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Article

Copy  

Paul Duro

Manual repetition of another work of art, executed without dishonest intention. The contemporary notion of Authenticity has tended to obscure the fact that the exercise of copying has been a central feature of art practice since antiquity. Unlike the forger, the copyist produces a work that, while taking another work as its point of departure, is not intended to deceive the spectator or the buyer, although such a work may subsequently be identified and sold as an original. This difference in intention distinguishes the copy from the Forgery; the use of any other methodological or aesthetic criterion may risk confusing the two. Although engravings or photographs after another work of art are obviously copies in one sense, as reproductions they employ a mechanical process that separates them from the manual copies under discussion here (see Reproduction of works of art).

The non-fraudulent copy may be divided into three distinct but not necessarily mutually exclusive categories: the copy as a means of duplication; the copy in art education; and the copy as a starting-point for the creation of another art work (often called ...

Article

Stephen T. Clarke, Harley Preston and Lin Barton

English family of silversmiths, industrialists, collectors, and patrons, of French origin. The family originated from the town of St Pierre on the Ile d’Oléron off La Rochelle. They arrived in London a few years after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, and between 1708 and 1780 three generations of Courtauld silversmiths were registered at the Goldsmiths’ Company. Augustine Courtauld (c.1686–c. 1751) was apprenticed to Simon Pantin in 1701 and, after becoming a freeman of the Goldsmiths’ Company in 1708, he started a business as a plateworker in Church Court, off St Martin’s Lane in London. The majority of his work is of high quality, for example a silver tea-table (1742; St Petersburg, Hermitage) and the state salt of the Corporation of the City of London (1730; London, Mansion House). Augustine’s brother Pierre Courtauld (1690–1729) registered a mark in 1721...

Article

Joseph R. Givens

The sociologist Pierre Bourdieu (1930–2002) developed cultural capital theory as way to examine the influence of intangible resources on the phenomena of social reproduction and social mobility. He described a society of competing classes, arranged in a hierarchy of prestige. The classes are composed of individual agents who attempt to climb the socio-economic ladder by maximizing the use of capital resources, which include both material objects of symbolic value and intangible attributes that imply prestige and power. Bourdieu identified four types of capital: economic, social, symbolic, and cultural. Economic capital represents one’s financial resources, social capital consists of one’s social support system, symbolic capital describes one’s prestige, and cultural capital includes the knowledge, values, and skills that support an understanding of cultural relations and cultural artefacts. The forms of capital are inequitably distributed among classes, and one form of capital can be converted to another. Since the value of capital is defined by social relations within a specific field, agents strategize the best way to leverage their capital for maximum gain of the valued capital within that field....

Article

Ugochukwu-Smooth C. Nzewi

[Biennale of Contemporary African Art]

Dak’Art was established by the Senegalese government as the first art biennial in sub-Saharan Africa in 1989. Its mandate was to promote the latest examples of contemporary African art in Africa and create international visibility for it. Thus, it served as an important nexus between the African and international art worlds. Dak’Art’s growth in the 1990s coincided with the global expansion of the art world with regard to the proliferation of non-Western art biennials and new forms of cultural mediation. At its first iteration in 1990, Dak’Art was meant to alternate between literary and visual arts. It was a conventional art biennial in 1992, exhibiting works of artists from different parts of the world. In its third iteration, in 1996, Dak’Art transformed its institutional identity and became known as the pan-African biennial of contemporary African art. It focused almost exclusively on the works of African artists and those of the African diaspora. This transformation meant that Dak’Art considered contemporary African art as part of the mainstream art world while at the same time offering an alternative vision of how that world takes shape in Africa....

Article

A. Deirdre Robson

In 

Article

Joseph R. Givens

(b Hartford, CT, July 9, 1952).

