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Arcade  

Doris Kutschbach

Single arch or series of arches carried on piers or columns. In antiquity arcades were used most prominently in the architecture of the Roman Empire, which took advantage of the greater load-bearing capacity of arches over the trabeated system that dominated Greek architecture (see Trabeated construction). In medieval architecture arcades became one of the principal structural components of church interiors, both dividing and linking the principal and subsidiary spaces, notably nave and aisles (for illustration see Section); similar structural systems were employed in the interiors of many large secular buildings, including variations using the new iron technology of the 19th century (e.g. Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève, Paris; 1843). Arcades, sometimes in the form of dwarf galleries, were also used to articulate the façades of Romanesque and Gothic churches; at Lucca Cathedral (13th century), for example, rows of smaller, superimposed arcades entirely cover the façade above the principal portico arcade at ground level. In addition, arcades serve to support the roofs of covered walks, porticos and loggias, being a common feature of a secular urban architecture in medieval and Renaissance Italy (e.g. ...

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Arch  

Francis Woodman and Jonathan M. Bloom

Reviser Sheila S. Blair

An opening or frame, which may be either load-bearing or decorative, with a profile based on the segment of a circle or series of segments. A true brick or masonry arch is a composite structure, the wedge-shaped constructional blocks (voussoirs) of which are disposed radially and held together in compression (see Masonry, §III, 2, (ii)).

An arch (see fig.) is composed of the following elements:

The curved segment forming half or one side of an arch (1a): hence arcature, the line or profile of an arch.

The exposed face of an arch or arches, when arranged concentrically, and framing a door, window or opening (1b). It is sometimes decorated. The term is also used of the exposed faces of the voussoirs (see below) and is sometimes applied to the underside, intrados (see below) or soffit of an arch.

See Geometrical centre.

A rectangular, thick impost block (see below) placed immediately above a capital and supporting an arch. It is an alternative to the usual abacus. It was common in Late Antique, ...

Article

Patrick Nuttgens and Sunand Prasad

Designer of buildings, responsible also in varying degrees for the supervision of their erection. The term is derived from the Greek word architekton (‘craftsman’ or ‘master carpenter’). From this came the Latin word architectus, used by the theorist Vitruvius, whose treatise On Architecture was written c. 17 bc. The first use of the word in English came in John Shute’s First and Chief Grounds of Architecture, published in 1563. The role and cultural status of the architect have been differently understood at different periods of history. In the modern Western world the architect is generally held to be something more than an artisan or manual worker and is in practice often a chief executive or director of works as well as a designer. This concept, however, dates only from the Renaissance, the period during which a distinction came to be drawn between the architect as designer and the master craftsman, who not only designed but also built. Outside the West, different traditions have emerged, with the architect not generally receiving the same individual recognition as his or her Western counterpart....

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H. A. Meek, Harold Meek and Marion Meek

The stabilization, repair or reconstruction of buildings of historic, cultural or architectural significance. The history of building conservation is beset with ideological and aesthetic problems, including whether it should be practised at all and, if so, to what extent restoration should supervene in the original structure. Modern conservation principles, as set out in the Venice Charter (1964; see §3 below), are based on specific alternative approaches. Preservation involves minimal intervention, ensuring the stabilization and maintenance of remains in their existing state and retarding further deterioration. Restoration involves returning the fabric to a known earlier state of greater significance by removing accretions or by reassembling existing components, but without the introduction of new material. Reconstruction involves returning the fabric as nearly as possible to a known earlier state and is distinguished by the introduction of materials—new or old—to the fabric. Architectural conservation may include any of these approaches or a combination of more than one, as well as the adaptation or modification of a building to suit proposed new and compatible uses....

Article

Barbara Schock-Werner and Jill Lever

Representation in graphic form of a building or part of a building, either as a stage in the planned construction of an actual edifice or as an imaginative act in its own right. The development of the form in Western art has reflected not only developments in architectural and graphic techniques but also broader developments in the status and role of the architect.

Barbara Schock-Werner

In the Middle Ages architectural drawings served to visualize a building design and to establish its dimensions; they depicted the whole or part of a building, individual details and the architectural ornament of church furnishings such as choir-stalls or sedilia. The earliest surviving medieval architectural drawing is the monastic plan made c. 820 of St Gall Abbey, which was probably produced as an ‘ideal’ rather than as a working plan (for further discussion and illustration see St Gall Abbey, §2). Romanesque and Early Gothic churches were normally built without preliminary drawings, but a few architectural drawings survive from the 13th century, among them the portfolio of ...

Article

John Wilton-Ely

A small-scale three-dimensional structure used to test, clarify or illustrate part or all of an architectural design or building. Although frequent references to the use of models can be found from Classical antiquity onwards, because of their often fragile materials (e.g. wood, gesso, papier-mâché and balsa wood), few have survived in proportion to their extensive use. Those that remain date chiefly from the end of the 15th century, or shortly after, and tend to represent monumental rather than intimately scaled buildings. Moreover, documentary references from the Renaissance, when a fresh interest in the use of models emerged, are sometimes misleading. The term ‘model’, derived from the Italian modello, frequently refers to a drawing rather than a three-dimensional aid for the designer (see Modello, §I). With the advent of a wide range of specialized drawings in the late 18th century, the value of the model as a presentational and didactic device was first seriously undermined. Nevertheless, it continued to prove useful up to the late 20th century, when holography and sophisticated computer graphics began to replace it as a source of three-dimensional information for architects and clients....

