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The architecture of the 8th- to 9th-century kingdom of the Asturias, north-west Spain. European scholars discovered Asturian buildings at the beginning of the 20th century and at first regarded their style as rural and backward, a late survival of Roman architectural styles. Descriptions in contemporary chronicles, however, which correspond closely to the appearance of surviving buildings, make it clear that the survival of Roman architectural techniques enabled the Asturians to construct buildings in a style that anticipated Romanesque architecture in the rest of Europe by almost two centuries.

After the defeat of the Visigothic kingdom by the Muslims at the Battle of Janda (711), the Visigothic people took refuge in mountainous regions, and members of the defeated aristocracy organized resistance to the new rulers. The first and most important of these centres of Christian resistance was organized in the Asturias. By the end of the 8th century a kingdom had been established under the guidance of a small group of clerics who advised the warrior chief, converting him into an authentic king. This ruler was considered the direct heir of the kings of Toledo, the capital of the ancient Spanish Visigothic monarchy. The continuity of the monarchy from Toledo to the Asturias led ultimately to the Reconquest by the Christians in the north of the territory occupied by the Muslims....

Article

I. G. Bango Torviso

Spanish dynasty of rulers and patrons. The 8th- to 9th-century Asturian kingdom on the north-west coast of Spain was the nucleus of resistance to the Muslim invaders. It became organized into a genuine state, with proper ecclesiastical and court systems, in the reign of (1) Alfonso II. Following Alfonso’s victories over the Muslims, the kingdom expanded and consolidated; it was maintained during the reign of (2) Ramiro I, while (3) Alfonso III took advantage of Muslim weakness and annexed the whole Duero Valley, repopulating the newly acquired lands with people from the north and Mozarabs (Christians who had preserved their faith in areas under Muslim control). Alfonso’s sons began a new dynasty with the capital in León.

, King of Asturias (reg 791–842). He had to overcome great difficulties in order to reach the throne, and his reign was marked by a number of conspiracies. From childhood he was under the protection of monastic communities, which influenced his whole life. He lived like a monk, surrounded by a monastic élite that was to be the inspiration for the whole administrative and political theory underlying the Asturian kingdom. There were numerous diplomatic contacts with the Carolingian empire. With the discovery of the tomb of St James the Great in Compostela, Alfonso began the construction of the first great basilica over the Apostle’s grave. In ...

Article

Bonnie Abiko

Period in early Japanese history (see Japan, §I, 2). It is variously defined and dated, depending on the criteria under consideration, but conventional dates are from ad 552 (traditionally the year of the introduction of Buddhism into Japan) to 710, when the imperial capital was moved to Nara. In some contexts, for example ceramics or tomb-building, this century and a half is usually considered part of the Kofun period, while in others it is either termed Asuka (as in discussion of some forms of religious and secular architecture) or subdivided (as for large-scale sculpture) into the Asuka (552–645) and Hakuhō (645–710) periods (the last is also referred to as ‘Early Nara’).

The most far-reaching development in Japan during this period was the formal introduction of Buddhism. When, in 552, the king of Paekche in Korea (Jap. Kudara) presented Emperor Kinmei (reg 531 or 539–71) in Japan with a bronze image of the Buddha, some canopies, banners and copies of Buddhist ...

Article

Ateni  

Oxana Cleminson

Village on the River Tana, 12 km from Gori in Georgia. It is known for Sioni Cathedral (7th century ad), dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin, which, together with one other small church, is all that remains of the monastery founded there at the beginning of the 7th century. The small domed tetraconch church was built of undressed stone during the reign of King Stephanos II (reg c. 640–50) and rebuilt in the 10th century. In size and plan Sioni Cathedral is very similar to the Jvari Church at Mtskheta. The core of the spatial conception is the dome (diam. c. 10 m), which, together with the church’s other architectural elements, forms a spatial hierarchy corresponding to the descent from heaven to earth. Like the Jvari and the more provincial Dzveli Shuamta in Kakheti, Sioni Cathedral is an example of the pilgrims’ churches that were to become, in the period following the Iconoclastic Controversy (...