American art dealer, curator, and critic. Deitch is best known for transforming the American art market with the introduction of post-industrial business practices. A Connecticut native, he studied art history at Wesleyan University (1970–74) and opened his first gallery in 1972 at the Curtis Hotel in Lenox, MA. He studied the economics of art at Harvard Business School, and earned an MBA in 1978. His 1980 essay, The Warhol Product, was one of the first publications to address the post-modern phenomenon of art as commodity. In 1979 Deitch helped guide financial institutions into the business of art investment services by co-developing Citibank’s Art Advisory Service, a comprehensive service model that provided élite clients with loans, strategic collection consultation, historical information, and shipping and insurance management. After transitioning to a full-time, self-employed art dealer in 1988, Deitch brokered the secondary market sale of Jasper Johns’s White Flag (...

Article

Christopher Rowell

With the rise of Collecting in antiquity and with the appreciation of objects for their own sake rather than for their religious or other connotations came the issue of how to display works of art. Their arrangement was usually symmetrical within a carefully considered decorative scheme. Collectors adapted religious traditions of display and were inspired by Classical precedent. The medieval domestic use of a few portable paintings led, by the 16th century, to their display en masse in galleries. The culmination of this tendency was to ‘carpet’ walls with symmetrically arranged paintings. By the second half of the 19th century, organization by school and chronology was accompanied by a belief that paintings should be sparsely hung so that each could be properly appreciated. With sculpture, there was more information available about ancient methods of display, and Classical principles proved extremely long-lived, both indoors and outdoors. Factors of size, rarity, and fragility did much to determine the forms of display used for other media: ...

Article

Thomas P. McNulty

International art exhibition held since 1955 every four to five years in the German city of Kassel (and subsequently other venues as well), which features avant-garde art and culture. Each exhibition lasts for 100 days and its primary exhibition space is in the Museum Fridericianum. Since its inception, the focus of documenta became increasingly global, culminating in the election of the first non-European artistic director, Nigerian-born Okwui Enwezor (b 1963), who organized documenta11 (8 June–15 September 2002).

The first documenta exhibition was held in 1955 at the Museum Fridericianum in Kassel and exhibited work by 148 artists, attracting 130,000 visitors. Its aim, under director Arnold Bode (1900–77), was to exhibit avant-garde art which had been banned under Nazis as ‘degenerate art’. The second installment of documenta (1959), directed by Bode and Werner Haftmann, took as its subject the artworks produced during the 14-year period following the end of World War II. By contrast, documenta III (...

Article

Molly K. Dorkin

The world’s oldest auction house, founded in Vienna in April 1707 by Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor (reg 1705–11). Originally called the Versatz- und Fragamt zu Wien (‘The Pawn and Query Bureau of Vienna’), the firm moved in 1777 to the site of an old monastery, the Dorotheerkloster, from which the name ‘Dorotheum’ is derived. By the end of the 19th century the premises were outdated, so Emperor Francis-Joseph I (reg 1848–1916) commissioned the architect Emil von Förster (1838–1909) to design a suitably grand building. This new structure, called the Palais Dorotheum, was completed and formally opened in 1901 by the Emperor, in whose honour the central hall was named. In the early years of the 20th century the Dorotheum introduced many innovations to their auctioneering process, such as the division of sales into categories by object type. The first unique categories, introduced in 1900, were art and numismatics....

Article

Electronic transactions of art over the internet. Since the introduction of the World Wide Web in the early 1990s, e-commerce has grown to become a very important channel for the trade of goods as well as services. Several attempts to transition the art market to the internet have been made since the late 1990s and initial results have been mixed. The e-commerce of art has mainly captured the lower end of the market and only recently efforts have been made to create an electronic presence at the upper end of the market. This segmentation, in combination with concurrent technological advancements, led to new ways of experiencing art online and is driving the transformation of the art market that we see today.

Consumer markets on the internet have grown rapidly since the 1990s and, in 2014, e-commerce represented more than 6 per cent of all retail trade in the USA, growing at 15 per cent annually. Globally, it exceeds $1 trillion every year. Thus, e-commerce has grown vastly since the mid-1990s, when one of the most prominent operators of internet auctions opened to the public: eBay.com. Due to its success, eBay has become one of the most studied online markets and it has also had a large impact on many other marketplaces around the world, which, with only small modifications, have mimicked its design....

Article

Bénédicte Martin

[Cousin Pons; Paul du Crotoy; Paul du Gord]

(b Le Crotoy, Somme, Oct 23, 1837; d Cellettes, Loir et Cher, Nov 18, 1911).

