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José Miguel Rojas

(b San José, June 1, 1907; d 1998).

Costa Rican engraver, painter, illustrator, draughtsman, writer and critic. He studied for a year from 1931 at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes but was otherwise initially self-taught, using Louis Gonse’s L’Art japonais (Paris, 1883) as a source. He produced a series of caricature drawings, influenced by Cubism, in the Album de dibujos de 1926. During 1929 he met the sculptors Juan Manuel Sánchez and Francisco Zúñiga (the latter was also a printmaker), and through his interest in German and Mexican Expressionist printmakers, he developed a passion for wood-engraving. His first wood-engravings were published in the periodical Repertorio Americano (1929). He went on to contribute wood-engravings and drawings to collections of short stories and poetry, educational books, periodicals and newspapers. In 1931 he taught drawing and wood-engraving at the Escuela Normal in Heredia. He exhibited at the Salones Anuales de Artes Plásticas in San José (1931–6...


Daniel Montero

(b Mexico City, 1970).

Mexican installation artist, video artist, and performance artist. Amorales studied at the Gerrit Rietveld Academie, after attending Rijksakademie van Beeldende Kunsten (1996–1997), both in Amsterdam. He worked with images and signs of different types that when modified, combined, and recoded produce new images and meanings in turn. Based on pre-existing information and images he found on the Internet, Amorales created a particular way of working, more closely resembling that of a design studio than a traditional artist’s atelier. In his workspace and with a team of assistants, he proposed different ways of understanding the forms in which signs circulate and are appropriated, inquiring into notions of authorship, communication, and artistic media. From 1998 Amorales collected images from the Internet and converterted them into black, white, and red vectors. This collection is now known as the Liquid Archive. With these images, he produced several artworks in which multiplicity, repetition, and juxtaposition are constant. For example, in the video ...


Alexandra Kennedy

(b Quito, Sept 10, 1913; d Quito, April 11, 1990).

Ecuadorean sculptor and engraver. He studied sculpture at the Escuela de Bellas Artes in Quito, graduating in 1932. He was a pupil of Luigi Cassadio (fl 1915–33), an Italian sculptor who stimulated sculptural activity in the school and whom Andrade succeeded as professor. With his Mother Earth (Quito, Mus. Mun. Alberto Mena Caamaño), Andrade won the Mariano Aguilera national prize in 1940. His early work was realist and academic, but in 1941 he studied mural composition with the Ecuadorean artist Camilo Egas at the New School for Social Research in New York. His previous low reliefs in stone and wood were transformed into vast murals depicting stylized and geometric human scenes (e.g. the untitled mural, 18×9 m, at the Universidad Central del Ecuador in Quito, 1949–54). In the late 1960s he used hammered steel sheeting in his sculptures, and in the 1970s he executed what he called his ‘flying sculptures’ (e.g. ...


Karen Cordero Reiman

(b El Oro, nr Acambaro, March 7, 1905; d Mexico City, Oct 27, 1924).

Mexican painter and teacher of Scottish descent. He studied briefly at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes, Mexico City, where in 1921 he met the painter Manuel Rodríguez Lozano, who introduced him to Mexican avant-garde artists. Under Rodríguez Lozano’s tutelage he joined the ‘brigade’ of teachers who trained primary and secondary school students using Adolfo Best Maugard’s method of teaching drawing based on the motifs of popular art. Angel developed a pictorial style characterized by a deliberately naive drawing technique and vivid, unnaturalistic colours; he typically made portraits of friends and relatives superimposed on backdrops of village scenes or simplified rural landscapes. A commemorative book published shortly after his death featured texts by major artistic and literary figures of the period, including Rodríguez Lozano, Diego Rivera, José Juan Tablada and Xavier Villaurrutia, and revealed the process of romantic mythification of Angel, characterizing him as a ‘pure popular painter’ and even inventing for him exotic Argentinian origins....


Luis Enrique Tord

(b Paris, Aug 8, 1808; d Paris, Jan 11, 1886).

