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Vanina Costa and Lin Barton

(b Bristol, June 2, 1945).

English sculptor, photographer and painter. He studied at West of England College of Art in Bristol (1962–5) and from 1966 to 1968 at St Martin’s School of Art, London, where his fellow students included other artists who were redefining the terms of sculpture in England, among them Hamish Fulton, Jan Dibbets, Gilbert and George, and John Hilliard. Within a year of his departure from St Martin’s, Long was closely associated with the emergence of a new art form, Land art, having already produced such works as A Line Made by Walking (1967; London, Tate), a photograph of the trail left in the grass by walking back and forth in a straight line; another work, England (1968; London, Tate), consists of an X shape made by cutting off the heads of flowers in a field, again presented in the form of a photograph.

Long made his international reputation during the 1970s with sculptures made as the result of epic walks, sometimes lasting many days, to remote parts of the world, including desert regions of Africa as well as Australia, Canada, Japan, Switzerland and Norway. Guided by a great respect for nature and by the formal structure of basic shapes, especially circles, he never allowed facile exotic connotations to intrude into his work, although some of his sculptures evoked the mysterious connotations of ancient stone circles and other such monuments. Different modes of presentation, sometimes combined, were used to bring his experience of nature back into the museum or gallery. These included, above all, photographs documenting the sculptures left behind in their original setting, such as ...


Aleca Le Blanc

(de Almeida)

(b Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, 1971).

Brazilian installation artist. Lucas studied at the Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), where she earned her BA (1993) and MFA (1999). She received her PhD in 2008 from the Escola de Comunicações e Artes at the Universidade de São Paulo (ECA-USP). Lucas’s projects confuse the distinction between public and private space, often questioning conventions associated with the display of art, including architecture, audience, and the permanence of the art object. In one of her best-known installations, Falha (2003), she covered the gallery floor with large panels of raw plywood connected with hinges. Viewers were encouraged to walk on top and pull open the large and unwieldy panels, propping them open at various angles to create new configurations. This installation refuted expectations that art works be made of refined materials and relegated to walls or pedestals. This mutable and temporary architecture inviting immersive participation bore a strong formal connection to Brazilian Neo-Concrete artist ...


Susan Snodgrass

(b Madrid, Spain, 1961).

Chicago-based American sculptor also working in photography, video and installation. He received a BA in art and art history and a BA in Latin American and Spanish literature from Williams College in 1983. In 1989 he earned a MFA from the School of the Art Institute of Chicago.

Manglano-Ovalle’s hybrid practice emerged with Tele-vecindario: A Street-Level Video Block Party, a public art project created for Culture in Action, a community-based art program in Chicago in 1992–3. Working with Latino youth in Chicago’s West Town community, an area often challenged by substandard housing, drugs and gang violence, the artist facilitated a multimedia portrait of their lives in which these youth constructed their own images and concept of self. Issues of identity, community and migration, as they relate to both cultural and geographic borders, have been explored throughout his prestigious career that includes collaborative modes of working, as well as individual works sited within the museum or gallery. For Manglano-Ovalle, culture encompasses a broad network of systems—artistic, political, environmental, scientific—in constant dialogue, negotiated by both artist and viewer....


Morgan Falconer

(b New York, June 22, 1943; d New York, Aug 27, 1978).

American sculptor, film maker, photographer and draughtsman. The son of painter Roberto Matta, he studied architecture in Ithaca, NY, at Cornell University (1962–8), where he mixed with artists and showed little ability for his chosen subject. There he met Robert Smithson, whose interests in land art and the theory of entropy (concerned with dissipating energy) were a significant influence on him. On completion of his studies he moved to New York and became a well-known figure among artists in SoHo. He is best known for a series of ‘building cuts’ (1972–8) in which he carved sections out of old buildings, treating them (in the manner of modern sculptures) as spatial compositions; see Splitting, 1943–1978. Calling these transformations ‘Anarchitecture’, Matta-Clark carved the buildings up with a chain saw, documenting the changes in films and photographs subsequently exhibited in galleries, often alongside fragments of the buildings themselves. His most celebrated work, ...


(b New York, May 27, 1944).

