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Antonio Caleca


(fl c. 1173–94).

Italian sculptor. He was possibly from Bidogno in Val, near Lugano. The lintel above the central portal of S Cassiano a Settimo, near Cascina, representing Christ Healing the Two Blind Men of Jericho, the Raising of Lazarus and the Entry into Jerusalem, bears the date 1180 and the inscription ‘Hoc opus quod cernis Biduinus docte peregit’. Indeed, Biduino is considered responsible for the entire architecture and decoration of the church. The only documented reference to Biduino records him in Lucca on 27 November 1181, and one signed (but undated) work survives there: a lintel with a Miracle of St Nicholas at the Chiesa della Misericordia (formerly S Salvatore). Another lintel in the same church, illustrating the same saint’s life, is also attributed to him. Other signed works include a lintel with St Michael and the Entry into Jerusalem (Lucca, Col. Mazzarosa) from the nearby S Angelo in Campo (destr.) and a strigillated tomb (Pisa, Camposanto), imitating Roman sarcophagi, with reliefs of ...


Paul Williamson

(fl 1195–1201).

Italian sculptor and architect. He is first recorded in an inscription of 1195 set to the right of the main portal of S Silvestro, Bevagna (Umbria). With Rodulfus he signed the portal on the more important church of S Michele in the same square in Bevagna, but the inscription is undated. The portals on both churches have an archivolt with rich foliate decoration, but that at S Michele is further enriched by an inlaid marble guilloche on the outer order and large impost blocks bearing reliefs of flying angels. The portal of the north façade of Foligno Cathedral, which is dated 1201, is still more refined and is again signed by both Binellus and Rodulfus, the last work that can be firmly associated with these sculptors. The portal bears foliate decoration on the archivolt and an inlaid marble motif on the outer order, but it is also decorated with couchant lions at the base of each column, beautifully carved inhabited scroll-work on the jambs and an inner archivolt with panels bearing the Signs of the Zodiac on the outer face and Symbols of the Evangelists, carved almost in the round, projecting from the soffit; reliefs of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I (‘Barbarossa’) and Bishop Anselm are set on the inner face of the doorposts. The intricately rendered foliate and figurative relief-carving on these portals seems to be derived from such Umbrian sources as the leaf-carving on the portals of S Salvatore, Spoleto, while the inlaid marble patterns are characteristic of Roman marble-work (...



Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ad (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)). At the end of the Heian period (794–1185) the potters moved from the old Sue-ware sites around Osafune village to Inbe, just to the north. In response to increased agricultural development, the new kilns manufactured kitchen mortars (suribachi), narrow-necked jars (tsubo) and wide-necked jars (kame). During the 13th century the wares show less of the grey-black surfaces typical of the old Sue tradition and more of the purple-reddish colour characteristic of Bizen. In the 14th century Bizen-ware production sites shifted from the higher slopes to the foot of the mountains. Kilns expanded in capacity, ranging up to 40 m in length. Vast quantities of Bizen wares, particularly kitchen mortars, were exported via the Inland Sea to Kyushu, Shikoku and numerous points in western Honshu, establishing Bizen as the pre-eminent ceramics centre in western Japan. By the 15th century the Bizen repertory had expanded to include agricultural wares in graded sizes; wares then featured combed decoration and such functional additions as lugs and pouring spouts. Plastic–forming was assisted by the introduction of a fusible clay found 2–4 m under paddy-fields. This clay, which fires to an almost metallic hardness, is still in use today....


Harriet Sonne de Torrens

Carved stone font, dated to c. 1190–1210, that stands in the Bjäresjö village church near Bjäresjösjön Lake in Skåne (now Sweden), which in the Middle Ages was a province of Denmark. The baptismal font dates to the same period as the village church and the 12th-century Bjersjöholm (Berghusagård) castle, an ancient site long associated with royalty, but which ceased to exist as a family residence in the 14th century. The Bjäresjö font is attributed to the Skåne stonemaster called Tove, known by his signature on the Gumlösa font in 1191. Tove, one of several stone-carvers working in Skåne during this period (others were Mårten, Carl, the Soest Stonemaster, and Majestatis-Tryde), also made the fonts at Gumlösa and Lyngsjö, and the tympanum relief of the Sacrifice of Isaac at the entrance to the church at Källs Nöbbelövs, Skåne. The stone font belongs to the first period of font making that developed with the great building activity under kings Valdemar I (...