Article

Walter Liedtke and Daniela Coia

Paintings in which a building or a group of buildings or ruins constitutes either the main subject of the composition or plays an important role in it. The term is modern and owes much of its currency to Jantzen’s fundamental survey (1910) of 16th- and 17th-century Netherlandish architectural paintings (see bibliography under §2 below). Works most commonly described as architectural paintings include views of church interiors, both real and imaginary; interior and exterior views of imaginary palaces and, occasionally, country estates; and exterior views of important buildings, such as cathedrals, town halls and country houses. In some cases, especially in earlier periods, a Townscape is referred to as an architectural picture. Indeed, there is a considerable body of Italian Renaissance paintings devoted to general urban views, in which such picturesque architectural elements as turreted walls, cupolas, bell-towers, palazzi, porticos and temples are emphasized (usually arranged according to artistic licence rather than by strict adherence to topographical accuracy). Whereas in the Middle Ages the image of the city had generally served simply as a background for religious narrative scenes, by the early Renaissance increasing interest in both ancient and contemporary architecture meant that it came to be seen as an appropriate subject for painting in its own right. It is not always possible to make a clear distinction between a townscape and an architectural picture: views such as that by ...

Article

John Musgrove, Peter Kidson and Geoffrey Newman

Proportion is the general term used to describe the dimensional relationships among the constituent elements of an artefact and between those elements and the whole composition. As the only factor in design that significantly affects aesthetic outcomes and yet is susceptible to quantification, it has been the subject of various attempts at systematization. These ranged from elementary applications of Pythagorean geometry to the idealized simplicity of numerical progressions in Plato’s cosmology: aesthetic perfection was sought for the latter in the musical analogy and in the former in systems based upon the golden section. At the most general level, proportional systems might be expected to offer precise reproducibility. But it is perhaps Panofsky’s generalizations that describe proportion best for both plastic arts and architecture (Meaning in the Visual Arts, p. 56).

The history of the theory of proportion is the reflection of the history of style; … when dealing with mathematical formulations, it may even be looked upon as a reflection which often surpasses the original in clarity. One might assert that the theory of proportions expresses the frequently perplexing concept of ...

Article

Lowermost portion of an entablature, principally used in Classical architecture, comprising a horizontal beam that spans the columns or piers in the manner of a lintel (see Greece, ancient, fig.b and Orders, architectural, fig.vi). The term was subsequently applied to the moulding around a door or window.

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Arricio  

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Trevor Proudfoot

Material most commonly used as a cheaper alternative to stone. Occasionally, its special properties make it a preferred but more expensive choice to stone. In its simplest form, artificial stone is an ashlar covering for buildings (e.g. 18th-century terraced houses by John Nash). It is found in its most sophisticated form as the component of numerous 19th-century terracotta or cement-based sculptures.

The earliest and simplest form of artificial stone is the lime-and-gypsum plaster used to decorate the walls of Egyptian tombs. These facings were predominantly of gypsum plaster lined and painted to simulate the texture of stone. In ancient Rome, renders (first coats of plaster) had a similar design and purpose, although they were applied to a wider variety of buildings. The incorporation of lime, pozzolana, additives of volcanic ash, sherds of pottery and brick dust strengthened the mortars and gave them greater durability. The renders were often painted to increase the illusion that actual stone was used (...

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G. Lloyd-Morgan

Male figure (sometimes known as telamon, and equivalent to the female caryatid) used architecturally since the Classical period to replace a column, and for decorative effect in metalwork and furniture since the 16th century. It is usually represented standing with its hands behind its bowed head, as if supporting a heavy weight on its shoulders, and is probably modelled on the mythical Atlas, who was said to hold up the sky. Unlike caryatids, surviving examples from the Greco-Roman world are scarce. The earliest and most famous, in the huge temple of Zeus Olympios at Akragas (begun c. 480 bc), are 7.65 m high and composed of 12 or 13 courses of stone. Several have been reconstructed on site from excavated fragments. Evidence from coins suggests that atlantids adorned other temples and sacred buildings. They are found in Roman secular architecture from the 1st century bc, for example at Pompeii in the ...

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Term used in Classical architecture for a small order placed above the main entablature of the building. The space so occupied, internally and on the façade, is called the ‘attic storey’. Its front wall may be blank, as in the great panel above the cornice of a triumphal arch, or pierced by windows; in ancient Greek and Roman architecture it was sometimes decorated with relief sculpture or carried an inscription. An open parapet is not correctly described as an attic....

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[Fr.: ‘with three chalks’]

Term applied to a drawing in black, red and white chalks, often carried out on tinted paper; the technique was particularly employed by Antoine Watteau, among others, in the early part of the 18th century. The variant terms aux deux crayons (black and red chalks) and aux quatre crayons (black, white and two shades of red chalk) are occasionally also used (...