French art journalist and collector. After completing his secondary studies in Nantes, Eudel sailed for the island of Réunion where he gathered materials for travel accounts to be published in various regional newspapers upon his return to Nantes. In 1871 he was elected a municipal councillor of Nantes, where he was notably responsible for the public library. After settling in Paris in 1877 to work in journalism, Eudel threw himself into collecting art, becoming a great collector and connoisseur of antique silver. As a critic he contributed to several leading art periodicals: Journal des Arts, Journal des Artistes, Revue des Arts Décoratifs, L’Opinion, La Vie Moderne, Le Figaro, Le Temps, and L’Illustration. Most notably, his reputation as the foremost art-market journalist of the 19th century was established with a series of articles published in Le Figaro, beginning in 1881, which principally covered sales in the Hôtel Drouot auction house. These essays first appeared individually in newspapers and magazines, but were reprinted in a set of year books, consisting of nine volumes, that appeared between ...

Article

Christopher Rowell

The temporary display of works of art for pleasure, instruction, the enhancement of scholarship, or for sale. The earliest regular exhibitions were often conducted to show the wealth of existing collections rather than to promote or sell new works of art. As patronage declined, exhibitions of newly executed work became more necessary, and their institution was further encouraged by the foundation of academies, societies, and museums. This article deals with Western exhibitions; for other traditions see Africa, §XIII; China, People’s Republic of, §XX; Indian subcontinent, §XIII; Islamic art, §XIII; and Japan, §XXII.

In Greece in the late 5th century bc or early 4th the painter Zeuxis of Heracleia charged an admission fee for viewing his Helen (destr.). Towards the end of the 4th century bc a picture gallery for the exhibition of works by local artists was founded in Sikyon, and by the 2nd century ad the Pinacotheca in the Propylaia of the Athenian Acropolis was open to the public. Pilgrims might be given guided tours of the statues in Greek temple sanctuaries and were able to purchase ...

Article

Molly Dorkin and Alodie Larson

Exhibitions—temporary public displays of art—have affected the art market since its emergence, and whether organized by commercial or public entities, they play an important role in the contemporary market. They are inextricably linked with the demand for and value of the works of art they present. As a general rule, exhibitions enhance an artist’s status in the commercial market and increase the prices achieved for the sales of his or her work (see also Exhibition).

The earliest recorded public displays of art date to Classical times, from the late 5th or early 4th century BCE (see Collection and display of Classical art). In ancient Greece, displays of art tended to be either public attractions or religious undertakings. According to Cicero, a painting of Helen was commissioned for a temple in Croton from the artist Zeuxis of Heracleia, and he charged an admission fee to view the celebrated work before its dedication (Aelianus, ...

Article

Forgery  

Thierry Lenain

One of many forms of deceit wherein one attempts to make an object pass for something it is not. Within discussions of art, this object is an artwork intentionally misrepresented so as to appear substantially different from what it actually is. The fraud may affect first-degree properties of the work, such as its material constitution, artistic content, or general appearance, but may also be applied to its historical background. In some cases, part of an existing artwork may be retained while other elements are added or removed. The work as a whole can be altered so as to present an alternate reality: it may be made to appear older, or in a better state of preservation, or to represent a different subject (a royal, rather than a common subject for example), and so forth. A similar end can be achieved through the construction of a completely new object disguised as something else; this is what is usually referred to as ‘forgery’ in the narrowest sense of the word....

Article

Sally Webster

(b West Overton, PA, Dec 19, 1849; d New York, Dec 2, 1919).

American industrialist, collector, and museum creator. Frick received little formal education and went to work at an early age as a bookkeeper. By the early 1870s he had earnt enough money to buy up coke fields in Western Pennsylvania, processing the coke in his own ovens. In a few short years he was the major supplier of fuel for Pittsburgh’s iron and steel industries and by the time he was 30 had earned his first million. In celebration he travelled to Europe with Andrew Mellon who, in 1937, would donate his collection and money for the establishment of Washington’s National Gallery of Art. In London they visited the Wallace Collection, which would later serve as prototype for Frick’s New York house–museum. After marrying Adelaide Howard Childs (1859–1931) on 15 December 1881, Frick bought and expanded Clayton, a 23-room home, now part of the Frick Art and Historical Center, Pittsburgh....