Michael Richter

Monastery in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. Approximately 50 km south of Piacenza in the Apennines, it was founded c. ad 613 through the cooperation of the Lombard king Agilulf (reg 590–615) and the Irish abbot and saint Columbanus (c. 540–615). Its nucleus was an older dilapidated church dedicated to St Peter. Columbanus died on 23 November 615, but his name and renown remained alive in the following centuries. Through cooperation with the Lombard monarchs as well as later the Carolingian kings, Bobbio became a very prominent monastery in Northern Italy. In 628 it was granted the earliest monastic exemption from supervision by the local diocesan, the bishop of Tortona. The community of Bobbio apparently lived according to the Rule of Columbanus as well as the Rule of Basil of Caesarea. The presence of the Rule of St Benedict cannot be documented there before the early 9th century. Bobbio became a known not only as a centre of Irish learning but also as a centre of grammatical as well as computational studies. Its early library also contained Classical texts as well as important palimpsests (a ‘catalogue’ survives from the late 9th century). In the late 9th and early 10th centuries (a period of economic decline) important illuminated manuscripts were produced there. The abbatial church was rebuilt under Abbot Agilulf (...


Frederick M. Asher

and Gaya [Bodhgayā and Gayā]

Pilgrimage centres and towns located on the Phalagu (Niranjana) River in Bihar, India. From an early date Gaya has been a site for the performance of śrāddha, rites for recently deceased parents. This ancient tradition and the general sanctity of Gaya in the 5th century bc probably drew Siddhartha Gautama to its outskirts, to the place now known as Bodhgaya, where, following profound meditation, he became a Buddha (Enlightened One). The tree under which he meditated (the bodhi tree) became an object of veneration; initially it was surrounded by a hypaethral temple (Pali bodhighara), the general form of which is known from relief sculptures of the 2nd–1st centuries bc at Bodhgaya and other sites (see also Indian subcontinent, §III, 3). A stone slab (Skt vajrāsana) at the site, dating to the 3rd century bc, carries motifs similar to those found on contemporary Mauryan pillars (see...


Joan Stanley-Baker

[ Chao Po-chü ; zi Qianli]

(b Zhuo xian, Hebei Province, before 1123; d 1160–73).

Chinese painter . His paintings of landscapes, figures, flowers, fruit and birds apparently ranged in size and format from large screens to handscrolls, album leaves and fans. The critic Zhao Xigu ( fl 1180–1240) considered Zhao Boju the best of all Southern Song (1127–1279) painters. However, no authentic work by Zhao Boju survives, leaving the question of his style open to interpretation.

Zhao Boju and his younger brother, Zhao Bosu, also a painter, were 7th-generation descendants of the founder of the Song dynasty (960–1279), Emperor Taizu (reg 960–75). When Emperor Gaozong (reg 1127–62) was presented with a fan painting done by Zhao Boju, he was enormously pleased. On meeting Zhao in person and discovering him to be a kinsman, he addressed him as ‘royal cousin’ and assigned him the title of Military Commander of the eastern Zhejiang circuit, an office the short-lived Zhao held until his death. The Emperor commissioned Zhao to paint the screens for the hall called the Jiying dian and is known often to have inscribed Zhao’s works....


Christine Verzar

(fl Verona, 1189–1226).

Italian sculptor. He is mentioned in an inscription now on the interior south wall of S Zeno Maggiore, Verona, and in various Veronese documents between 1189 and 1226. He completed the upper part of the façade of S Zeno, where he was responsible for the rose window and the six figures surrounding the Wheel of Fortune. Although the inscription associates him directly only with the window, he may also have remodelled the portal beneath, adding new framing figures and friezes (see Verona §3, (ii)). Brioloto’s figure style, in which rich, sweeping drapery folds cover elongated, classicizing figures gesturing theatrically, is related to the work of the Campionesi and to Nicholaus, rather than to Benedetto Antelami. Several other works in Verona have been attributed to Brioloto and to his contemporary, Adamino da San Giorgio (fl 1217–25; responsible for the animal frieze of the choir-screen of S Zeno), such as the font for the baptistery of S Giovanni in Fonte, which bears scenes from the ...