Article

Gary Michael Tartakov

[ Auraṅgābād]

Buddhist monastic and pilgrimage site—fl c. 100 bcad 600—and later city in Maharashtra, India. Together with Ajanta and Ellora, it represents the culmination of Buddhist rock-cut art along the trade routes of western India. The Buddhist site, located in the hills north-west of the city, contains a dozen excavations, an aniconic prayer-hall (Skt caityag ṛha) of the 1st century bc, two possibly Mahayana Buddhist designs that resemble examples at Ajanta closely enough to be by the same artists, a series of profusely decorated Vajrayana Buddhist ma ṇḍala shrines and a unique syncretic temple combining Brahmanical and Buddhist deities within a single sanctum. The richness and sensuousness of both the architecture and the sculpture is exceptional.

The earliest structure at the site is an aniconic caitya (Cave 4) of the 1st century bc. This prayer-hall was followed in the 5th century ad by two caves in the manner of later Ajanta: Cave 1, a ...

Article

Walter Smith

[Avantipur]

Temple site 28 km south-east of Srinagar in Kashmir, India. It was established, possibly as a secondary or ceremonial capital, by Avantivarman (reg ad 855–83), founder of the Utpala dynasty. The two major monuments attributed to him are the Avantisvamin Temple, dedicated to Vishnu and thought to be the earlier, and the Avantishvara Temple, dedicated to Shiva (see Indian subcontinent, §III, 5, (i), (b)).

Only foundations and sections of walls survive at the Avantisvamin Temple, which was constructed on the five-shrined (Skt pañcayātana) plan comprising a sanctum, fronted by a stairway and centred in a spacious courtyard with four smaller shrines at the corners; two additional shrines on the eastern side of the enclosure are perhaps later additions. A square pavement before the stairway of the central shrine indicates a no longer extant forehall aligned to a well-preserved monumental gateway on the west side of the elaborately sculptured enclosure wall. The inner side of the wall contains a series of 69 cells fronted by a colonnade. Architectural forms are in the hellenizing style seen throughout Kashmir. Several images excavated from this temple (Srinagar, Sri Pratap Singh Mus.) show Vishnu in his four-faced (...

Article

Ayodhya  

B. B. Lal

[Ayodhyā]

City in Faizabad District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Located on the right bank of the River Sarayu, it was the capital of the ancient Kosala kingdom, one of whose kings, Rama, is regarded by Hindus as an incarnation of Vishnu.

Excavations in 17 different parts of the ancient mounds have revealed that the first occupation at Ayodhya commenced c. 700 bc, as is indicated by the occurrence of the earliest variety of Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW) and a few sherds assignable to a late stage in the production of Painted Grey Ware (PGW). The NBPW is very well fired, thin-sectioned, with a shining surface and showing a variety of colours: steel grey, coal black, indigo, silver, even gold. In the earliest levels the houses were of wattle and daub, but later they began to be constructed of kiln-fired bricks. Terracotta ringwells were used for disposing of sullage water. Concomitantly, systems of coinage (punch-marked and uninscribed cast coins) and weights (cylindrical pieces of jasper, chert etc) also came into being, laying the foundation of urbanization in the Ganga Valley around the middle of the 1st millennium ...

Article

Eduardo Williams

Pre-Columbian culture of north-west Mexico. It belongs to the area between the Sinaloa River in the north and the Río Grande de Santiago in the south, probably extending as far south-east of this area as the Chapala Basin of Jalisco–Michoacán, and it flourished c. ad 880–c. 1400. Major sites are Culiacán, Chametla, Guasave (all in Sinaloa) and Amapa (Nayarit). Aztatlán sites have been explored by Carl Sauer and Donald Brand (1932), Gordon Ekholm (1942), Clement W. Meighan (1976) and more recently by Joseph B. Mountjoy (1990), although in general the archaeology of this vast area is still little known.

By c. ad 500 the area was occupied by many complex sites with elaborate architecture and large populations. The Aztatlán archaeological complex is characterized by some of the most elaborate prehistoric pottery in the New World, including four-, five- and six-colour polychrome wares, engraved wares, negative painting and some moulded ceramics, as well as abundant metal artefacts, primarily copper, but also bronze, silver and gold (...