French painter and draughtsman, active in Peru. He served as the French Vice-Consul in Lima from 1834 to 1838 and while there produced albums of watercolours and drawings of cities such as Arica, Arequipa, Lima, Cuzco, Ollantaytambo, Urubamba and Tacna. His romantic spirit inclined him to the exotic, and he documented street scenes, the characters of city life, groups of buildings and archaeological monuments. Taken as a whole, these pictures bear witness to everyday life in Peru at that time....


Elisa García Barragán

(b Guadalajara, Feb 26, 1915).

Mexican painter, printmaker and teacher. He studied painting from 1927 at the Escuela Libre de Pintura in Guadalajara. He moved to Mexico City in 1934 and entered the Escuela de Pintura Escultura y Grabado ‘La Esmeralda’ in 1935. He was also a founder-member in that year of the Taller de Gráfica Popular in Mexico City, where he was able to develop his interest in engraving and lithography. He produced a vast body of work. His subject-matter, both in his prints and his paintings, focused on people’s dramas, labours and fiestas (e.g. The Circus, 1937; artist’s col.; see Crespo, fig.), the resignation and stoicism of Mexican women and popular myths and folk wisdom, for example Popular Sayings, an album of 18 engravings. He also painted numerous portraits and produced a number of murals that expressed a typical local ideology (e.g. Fascism and Clericalism, Enemies of Civilization, fresco, 1937; Mexico City, Cent. Escul. Revol.). Later murals portray Pre-Columbian historical events (e.g. ...


Jorge Luján-Muñoz

[formerly Santiago de Guatemala]

Guatemalan city. It is located in a valley at the foot of the Agua volcano, 1500 m above sea-level, and has a population of c. 30,000. It was founded in 1527 as Santiago de Guatemala, but following a landslide in 1541 it was relocated in 1543 to the Panchoy Valley. It was the capital of the Audiencia de Guatemala, which included the present Mexican state of Chiapas and the five Central American countries (excluding Panama), until 1773, when the last in a series of devastating earthquakes led to its abandonment as the capital; Guatemala City became the new capital in 1776. The old city quickly began to grow again and gained the status of capital of the Sacatepéquez department, acquiring its present name in 1790.

Antigua was originally laid out on the typical Spanish grid plan centred around a main square; the plan is believed to have been executed by ...


Group of Caribbean Islands comprising Cuba, Republic of, Jamaica, Puerto Rico and Hispaniola, the last divided into Haiti, Republic of and the Dominican Republic. Prior to contact with the Spanish colonists, the art of the Greater Antilles was relatively unified. However, after colonization traditions soon separated.

Antilles, Lesser, §I: Introduction...


Janet Henshall Momsen, C. C. McKee, C. J. M. R. Gullick, John Newel Lewis and Alissandra Cummins

Group of Caribbean Islands comprising Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, the Netherlands Antilles, and the Leeward and Windward Islands. These last include the French Overseas Departments of Martinique and Guadeloupe with their dependencies of St. Martin, St. Barthélémy, and the Saintes Islands; the American and British Virgin Islands; Dominica; Grenada; St. Lucia; St. Vincent; and the Netherlands possessions of Saba, St. Eustatius, and St. Maarten, among numerous smaller islands. The westernmost islands of Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao were all formerly Dutch colonies, but Aruba withdrew from the Netherlands Antilles in 1986. (For map, see Caribbean islands, fig.)

Janet Henshall Momsen, revised by C. C. McKee

In geological terms the Virgin Islands form an eastern extension of the faultblock geology of the Greater Antilles, while the outer islands, such as Anguilla, Antigua, and Barbuda in the Leeward Islands, Barbados, eastern Guadeloupe, and the Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao group, are of coral limestone formation. The latter are generally low-lying and surrounded by white sand beaches and coral reefs. Rainfall is low, ...


Maria Concepción García Sáiz

Italian family of engineers and architects. They were active in Spain and Spanish America in the service of the Spanish Habsburgs from 1559 to 1650. The most prominent member of the family was Juan Bautista Antonelli the elder (b Gaeteo, Italy, c. 1530; d Madrid, 17 March 1588), who settled in Spain from 1559 while working in the employ of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Most of his fortification works were carried out in the coastal south-east of Spain, where several members of his family settled, although he also worked in Oran and particularly in Portugal as a strategist and engineer. Many of his projects were not realized, including the creation of a navigable river network throughout the Iberian peninsula to facilitate the transport of merchandise from the ports to the interior. Several fortification plans for the Magellan Straits also failed to materialize.