Manuel Castiñeiras

Gilded copper altar (c. 1150; Stockholm, Stat. Hist. Mus.) from Broddetorp Chuch in Västergötland (Sweden). The Broddetorp Altar is one of the so-called ‘golden altars’ that are characteristic of Romanesque metalwork from the second quarter of the 12th century to the beginning of the 13th in Scandinavia. The altars were likely produced in Jutland, the western province that constituted medieval Denmark, and most are preserved in the Nationalmuseum in Copenhagen (e.g. Lisbjerg, Saksild, Tamdrup, Sindbjerg, Ølst, and Odder) or in churches in Jutland (Sahl, Stadil). Sources as well as fragmentary remains indicate that many other churches in Scandinavia were adorned with golden altars.

The Broddetorp Altar, one of the most complete of the golden altars, consists of a frontal, a retable (reredos), and a crucifix. Thin copper sheets were engraved, stamped, and gilded, and then attached to an oak framework. As is found in other altarpieces, the fire gilding was combined with brown varnish (...


Nigel J. Morgan

Manuscript (514×353 mm; Cambridge, Corpus Christi Coll., MS. 2) identified with a Bible recorded in the Gesta sacristarum of Bury St Edmunds Abbey. It is described as having been commissioned by the Sacrist, Hervey, in the time of his brother, Prior Talbot (c. 1125–38), and illuminated by Master Hugo. From this information a date of c. 1135 has been suggested for its production. Full-page painted miniatures (see Romanesque, §IV, 2, (vi)) survive at the beginning of six of the biblical books, and there are also historiated initials. These are painted in strong colours dominated by reds, blues, greens, and purple. Although this palette is in some ways similar to that of the St Albans style evident in the Life and Miracles of St Edmund (New York, Morgan Lib., MS. M. 736), a manuscript produced at Bury a few years earlier and probably painted by the artist of the St Albans Psalter (...


Rossella Caruso

[Boschetto; Busketus]

(fl Pisa, c. 1064–1110).

Italian architect. According to the inscription on his tomb (now set in the northernmost arch of the cathedral façade), he was responsible for the construction of Pisa Cathedral. The verses celebrate his art and technical ability, comparing them with those of the mythical Ulysses and Daedalus, and praise the expertise with which he organized the dangerous transport of the enormous columns by sea and by land, avoiding hostile ambushes and using machines of his own invention that could even be operated by two young girls.

Two documents, dated 1104 and 1110, mention Buschetto as one of the Operai (administrators) of Pisa Cathedral. He is considered responsible for its original plan, however, and he must have been active by 1064, when construction work began. The cathedral shows at least two building phases. The eastern sections of the building are built mainly of dark marble, but the walls to the west of the breaks are largely of white stone. Since Buschetto’s epigraph refers to a ‘temple of white marble’, at least some of these walls must have been executed under his direction. He was therefore probably responsible for the modification of the west end and the widening of the new façade, which was executed by ...


Richard Edwards

[ Yang Pu-chih ; zi Wujiu ; hao Taochan Laoren, Qingyi Zhangzhe ]

(b Qingjiang, Jiangxi Province, 1098; d after 1167).

Chinese painter . Although documented primarily as a painter of plum blossom, he is also reported to have specialized in the human figure and to have painted bamboo, pine trees, rocks and narcissus. Xia Wenyan, writing in 1365, noted Yang’s personal integrity in refusing to serve the government of the Song dynasty (960–1279) because of its policy of appeasement towards the Jurchen, a nomadic people who conquered northern China and ruled as the Jin dynasty (1115–1234). Yang was one of the earliest exponents of the tradition of painting plum blossom in monochrome ink, subject-matter approved of by the literati painters whose ideals dominated painting of the following Yuan period (1279–1368). He was preceded by the Chan Buddhist priest Zhongren (d 1123), whose paintings define the shape of the blossoms solely in ink wash. In contrast, Yang created the circled petal (quanban) technique wherein the flexibility of the brush hairs is employed to outline the shape of the whole flower. In placing greater emphasis on control of the brush, Yang brought the genre closer to calligraphy, the most scholarly of the Chinese arts. The only securely attributed example of Yang’s painting that survives is ...