Article

Badami  

Gary Michael Tartakov

[Bādāmi; anc. Vātāpi]

Temple site and city in Karnataka, India, that flourished c. ad 542–1600. The most important remains date to the early Chalukya dynasty (6th century to mid-8th), known from the site as the Chalukyas of Badami (see Chalukya, §1). Building activity continued into the Mughal period. Badami is located on the western edge of a rocky plateau near the Malaprabha River. Set in a box canyon around an ancient tank, it first rose to prominence in 542 when it was fortified by the early Chalukyas. In the third quarter of the 6th century four shrines were cut in the south cliff. Caves I and II form a pair and are dedicated to Shiva and Vishnu respectively. These were followed by Cave III, the most spectacular of the series. Dated by inscription to ad 578 (Shaka era 500), the cave has a rich variety of lavishly decorated columns and an interesting early series of images showing the incarnations of Vishnu (...

Article

Badoh  

Michael D. Willis

[Badoh-Pathārī; anc. Vaṭodaka]

Site in Vidisha District, Madhya Pradesh, India. The monumental temple ruins at the twin villages of Badoh and Pathari are scattered over a wide area, indicating that they mark the site of a once important city. The oldest remains are in a wide-mouthed cave to the west of Badoh, where a small spring is flanked by an early 5th-century ad rock-relief of seated goddesses and the god Virabhadra; an inscription mentions one Maharaja Jayatsena. The cave also contains ruined shrines from about the 9th century ad. To its south-east is the large 9th-century Gadarmal Temple (see Trivedi). It collapsed some time before the 19th century and was reconstructed in a haphazard fashion; the main image is in the Archaeological Museum, Gwalior. Near by, at the side of a large tank, is a rare example of a pre-Islamic pleasure pavilion, the Sola Khambi (c. 10th century). A short distance to the west is a group of Jaina temples that have been subject to reconstruction. Early fragments include doorframes of the ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

[Badorfer ware]

Carolingian pottery associated with the German town of Badorf, situated between Bonn and Cologne. Vessels are characteristically decorated with girth grooves. The pottery was widely traded (e.g. examples excavated in 1990 at Flixborough Anglo-Saxon Settlement in Lincolnshire).

W. A. Van Es and W. J. H. Verwers: ‘Le commerce de céramiques carolingiennes aux Pays-Bas’, ...

Article

Bajaura  

Kirit Mankodi

Village and temple site in India, some 15 km south of Kulu town, Himachal Pradesh, which flourished in the 9th century ad. It is located on the old trade route from Punjab to Lahaul-Spiti and Leh. When the region was ruled by the Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty in the 9th century, a Shiva temple, the Vishveshvara, was built there. Facing east, the building is square in plan, with prominent niches on three sides containing sculptures of Ganesha, Vishnu and Durga slaying the buffalo-demon (Mahiṣāsuramardini). The walls are articulated with high mouldings (Skt vedībandha), subsidiary niches and corner pilasters. A prominent arched antefix (śukanāsā) is placed over the entrance and each of the door-like niches. The arches each contain busts of Shiva in his four-faced form. The sanctum contains a linga. The curvilinear spire and serrated crowning element (āmalasāraka) are similar to other buildings of the period and may be considered an extension into the Himalayas of the prevalent temple style of northern India. For example, a similar plan and elevation are seen in the Jaina temple outside Banpur (District Lalitpur, Uttar Pradesh). The sculpture at Bajaura, however, has a distinctly local cast and shows some relation to the art of Chamba and Kashmir....

