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Article

David Alexander

(b Kingston upon Hull, 1770; d London, 12 or March 14, 1812).

English publisher and engraver. He studied in London under Francesco Bartolozzi and engraved a number of book illustrations but was best known as a publisher, issuing the designs by William Blake for Robert Blair’s poem The Grave (London, 1743). In 1805 Cromek commissioned Blake to draw and engrave the designs, but Blake felt betrayed when Cromek engaged Luigi Schiavonetti instead because he saw that Blake’s style of engraving would not please the public (for further discussion see Blake, William). Blake was further annoyed when Cromek commissioned Thomas Stothard to paint the Canterbury Pilgrims (1806; London, Tate; for illustration see Stothard family, §1), an idea that Blake thought had been stolen from him; in 1809 Blake published a very successful singly issued print of it. Bentley has shown that although Cromek had considerable understanding and sympathy for Blake his treatment of him helped to increase the artist’s isolation....

Article

English music, book and fine art printers and publishers . In 1863 the Rev. John Curwen (1816–80), a congregational minister, established the Curwen Press in Plaistow, London with the aim of promulgating the Tonic Sol-fa method of teaching music. Under John Curwen, and after his death under his son John Spencer Curwen (1847–1916), the Curwen Press printed sheet music and texts on music education. By 1908 John Curwen’s grandson Harold Curwen (1885–?1965) had joined the firm and encouraged them to broaden their production to include high-quality limited edition books. Harold also created a lithography studio so that artists could produce book illustrations. In 1920 Oliver Simon (d 1956) joined the press as a typographer, later becoming a renowned book designer. His brother Herbert joined shortly after and together they held the posts of chairman and managing director respectively through the 1940s and 1950s. In ...

Article

Paul H. Rem

[Danckerts]

Dutch family of architects and artists. Cornelis Danckerts (1536–95) was the city mason of Amsterdam. His son, Cornelis Danckerts de Rij (i) (b Amsterdam 1561; d 1634) possibly received from him his early training in the building trade. Judging from the addition of ‘de Rij’ (surveyor or clerk of works) to his name, he must have been a well-respected land surveyor or building inspector, and on his father’s death he succeeded to his post. The Municipal Works Department at that time consisted of Hendrick de Keyser I (City Architect), Hendrick Jacobsz. Staets (c. 1588–1631; City Carpenter) and Cornelis Danckerts de Rij (i) (City Mason and Land Surveyor). Danckerts worked closely with de Keyser and probably executed his designs for the Zuiderkerk (1603), the Exchange (1608–11) and the Westerkerk (1620). The tower of the Westerkerk (h. 85 m), which was completed in ...

Article

(b Paris, c. 1604; d Laluque, Landes, March 29, 1678).

French painter, engraver and print publisher. Although it was as a painter that he was received (reçu) in 1663 by the Académie Royale, it is as an engraver that he is now remembered. His earliest known print is dated 1630, and he later made many plates, particularly reproductive engravings after his contemporaries Jacques Blanchard and Claude Vignon. He was one of Simon Vouet’s best interpreters, and Vouet himself commissioned from him at least 11 plates after his own paintings. Daret’s most important projects were the engraving of plates for and the publication of M. de Gomberville’s La Doctrine des moeurs (Paris, 1646) and the monumental collection of over 100 portraits in the Tableaux historiques où sont gravez les illustres français et estrangiers (Paris, 1652). His translation of Vasari’s life of Raphael, Abrégé de la vie de Raphael Sansio d’Urbin (Paris, 1651), is celebrated as the first monograph on an artist published in France....

Article

Véronique Meyer

(b Abbeville, May 18, 1703; d Paris, April 23, 1763).

French printmaker and print publisher. He was a pupil of Robert Hecquet and came to specialize in engraved portraits. In 1735 he met the portrait painter Hyacinthe Rigaud and quickly became his favourite engraver, producing his best work after Rigaud’s portraits. His Comtesse de Caylus and Hyacinthe Rigaud were so admired that he was approved (agréé) and admitted (reçu) by the Académie Royale on the same day, 2 June 1742. He was appointed Graveur du Roi in 1743 and c. 1757 became a member of the academy of Augsburg. From 1753 he engraved many paintings for the Galerie de Dresde, including Quos Ego and the Artist’s Children after Rubens. Between 1748 and 1755 he gradually gave up portraits, to devote himself to mythological and genre scenes, mainly after François Boucher but also after Joseph Vernet, David Teniers the younger, Adam Frans van der Meulen and Jean-François de Troy. Around ...

Article

Henry Adams

(b Veracruz, Mar 13, 1880; d Stamford, CT, Jan 10, 1961).