In the 20th century, discussion of the relationship between Byzantine art and the art of the Latin West evolved in tandem with scholarship on Byzantine art itself. Identified as the religious imagery and visual and material culture of the Greek Orthodox Empire based at Constantinople between ad 330 and 1453, studies of Byzantine art often encompassed Post-Byzantine art and that of culturally allied states such as Armenian Cilicia, Macedonia, and portions of Italy. As such fields as Palaiologan family manuscripts and wall paintings, Armenian manuscripts, and Crusader manuscripts and icons emerged, scholars identified new intersections between Western medieval and Byzantine art. Subtle comparisons emerged with the recognition that Byzantine art was not static but changed over time in style and meaning, although most analyses identified Byzantine art as an accessible reservoir of the naturalistic, classicizing styles of antiquity. Scholars considering the 7th-century frescoes at S Maria Antiqua and mosaics at S Maria in Cosmedin, both in Rome, and the 8th-century frescoes at Castelseprio and Carolingian manuscripts such as the Coronation Gospels of Charlemagne (Vienna, Schatzkam. SCHK XIII) used formal comparisons with works such as pre-iconoclastic icons at St Catherine’s Monastery on Sinai, along with the history of Byzantine iconoclasm, to argue for the presence of Greek painters in the West. Similarly, Ottonian and Romanesque painting and luxury arts, such as ivories, provided examples of the appropriation of Byzantine imperial imagery. Yet the study of works such as the great 12th-century ...


Immaculada Lorés-Otzet


(d Girona, 1221).

Catalan sculptor. Cadell is best known for his work in the building of the cloisters of Girona Cathedral (see Girona §1) and the monastery of Sant Cugat del Vallès. He ran a workshop known for introducing biblical narrative into Catalan art. This was an important innovation especially for Catalan Romanesque cloisters.

His work in the cloister of Sant Cugat is the best documented. He is referred to in two documents from the monastery, which are dated to 1206 and 1207. In these he appears as a witness (Cartulario, vol. 3, pp. 384, 388) and there is no doubt that the cloister was being built during these years. The inscription which is found on the north-east pillar of the cloister—Hec est Arnalli / sculptoris forma Catelli / qui claustrum tale / construxit perpetuale—is also evidence of his presence. Moreover, this inscription is found next to a capital that depicts a sculptor carving a Corinthian capital and a monk carrying a drink to him. This image, a self-portrait of Cadell, is similar to an example in the Musée des Augustins in Toulouse, which originally belonged to the monastery of La Daurade (inv. M. 188). Yet another example of this type of image was also carved on a pillar in the western gallery of the cloister of Girona Cathedral. This pillar also has two friezes with stonemasons and water bearers....


Stephen Murray

Former Cistercian abbey dedicated to Notre-Dame de la Nativité, in Périgord, France. The abbey is particularly famous for its cloister. Cadouin, on the River Dordogne, fell under the control of the Cistercians directly after its foundation in 1115. The acquisition of a famous relic (the ‘Saint Suaire’ or Holy Shroud) led to the establishment of a flourishing pilgrimage to the site. The church dates from the 12th century, but the monastic complex, heavily damaged in the Hundred Years War, was rebuilt in the 15th and 16th centuries. The cloister, a relatively small structure (six bays by five; 19×16 m), was begun under Abbot Pierre V de Gaing (1455–75). During the troubled period of the wars the relic of the Holy Shroud was alienated and went to Toulouse, but Pierre de Gaing re-established possession of it and regained many of the lost domaines of the monastery. He initiated major campaigns of construction on the cloister, building the north, south, and east walks. It was completed in the early 16th century....


Roberto Coroneo

Term coined by critics in the 19th century to designate a group of sculptors and architects who were active in northern Italy and elsewhere from the mid-12th century to the late 14th; the name derives from their place of origin, Campione (Campigliono) di Lugano, which in documents often appears after their baptismal names. Some of the masters were related. A distinctive style, marked by solid forms and a robust realism, becomes apparent only in the second half of the 12th century and the first half of the 13th; later it merges with the more general manner of north Italian sculptors and builders from Arogno, Bissone, and other places between Lake Como and Lake Lugano.

The earliest document mentioning the masters from Campione is a contract dated 30 November 1244 between Ubaldino, Director (Massaro) of the Cathedral Works of Modena from 1230 to 1263, and Enrico di Ottavio da Campione, who undertook, on behalf of himself and his heirs, to work for the cathedral ...


