various parts of the Po plain, embracing different architectural genres and including some important urban projects.

Among Aleotti’s religious buildings were several churches in Ferrara, including S Barbara (1586–8), S Maria della Rotonda at Castel Tedaldo (1597...

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Janis Callen Bell

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Aurora Scotti Tosini

(b Perugia, 1512; d Perugia, Dec 30, 1572).

Italian architect and writer. He was the leading High Renaissance architect in both Genoa and Milan, his villas and town palazzi establishing a definitive pattern for the genre. His greatest sacred building was S Maria Assunta in Carignano, the central planning of which shows the influence of Donato Bramante and Michelangelo.

The Perugia of Alessi’s youth was an important centre of the Papal States, with a lively humanist and philosophical cultural life. Alessi received his early training in the school of the architect and painter Giovan Battista Caporali, whose edition of Vitruvius is notable for its tendency to rationalize the Antique and for its reference to music as a means of further perfecting the study of harmonic proportion in the visual arts. Alessi was also friendly with the architect Giulio Danti (1500–75), who was equally well versed in rhetoric and philosophy.

Alessi’s diverse cultural experience recommended him to the papal court in Rome, where he moved in ...

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Susanne Kiefhaber

(di Paride)

(b Perugia, 1479–80; d 1549–57).

Italian painter. The son of a goldsmith, he was a pupil of Perugino and a friend of Raphael, whose style influenced him strongly. An undated letter (Lille, Mus. B.-A.) from Raphael to Alfani, which includes a drawing of the Holy Family, asks Alfani to intervene with Atlanta Baglioni, for whom Raphael had painted the Entombment (1507; Rome, Gal. Borghese), to ask her to settle a fee. In 1510 Alfani became a member of the Perugian painters’ guild. Alfani’s earliest surviving work, painted in 1518 for S Gregorio della Sapienza, Perugia, depicts the Virgin and Child Enthroned with SS Gregory and Nicholas (Perugia, G.N. Umbria) and is based on Raphael’s Virgin and Child (the Orléans Madonna, c. 1506–7; Chantilly, Mus. Condé). Alfani based the design of an altarpiece executed with Pompeo d’Anselmo in 1520 for S Simone del Carmine, Perugia (Perugia, G.N. Umbria), on the drawing sent to him by Raphael. In the mid-1520s Alfani came under the influence of the Florentine Mannerists, particularly Rosso Fiorentino, to whom he gave shelter in ...

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