Mexican illustrator, writer, gallery owner, and publisher, active in the USA. He was the son of a wealthy Mexican lawyer and publisher. De Zayas started his career as an artist by providing drawings for his father’s newspaper in Veracruz. In 1906 he moved on to Mexico City’s leading newspaper, El Diario, but a year later, after the ascension of the dictator Porfirio Diaz, whom the newspaper had opposed, he fled to the USA. There he landed a position making caricatures for the New York Evening World. Shortly after his arrival in the USA, he came into contact with Alfred Stieglitz, who staged solo shows of De Zayas’s caricatures at his gallery Gallery 291 in 1909 and 1910, both of which proved to be huge popular successes.

In 1910 De Zayas traveled to Paris, where he stayed almost a year, scouting out adventurous forms of modern art for Stieglitz, notably the cubist work of Picasso and African sculpture. On his return, equipped with knowledge of European modern art and inspired by the work of the French modernist ...

Article

Madeleine Barbin

(b Liège, Jan 19, 1722; d Paris, July 31, 1776).

French engraver and print publisher. He was descended from a family of gunsmiths. In 1739 he went to Paris to join a brother who had established himself there as a goldsmith. Beginning as an engraver and chaser, in 1746 he obtained the rank of master. As early as 1757 he began to specialize in crayon manner (see Crayon manner §2) using a roulette, a process that brought him success; Jean-Charles François contributed in developing this process, but Demarteau, because of his superior skill, outstripped his rival. At a time when drawing was greatly in vogue, he offered the public faithful reproductions, first of red chalk drawings and then of drawings intended for decoration or teaching, in two or three colours, by contemporary artists. His oeuvre comprises 560 numbered plates, half of them after specially provided drawings by François Boucher (for illustration see Crayon manner) or after drawings owned by collectors such as ...

Article

David Alexander

(b London, 1747; d Paris, 1823).

English engraver and print publisher. He worked first for the painter Robert Edge Pine, exhibiting mezzotints of Pine’s pictures at the Society of Artists between 1769 and 1773. He then began publishing some of his own mezzotints independently: his portrait of Joseph Banks (Chaloner Smith, no. 4), made in 1774, was the first of 22 excellent mezzotints made after Sir Joshua Reynolds, 12 of which appeared during the 1770s. His 100 or so portrait mezzotints were well drawn and finely scraped; their brilliance was often enhanced by the use of warm brown inks. From 1776 to 1781 Dickinson published prints with Thomas Watson from New Bond Street, London; they engraved and published stipples as well as mezzotints and became the principal publishers of humorous stipples after the amateur artist Henry William Bunbury. In the decade after 1783 Dickinson engraved only two mezzotint portraits, while publishing plates by other engravers, such as his pupil ...

Article

Linda Whiteley

French family of typographers, printers, publishers and collectors. The first to settle in Paris was Denis Didot (2nd half of 17th century), whose son François Didot (1689–1759) founded in 1713 the family publishing business. His sons François-Ambroise Didot (1730–1804) and Pierre-François Didot (1731–93) developed the business, adding a type foundry and a paper-mill. The elegance of their publications brought them the patronage of the brothers of Louis XVI: Monsieur (later Louis XVIII) and the Comte d’Artois (later Charles X). The sons of François-Ambroise included (1) Pierre Didot, a publisher, among whose illustrators were some of the most distinguished artists of the day, and Firmin Didot (1764–1836), who designed the Didot typeface for his brother’s use. Firmin Didot’s son (2) Ambroise Firmin-Didot was a notable collector of prints. The cadet branch of the family, Didot Jeune, the descendants of Pierre-François Didot, included (3) ...

Article

Véronique Meyer

(b Paris, April 1662; d Paris, Jan 6, 1757).

French printmaker, print-seller and print publisher. He was a pupil of Guillaume Vallet (1632–1704). He was appointed Graveur du Roi and accepted (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1704; he was received (reçu) in 1707 with his portraits, both after Hyacinthe Rigaud, of Charles de La Fosse (Roux, no. 10) and François Girardon (r 9). He enjoyed a considerable reputation: according to Claude-Henri Watelet he was one of the printmakers who were able to produce the softest effects in engraving and who knew how best to suggest the velvety texture of a woman’s skin; in this domain he was often imitated but never equalled. His reproductions of Corregio’s Io (r 8), Leda (r 16) and Danaë (r 33) are among the most celebrated of his works, which are not numerous; only 58 have been identified, probably owing to his activities as a print publisher. He distributed works by Laurent Cars and his family, by Jacques-Philippe Lebas and by the Audran family. He also collaborated with ...