Article

Joseph R. Givens

(b Los Angeles, CA, April 19, 1945).

American art dealer. Gagosian is considered a catalyst for the globalization of the art market. Raised in Los Angeles by a middle-class family, Gagosian did not recall visiting an art museum until he was in college. After studying literature at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), from 1963 to 1969 he worked in several entry-level office jobs before making the transition to entrepreneur with a kitsch poster business near UCLA. Within a year, Gagosian transformed the poster business into a frame shop and art gallery, and over the course of the following three decades, he became the sole owner of a powerful art empire.

Realizing the limited sales potential in Los Angeles, he moved to New York and opened a gallery in SoHo with business partner Annina Nosei. In 1980 he returned to Los Angeles and arranged shows that rivalled New York dealers, including a notorious Jean-Michel Basquiat residency in April of ...

Article

Molly Dorkin

Place where works of art are displayed. In a commercial gallery, works of art are displayed for the purposes of sale (for information on non-commercial art galleries see Display of art and Museum, §I). Historically, artworks were commissioned by patrons directly from an artist and produced in his workshop. In the Netherlands, the economic boom following the conclusion of the Eighty Years’ War with Spain (1648) led to rising demand for art. Patrons began buying from dealers, some of whom produced illustrated catalogues. Antwerp became the centre of the art world. Galleries for the display and viewing of art appeared in paintings by Teniers family, §2 and Bruegel family, §3, although these were private not commercial spaces, or imaginary constructions.

The Paris Salon, which had been organized by the Académie Royale de Peinture et Sculpture since 1667, was opened to the public for the first time in ...

Article

Lillian B. Miller

revised by Margaret Barlow

(b New York, April 14, 1840; d Boston, MA, July 17, 1924).

American patron, collector, and museum founder. The daughter of a wealthy New York merchant and wife of a prominent Boston banker, John L. Gardner jr (1837–98), she bought her first important painting in 1873—a small landscape by the Barbizon painter Charles Jacque. (All works cited are in Boston, Isabella Stewart Gardner Mus.) In the 1870s she also began to collect rare books, manuscripts, autographs, and etchings, under the influence of Charles Eliot Norton. Although she continued to buy such pieces until her death, after the 1880s books took second place to art. During a trip to Europe in 1886, she visited the London studios of James McNeill Whistler and John Singer Sargent, both of whom painted her portrait, and it was at that time that she decided to give serious thought to collecting art.

Gardner purchased her first Old Master painting in 1888—a Madonna by Francisco de Zurbarán, which became her personal altarpiece. A summer visit to Venice that year kindled her interest in Venetian architecture, and subsequent travels provided her with the opportunity to study important paintings in London and Paris, while strengthening her enthusiasm for collecting. She became friendly with Bernard Berenson, whom she had met when he was a young Harvard student in ...

Article

A. Deirdre Robson

In 

Article

JoLynn Edwards

(b Paris, 1694; d Paris, March 24, 1750).

French marchand-mercier, picture dealer, publisher, and pioneer of the Parisian auction business. In 1718 his marriage to Marie-Louise Sirois (1698–1725), daughter of the master glazier, Pierre Sirois, brought him into the circle of Antoine Watteau’s intimate friends and determined the future course of his activities. His father-in-law frequently exhibited pictures and occasionally worked in association with the painter Antoine Dieu, a picture dealer, whose stock and business Gersaint had bought before his marriage. He took possession of Dieu’s shop, Au Grand Monarque, on the Petit Pont, on 15 April 1718, but it was destroyed by fire only a few days later. Gersaint rebounded to set up his business on the Pont Notre-Dame where he remained throughout his life. Sirois was also an early patron and friend of Watteau, who recorded his features in Sous un habit de Mezzetin (c. 1716–18; London, Wallace), and published ten prints after his work. Gersaint maintained this connection: after Watteau returned from London in ...