Bautista Antonelli (b Rimini, ...


Klaus Ottmann

American performance artist and sculptor. Antoni studied sculpture at the Rhode Island School of Design in Providence. Antoni drew attention to herself in 1993 during a performance (Loving Care) at the Anthony d’Offay Gallery in London where, dressed in a black catsuit, she dipped her long hair repeatedly into a bucket filled with hair dye, and using her hair as a paint brush, mopped the gallery floor on her hands and knees. Her performance was reminiscent of Yves Klein’s 1960s ...


Myriam A. Ribeiro de Oliveira and Liliana Herrera



Julio Roberto Katinsky

revised by Alana Hernandez

(b Rio de Janeiro, Sept 1, 1905; d Rio de Janeiro, Mar 8, 1973).

Brazilian architect. He studied urban planning at the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes in Rio de Janeiro and graduated in 1926. He received a gold medal and an award to study abroad at the Institut d’Urbanisme, University of Paris (1928–1929).

Antunes Ribeiro was a versatile architect who made significant contributions to the development of Brazilian architecture immediately after World War II. He was the President of the Instituto de Arquitetos do Brasil from 1953 to 1956 and also served on the jury to choose the design for the capital city of Brasília. Initially Antunes Ribeiro’s style reflected the neocolonial movement that was popular in Brazil and greater Latin America. Later he based his work on the rationalist Modernism of Le Corbusier and CIAM. An early example of this can be seen in the plan for the city of Goiânia (1933; with Attilio Corrêa Lima). Other important works include: the Prudência office building in Salvador (...


Milan Ivelić

(b Santiago, 1918; d Jun 1993).

Chilean painter and printmaker. After studying architecture at the Universidad Católica de Chile in Santiago he won a scholarship that enabled him to continue his studies at Columbia University, New York, from 1943 to 1945. Having painted sensitive watercolors from nature while living in Chile, his journey to New York had a disquieting effect on him: he translated his experience of the concrete city, with its massive buildings dwarfing the anonymous inhabitants wandering the streets, into nearly abstract geometric compositions. He remained in New York to work with Stanley William Hayter from 1948 to 1950 and later traveled to Spain.

On his return to Chile in 1953 Antúnez founded Taller 99, a workshop modeled on Hayter’s Atelier 17, which had far-reaching effects on the development of printmaking in Chile. His renewed contact in Chile with the natural landscape and its fields, beaches, and mountains allowed him to return to intimate, sensitively colored scenes, as in the ...


Kathryn O'Rourke and Ramón Vargas

(b Mexico City, Mar 29, 1915; d Mexico City, May 25, 1959).

Mexican architect, theorist, and writer, of Japanese descent. The son of a Japanese ambassador in Mexico, he studied philosophy, espousing neo-Kantianism and becoming politically a socialist. He became a supporter of Functionalism, with its emphasis on the social applications of architecture, and was a founder, with Enrique Yañez, of the Unión de Arquitectos Socialistas (1938), helping to draw up a socialist theory of architecture. He was one of the most active participants in the Unión and attempted to put his socialist theory into practice on two unexecuted projects in the same year: the building for the Confederación de Trabajadores de México and the Ciudad Obrera de México, both with Enrique Guerrero and Raúl Cacho. Later, when Mexico opted for a developmental policy, Arai became a standard-bearer for nationalism in architecture. He re-evaluated traditional building materials, such as tree trunks, bamboo, palm leaves, and lianas, using them in a plan for a country house that was adapted to the warm, damp climate of the Papaloapan region. The building of the Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico City, gave him his greatest architectural opportunity when he designed the Frontones (...


Natalia Vega

(b Medellín, Antioquia, 1910; d Medellín, Colombia, Dec 4, 2005).