Article

Maxime Préaud

(b Antwerp, bapt Oct 20, 1640; d Paris, April 2, 1707).

French engraver and print publisher of Flemish origin. He was the son of a tailor in Antwerp and trained as an engraver with Gaspar Huybrechts (1619–84) and Cornelis Galle the younger. On arriving in Paris in 1666, he worked with his compatriot Nicolas Pitau the elder, and then with François de Poilly, Robert Nanteuil and Philippe de Champaigne. In 1672 he married the daughter of Nicolas Regnesson, the Parisian engraver and print publisher, thus himself becoming a print publisher. In 1675 he became a naturalized Frenchman and in 1677 was admitted (reçu) to the Académie Royale. In 1695 he was made a Chevalier of the Order of St Michel and a Papal Knight. He became both a councillor at the Académie and Premier Dessinateur du Cabinet du Roi. Among his pupils were his brother Jean Edelinck (b Antwerp, c. 1643; d Paris, 14 May 1680...

Article

Julieta Ortiz Gaitán

(b Mexico City, June 27, 1943).

Mexican painter, printmaker, performance artist, writer, teacher and publisher. He qualified as a printmaker at a very early age, then as a painter and engraver under the tutelage of several masters, among whom the most influential on his life was José Chávez Morado. Although he at first worked with traditional media, he possessed a constantly innovative and critical attitude and experimented with performances, installations, happenings, correspondence and media art, as well as writing, lecturing and publishing on such themes as artistic experimentation, cultural promotion, professional management for artists, collective mural painting and the publishing process. From 1968 to 1972 Ehrenberg lived in England where, with the architect Martha Hellion and the critic and historian David Mayor, he founded the Beau Geste Press/Libro Acción Libre in Devon, to propagate the work of artists involved with the Fluxus movement of the 1970s. He was also instrumental in the rise of many artistic groups, workshops and small publishing houses, such as ...

Article

Júlia Papp

[Antal]

(b Pozsony [now Bratislava, Slovak Republic], 1784; d Vienna, July 13, 1852)

Hungarian engraver, publisher and dealer. He studied under his father József Ehrenreich (1765–1842), a seal engraver, and in 1800 went to the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna, where in 1806 he won a prize. In the same year he made a portrait of Imre Marczibányi. When he had completed his studies he moved to Buda and worked in the Trattner Press. In 1807 he advertised himself as an engraver, letter engraver and seal engraver, and in 1809 he started dealing. In 1814 he engraved a picture of King David, after a drawing by Johann Nepomuk Hoefel (1788–1864). He did portraits of a number of important people in national political and cultural life, including Johan Spissich, József Ürményi, Miklós Wesselényi, László Kollonits, Archduchess Henrietta, István Ferenczy, Ferdinánd Jakab Miller and Benedek Virág. He also engraved several illustrations for the first Hungarian scientific periodical, the Tudományos Gyüjtemény...

Article

Arsène Bonafous-Murat

(b Mulhouse, Aug 17, 1788; d Mulhouse, April 25, 1839).

French lithographer and publisher of German birth. After commercial training in Switzerland and in France at La Rochelle and Bordeaux, he studied painting and drawing in Jean-Baptiste Regnault’s atelier in Paris. In July and August 1814 he visited Munich to study the new art of lithography. In March 1815 he founded La Société Lithotypique de Mulhouse, and in June 1816 he opened a workshop in Paris. Engelmann was instrumental in introducing lithography to France. He developed numerous improvements (see Lithography, §I), including lithographic wash in 1819 and a frame for registration (patented in 1837), which gave chromolithography the technical means needed for its commercial and artistic development. His presses produced large numbers of prints; particularly noteworthy are numerous plates for Baron Taylor’s monumental work Voyages pittoresques et romantiques dans l’ancienne France (1820–63).

Manuel du dessinateur lithographe (Paris, 1823) Traité théorique et pratique de la lithographie...

Article

Laura Suffield

(b Paris, 1503; d Geneva, Sept 7, 1559).

French printer and publisher. After training with his father, the printer and publisher Henri Estienne (?1460–1520), and then with his stepfather, Simon de Colines (fl 1520–48), he checked and proofread the family editions of the Epistles, Apocalypse, Acts and Psalms in 1522–3. Between 1525 and 1530 he produced the Latin Grammar of Philipp Melanchthon (1497–1560). In 1526 he produced the works of Terence, which ran to four editions, the last with notes by Erasmus (other early Classical texts produced subsequently include editions of Plautus in 1529 and Virgil in 1532). His first major work was the 1527 Bible, reissued in 1528 and 1532. In 1528 he embarked on a major project: a Thesaurus linguae latinae, the definitive edition of which appeared in 1543. Estienne’s entire output is estimated to have been between 460 and 470 editions, and he printed books for other publishers as well as his own works. From ...