Article

Bam  

Abbas Daneshvari

Town in the province of Kirman, southern Iran, on an important route skirting the southern fringes of the Dasht-i Lut Desert. The old walled city was founded in the Sasanian period (ad 224–632) and flourished until the 18th century; its ruins stand 0.5 km east of the present town of Bam, founded in 1860. On 26 December 2003, a 6.7 magnitude earthquake struck the city, claiming more than 40,000 lives and destroying over 70% of the buildings. Most of the mud-brick remains of the old city date from the 16th century and later, but they give the best impression available of a medieval Iranian provincial town (see fig.; see also Islamic art, §II, 10(ii)). The site is roughly rectangular (300×425 m) with a citadel in the north-west corner. A vaulted bazaar runs from the main south gate to the foot of the citadel, where there is a large open square flanked by stables; to the west of the square is a caravanserai, a two-storey building with a central court. Within the citadel are the remains of the governor’s residence, his reception room and an open rectangle, which was used in the 19th century for the storage of artillery. A congregational mosque of the standard Iranian type, with four iwans facing a central courtyard, is towards the south-east corner of the site, and to its north are a dozen large mansions built for rich merchants. Their public and private quarters, arranged in two storeys around a central court, are decorated with recesses and mouldings; the service areas with stables and kitchens are plainer. In the north-west section of the site, behind the citadel, are smaller houses, perhaps built for peasants, with individual rooms on one or two sides of a courtyard....

Article

Richard K. Emmerson

Illuminated Ottonian manuscript (205×295 mm; Bamberg, Staatsbibl., MS. Bibl. 140) comprising 106 folios, divided into two halves, the first containing 50 miniatures illustrating the Book of Revelation, the second with 5 full-page miniatures illustrating Gospel readings from the Nativity to Pentecost. Separating the sections are two full-page images each with two registers. On the left St Peter and St Paul crown a young ruler, who is given obeisance by personifications of the four peoples of the empire, depicted below. They recall the personifications bringing gifts to the emperor in the Gospels of Otto III (Munich, Bayer. Staatsbib., Clm. 4453). Facing this imperial scene, on the right, Old Testament figures are paired with four personifications of the victorious virtues they model for the ruler: Abraham/Obedience, Moses/Purity, David/Repentance, and Job/Patience. The Apocalypse miniatures, of varying size and interspersed within the Latin text, are painted on gold grounds. Their iconography, descending from a Roman archetype, is related to the Carolingian Valenciennes Apocalypse (early 9th century; Valenciennes, Bib. Mun., MS. 99) and the contemporary Apocalypse fresco of Novara Baptistery. The vigorous colours and sumptuous execution of the miniatures, including an early detailed ...

Article

Daniel Ehnbom

Site of an important port on the bank of Gharo Creek, c. 64 km east of Karachi, Pakistan. It was occupied from around the 1st century bc to the 13th century ad and abandoned after a change in the course of the Indus River and a violent attack. The establishment of a large mosque, the Jami‛, dates to the early 8th century. Kufic inscriptions in the mosque are dated ah 107 (ad 725–6) and ah 294 (ad 906). It is likely that the Battle of Daybul (Debal) in ad 712 that led to the establishment of the first Islamic state in South Asia by Muhammad bin-Qasim took place in the vicinity of Banbhore. Daybul is the only city mentioned in the accounts of the Arab conquest of Sind that has not been identified with certainty.

See also Indian subcontinent, §III, 5, (ii), (a).

F. A. Khan...

Article

Baroli  

Heather Elgood

[Badoli]

Group of Hindu temples of the 10th century ad, 45 km south-west of Kota in Rajasthan, India. Despite some damage, the three Baroli temples are among the finest examples of the Gurjara–Pratihara style in western India. Construction was begun in the mid-9th century. The best preserved is the Ghateshvara Mahadeva Temple, comprising a columned porch, a sanctuary with a spire and a separate hall. Sacred to Shiva, the temple is named after a central liṅga formed of a natural stone resembling an inverted pot (ghaṭa). On the outer walls are sculptures including images of the dancing Shiva (Nataraja) on the west, Chamunda on the north and Shiva spearing Andaka on the south; there is a fine figure of Parvati within the sanctum. On the lintel of the sanctuary doorway is a dancing Shiva flanked by Brahma and Vishnu; on the jambs below are carvings of guardian figures and river goddesses shaded by lotus-leaf parasols. The adjoining porch contains six columns with female figures carved on the shafts and a pyramidal (...