Alison Manges Nogueira

Monumental, marble paschal Candlestick of the late 12th to early 13th century with reliefs signed by Nicolaus de Angelo and Vassallettus now in S Paolo fuori le Mura, Rome. The imposing column (h. 5.6 m), adorned with six registers of reliefs and surmounted by a fluted candle holder, rests upon a base of sculpted lions, sphinxes, rams and female figures. The upper and lower reliefs bear vegetal and ornamental patterns while the three central registers portray Christ before Caiaphas, the Mocking of Christ, Christ before Pilate, Pilate Washing his Hands, the Crucifixion, the Resurrection and the Ascension. The culminating Easter scenes reflect the paschal candle’s function during the Easter season as a symbol of Christ resurrected, as evoked in an inscription on the base. A second fragmentary inscription refers to the unidentifiable patron’s desire for commemoration. A third inscription identifies Nicolaus de Angelo as the master sculptor and Petrus Vassallettus as playing a secondary role. Both were active in the second half of the 12th to the early 13th century and came from leading families of Roman sculptors: the Vassalletti and Cosmati (Nicolaus’s family). The candlestick is the only work signed by and securely attributed to Nicolaus and the scope of his contribution remains uncertain. A plausible theory attributes the base and first register to Petrus, based upon similarities to works signed by him and ascribed to his family, such as the cloister of S Giovanni in Laterano in Rome and the narthex of S Lorenzo fuori le Mura in Rome. Nicolaus probably executed the Christological scenes, distinguishable for their more dynamic, expressive figures and decorative chisel work, and appropriate for the master sculptor because of their centrality and significance. Early Christian sarcophagi and Carolingian ivories may have provided models for the figural types. This form of paschal candlestick was probably inspired by Roman columnar monuments carved with triumphal scenes....


Don Denny

Numerical list of concordant passages in the Gospels, devised in the early 4th century by the historian Eusebios of Caesarea. Such tables indicate passages to be found in all four Gospels, those found in two or three of the Gospels and those unique to a particular Gospel. In medieval manuscripts they appear as a series of pages, varying from seven to as many as nineteen, placed at the front of Gospel books and often included, preceding the Gospels, in full Bibles. It was customary to surround them with ornament and, despite the wide geographical and chronological range of this practice, the basic decorative format remained fairly constant. The tables are divided and framed by representations of architectural columns surmounted by arcades or, occasionally, pediments; pictorial matter is concentrated in the upper part of the design, which might contain decorative and symbolic bird and plant motifs as well as more explicit illustrative features, such as the Evangelist symbols or the Twelve Apostles. In Eastern manuscripts the tables are sometimes preceded by two or three pages of introductory text, similarly framed by architectural designs, and a further page of related ornament (e.g. a tempietto) might be included at the beginning or end....


(b c. 1045; d 1115).

Italian patron. She is now recognized as an extremely influential patron. Her prominence is well documented in the Vita Mathildis (Rome, Vatican, Bib. Apostolica, MS. Lat. 4922), the illuminated biography completed in 1111–12 by her chaplain Donizo. He labelled her ‘the worthy daughter of Peter’, and she is best known for her politics as the staunchest papal supporter in the Investiture Dispute. She was also interested in Cluniac reform. By donating her extensive possessions to the Church, she not only strengthened the Papacy but also helped north Italian cities (especially those under her influence in Emilia-Romagna) in their struggle for independence from the Empire. Matilda’s status as the first promoter of the Italian city-state (comune) is later reflected in Dante’s Divine Comedy, where he elevates Matilda to a place of honour as Beatrice’s guide to Paradise.

Matilda’s involvement in the rebuilding of Modena Cathedral (1099–1106) is well documented and illustrated in the ...


Henri Pradalier

Medieval fortified town in Languedoc, southern France. Situated on a plateau dominating the plain of the Aude, the walled town of Carcassonne is roughly rectangular in shape, up to 525 m long and 250 m wide (see fig.). It is still surrounded by its medieval double enclosure wall: the inner curtain is c. 1245 m in length, with 29 towers, while the outer has 18 towers and is c. 1320 m long. Amongst the medieval remains are the Château Comtal, and the former cathedral of St Nazaire, and the churches of St Michel (14th century) and St Vincent (15th century) also survive.

The site was occupied as early as the 6th century ...