Article

Justine Hopkins

(William)

(b Southwark, London, Feb 23, 1826; d Ventnor, Isle of Wight, Aug 21, 1905).

English printer. He established his printing firm (still operating in the late 20th century) in 1847. Working with Routledge Publishers he specialized in illustrated children’s books, including the ‘toy books’ of Walter Crane, and also printed a range of illustrated textbooks, poetry and novels. His sensitive line and capacity to translate effects from drawing to woodblock while retaining the style and spirit of the original made him justly popular with his clients. His ingenious combination of pigments and engraving techniques made him a pioneer in colour printing, greatly enlarging the scope of the art....

Article

Erika Billeter

(b Buenos Aires, April 18, 1932).

Argentine photographer and publisher. She trained as a painter at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires (1947–53), and took up photography only in the late 1950s. She studied in Buenos Aires first in the studio of Luis d’Amico and then in 1960 under Annemarie Heinrich. In 1960 she opened a studio in Buenos Aires with the Argentine photographer Alicia D’Amico (1933–2001). She contributed to La Nación and Autoclub, and in 1973, together with María Cristina Orive, she co-founded La Azotea, a publishing house specializing in Latin American photography. She was primarily a documentary photographer, whose reputation did not depend on the recording of sensational events. Her photographs were realistic portrayals of the Argentine way of life; they were taken using natural light and were not modified in the laboratory.

Orive, María Cristina

Facio, Sara Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Buenos Aires, 1968)Retratos y autorretratos...

Article

Kristin Lohse Belkin

(b Heidelberg, 1527–8; d Frankfurt am Main, 1590).

German publisher and woodblock-cutter. He was the son of the painter and blockcutter Ägidius Feyerabend and his wife, Anna Brentlein (d 1568), daughter of a rabbi in Mainz. After an apprenticeship with Jörg Breu (ii) in Augsburg, begun on 19 July 1540, Feyerabend spent some time in Italy and perhaps also in Mainz. In 1559 he settled in Frankfurt am Main, where he married the same year and acquired citizenship in 1560. After working as a block cutter and possibly also as a designer of book illustrations, he soon turned to the business side of publishing, which he managed with considerable success and, judging from numerous lawsuits, with shrewdness. He employed almost all the printers in Frankfurt am Main and attracted the best book illustrators in the country, foremost among them Virgil Solis from Nuremberg and Jost Amman from Zurich. One of his most successful collaborations with Solis resulted in a magnificent picture Bible in Martin Luther’s translation (...

Article

Margaret Kelly

(Stevenson)

(b New York, Aug 19, 1919; d Feb 24, 1990).

American publisher and collector. In his position as Chairman and Editor-in-chief of the fortnightly American business magazine Forbes, he established one of the oldest corporate art collections in America in the 1950s when he began to acquire objets d’art created by Peter Carl Fabergé: the collection contains over 300 pieces, including 12 Imperial Easter eggs. A man of eclectic tastes, and spurred by fond childhood memories, Forbes assembled a collection of 100,000 lead soldiers and over 500 tin clockwork toy boats. The Fabergé works and selected toys are displayed at the Forbes Magazine Galleries in New York with American presidential manuscripts and related historical memorabilia that Forbes believed ‘better depict each [president] than the likenesses that abounded in their time’. Numbering over 3000 pieces, the collection is the finest of its kind in private hands.

The Forbes picture collection, predominantly conservative in flavour, features works by French 19th-century military painters, Victorian artists, Kinetic artists, American Realists and 19th- and 20th-century photographers. Forbes established the ...

Article

(b Bayreuth, Oct 8, 1799; d Gleichenberg, June 16, 1863).

Austrian architect, publisher and teacher. In 1818 he went to Vienna to study at the academy. Although Förster pursued an academic career at the academy, as a lecturer (1820–26) and professor of architecture (1842–5), his influence was due mainly to his great ability as a publisher and his untiring work on the urban reorganization of Vienna. In 1836 he founded the Allgemeine Bauzeitung (1836), one of the earliest 19th-century architectural journals. Given the rigid spirit of politics and the arts in Vienna at that time, the Bauzeitung was a bold enterprise, but it succeeded in establishing a long-desired contact with architectural trends in western Europe and in introducing historicist architecture in Vienna and throughout the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Förster’s contribution to the planning of the expansion of Vienna also began in 1836, when he presented his first design. He continued to produce proposals for Vienna until the international competition in ...