Colombian painter. From 1933 to 1938 she studied at the Instituto de Bellas Artes de Medellín and under Eladio Veles and Pedro Nel Gómez; her early still-lifes and portraits reflect contemporary studio practices, while her expressive, provocative female nudes reveal the influence of Nel Gómez. Other early works are concerned with religious life, autobiographical subject-matter that stemmed from her childhood (e.g. First Communion and Sisters of Charity, both 1942, Medellín, Mus. A. Mod.). From 1938 her paintings reflected a growing concern with social issues. In 1944 Arango was part of a group of artists that published the Manifiesto de los Independientes, asserting the regionalist values of art and emphasizing the importance of mural painting as a public educational medium. Her subject-matter became openly feminist, exploring both private feminine life (e.g. Adolescence, 1944, Medellín, Mus. A. Mod.) and the social and political status of women. In Justice (1944, Medellín, Mus. A. Mod.), she employed grotesque characters to allude to such situations of exploitation and injustice as prostitution. Works such as ...


Felipe Hernandez

(b Santiago, 1967).

Chilean architect. Aravena received his architecture degree from the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile in 1992 and in 1994 established Aravena Arquitectos, an independent architecture studio where he took private commissions while teaching at his own school in Santiago and at Harvard University. In 2001 Aravena launched ELEMENTAL, described as a “do tank” focusing on projects of public interest and social impact. Their notions of incrementalism and participation introduce an important variable to the design of buildings: a dynamic hierarchical redistribution between the designer and people, both of whom are conceived as producers of their own habitable space. While Aravena continued to occupy a central position on the design (and construction) of buildings, people were not passive receivers but active producers of the houses where they live. Aravena’s most valuable contribution to low-income housing architecture thus has been the gap he left empty for people to complete.

Working within a governmental framework created in ...


Monica E. Kupfer

(b Chilibre, Jan 16, 1929).

Panamanian sculptor and painter. He studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence (1949–1954) and at the Real Academia Catalana de Bellas Artes de San Jorge in Barcelona (1955–1960). On his return to Panama City he became the first professor of sculpture at the Escuela Nacional de Artes Plásticas from 1961 to 1964, and in 1964 he founded the Casa de la Escultura, a government-supported center for the teaching and promotion of the fine arts which he continued to direct after it was renamed the Centro de Arte y Cultura. Arboleda exhibited often and established his reputation as a young man with academic works such as Serenity (marble, 1950; Panama City, Mus. A. Contemp.). Most of his work was figurative, but he later developed a more symbolic style and produced his most original sculptures on indigenous themes, as with the bronze head of a Chocó Indian entitled ...


Ricardo Pau-Llosa

(b ?Havana, 1864; d Paris, Aug 17, 1889).

Cuban painter. He was one of the most prominent students of Miguel Melero (1836–1907), the first Cuban-born director of the Academia de S Alejandro in Havana (founded 1818). Morell also studied at the Academia de S Fernando in Madrid. Morell’s portraits, with their natural poses in domestic settings, reflect an ease with effects of light and texture not seen in the work of his Cuban contemporaries, with the exception of Guillermo Collazo. One of his most significant works is In the Garden (1888; Havana, Mus. N. B.A.), in which the use of light is reminiscent of the naturalism of plein-air, with which Morell would almost certainly have come into contact in Spain. His promising career was cut short by typhus when he was 25.

J. Mañach: ‘La pintura en Cuba: Desde sus orígenes hasta 1900’, Las bellas artes en Cuba, xviii of La evolución de la cultura cubana (1608–1927)...


François-Auguste de Montêquin

(b Burgos, 1526–7; d Mexico City, 1593).

Mexican architect and sculptor of Spanish birth. In 1541 he moved from his native city to Madrid, where he served as an apprentice to Luis de Vega, one of the architects working in the High Renaissance style for Emperor Charles V. Arciniega worked with Vega in the remodelling of the Alcázar at Madrid. At intervals between 1542 and 1548 he worked under the direction of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón as a sculptor on the Plateresque façade of the university at Alcalá de Henares. He was possibly also responsible for the main retable in the church of Santiago at Guadalajara.

In 1554 Arciniega arrived in New Spain (now Mexico) with his brother Luis de Arciniega (1537–99), who was also an architect. He settled in Puebla de los Angeles (now Puebla) and worked there between 1554 and 1558, primarily engaged in a large number of public works as master mason. He established his reputation with the fountain that he constructed (...