Article

Joan K. Lingen

Site in Panama, in the Volcan Baru district of Chiriquí Province near the Costa Rican border. It is one of the best known and most elaborate Pre-Columbian Panamanian sites; it flourished c. ad 400–c. 800. Barriles was first excavated in 1949 by Matthew Stirling under the auspices of the National Geographic Society and the Smithsonian Institution. Alejandro Mendez, Director of the Museo Nacional de Panamá, Panama City, had previously visited the site and removed the large figural sculptures for display at the museum. Other objects from the excavations are also at the Museo Nacional. In 1972 Olga Linares, Payson Sheets, and Jane Rosenthal excavated at Barriles to help clarify its chronological and cultural relationship with the rest of western Panama. Ceramic analysis and radiocarbon dating place the major occupation of Barriles and its artistic output before c. ad 800. Most of the pottery consists of simple, unpainted, and incised vessels, much like the Aguas Buenas pottery of Panama and some from central Costa Rica. Rare examples contain designs painted in red or black. The most common forms are small globular vessels with short tripod supports and bowls with flat bottoms. Somewhat crudely modelled animal forms are attached to the rims or bodies of some examples. Others feature negative-painted designs on the vessel interiors. Stirling also excavated tombs containing large, lidded urns 920 mm high, with human and animal imagery painted in red and bright yellow on the necks of the vessels....

Article

Izumi Shimada

Region in La Leche Valley on the north coast of Peru, which contains numerous archaeological sites. The central part of the valley, over 55 sq. km in area, has been designated the Poma National Archaeological and Ecological Reserve because of the concentration of some 30 major Pre-Columbian cemeteries and mounds nested within dense semi-tropical thorny native forest. The most notable period of local cultural development was the Middle Sicán (see Sicán), c. ad 900–1100, when the Sicán funerary–religious precinct (see fig.), the dominant feature of Batán Grande, was built. Delineated by some dozen monumental adobe pyramids, it covers an area extending c. 1.6 km east–west and 1 km north–south.

The long-term funerary and religious importance of the Poma Reserve is underlined by the limited evidence for widespread or intensive agricultural activity there, despite its abundant fertile alluvium. As the beginning and end of various major canals, Batán Grande controlled the vital local water supplies and thus held political control over the adjacent valleys. Although a Late Sicán shift of settlement away from Batán Grande removed much of this political significance, the site clearly retained its eminence as a key burial and metallurgical centre up to the Spanish conquest. The Spanish name for the area in fact derives from the hundreds of large ...

Article

Bawit  

C. Walters

Site on the west bank of the River Nile, c. 16 km west of Daryūt in the province of Asyūt, Egypt. A large monastery with rich sculptural and painted decoration originally lay in the desert 1 km to the west. According to tradition it was founded by the monk Apollo in the late 4th century ad and was inhabited until the late 12th century. The site was excavated intermittently between 1901 and 1913 by the French Archaeological Institute in Cairo; most of the structural finds were removed to the Coptic Museum in Cairo and the Louvre in Paris. The monastery consisted of an enclosed nucleus with other buildings outside the walls, although it is not known how much of the site was occupied at any given time. Within the enclosed area were two churches. A number of two-storey structures were excavated, of which the ground floors were probably chapels and the upper floors served as living quarters, as in the monastery of Apa Jeremiah at Saqqara (...

Article

John Williams

[Commentarius In Apocalipsin]

Commentary on the Apocalypse composed c. ad 775 by Abbot Beatus of the monastery of St Martin in Liébana, northern Spain. There is an ‘official’ biography of Beatus, by Juan Tamayo de Salazar (d c. 1662), a collector of legends, but his date for Beatus’ death in 798 is precocious. In his own time Beatus was principally recognized as a forceful opponent of the Christological doctrine labelled Adoptionism, promoted by the Archbishop of Toledo, Elipandus. The Commentary on the Apocalypse was composed, however, from an expectation of the end of ordinary time in ad 800.

Beatus divided the text of the Apocalypse into 68 sections of typically a dozen or so verses, termed Storiae. In grouping the biblical verses rather than introducing them singly, Beatus’ format departs from most medieval exegetical approaches. Each of the Storiae was followed by a series of exegetical passages that interpret in allegorical and anagogical terms the verses or figures in the ...