American sculptor, draughtsman, film maker, and environmental artist. As a child she was taken by her father on many visits to early forts, Native American sites, and abandoned mines. In Stuttgart with her family she saw the remains of demolished buildings as well as medieval towns and castle ruins, which left a strong impression. She studied at the University of California, Santa Barbara (BA, 1966), and at the Rhine Art School of Sculpture, Maryland Art Institute, Baltimore (MFA, 1968). On a summer sculpture course at Colorado College, Colorado Springs (1963), she became aware of the work of John Cage, Robert Rauschenberg, and Robert Morris, and of ideas initiated by contemporary Minimalist sculptors and land artists. Her early landscape works dealt primarily with the measurement of distances in relation to a specific location in a temporal work: for example, Untitled (wood, 12×6 ft [3.66×1.83 m] sections at 50 ft [15.25 m] intervals, ...



Clare A. P. Willsdon, Carol Kenna, Nicola Coleby, Desmond Rochfort, Madeline McLeod and Sally Webster

Painting applied to an exterior or interior wall surface, especially in a public building or space. During the 19th century a growing sense of national identity in many countries, especially in Europe, and the emergence of new patrons, both private and public, stimulated a revival in didactic and historical mural painting that was closely linked with revivalist movements in architecture. The mural subsequently became a significant art form throughout the modern Western world, where its potential accessibility for a large viewing public and, in some cases, its ability to stimulate public response led to its use in the promotion of a variety of social and political causes. This article discusses the history of this modern development. For discussion of the techniques used in mural painting, and of their development from antiquity to modern times, see Wall painting and Fresco. For discussion of the important role of mural painting in a number of cultures outside the Western world ...


(b Esher, Surrey, Nov 14, 1945).

English sculptor, land artist, and draughtsman. He studied at Kingston College of Art (1963), Brighton College (BA, 1964–7), and Chelsea School of Art (MFA, 1969–70). In 1967 he moved to Blaenau Ffestiniog, Gwynned, a slate-quarrying village, motivated by a desire to escape the ‘unnecessarily competitive’ metropolitan art world. As a student Nash became interested in the art and writing of China, particularly the text of the Dao de Jing by Laozi (see China, People’s Republic of §I 5.); other interests include the painting of Abstract Expressionist Arshile Gorky, as well as the theoretical implications of Minimalism, although he found much Minimalist work ‘completely devoid of the human spirit’. Nash’s early works were in part a response to both Minimalism and the sculpture in the New Generation 65 exhibition (1965; London, Whitechapel A.G.), which included work by Philip King and William Tucker. From the late 1960s he developed his holistic approach to art; his first exhibition ...


Deborah A. Middleton

The first national parks were conceived to preserve the natural wonders of a primeval American wilderness that served as inspiration for American painters and photographers. American landscape architecture and park design were central to the emergence of the National Park System at the end of the 19th century, and the permanent conservation of threatened areas of natural beauty. Photography and landscape painting strongly influenced the aesthetic appreciation of unspoiled nature. Photography informed the construction of pictorial spaces, distances, situated views in unexpected places, lighting, angle of view, framing of the view. The overwhelming experience of America’s natural places influenced painters, such as Thomas Cole, Thomas Moran and Albert Bierstadt, and naturalists, such as John Muir, whose emphasis on the transcendental vision of wilderness began to shape a desire to conserve these places as national symbols of America. Moran’s paintings of Yellowstone Park were influential in designating Yellowstone as America’s first national park on ...


John-Paul Stonard

(b Beaumont, TX, 9 Aug, 1939; d Maratea, Feb 3, 2009).

American sound artist. After graduating from the Manhattan School of Music (1957–62), Neuhaus worked as a professional percussionist, touring America and Europe with Pierre Boulez (1962–3) and Karlheinz Stockhausen (1963–4). He experimented with electro-acoustic sound, and in 1968 recorded a solo album, Electronics and Percussion: Five Realisations by Max Neuhaus for Columbia Masterworks. By this time he had already moved from event-based performance to environmental and socially-based works. This shift began in 1966 with a series of guided walks through New York city, highlighting the natural urban sound environment. The placement of sounds within a prescribed time, typical of musical performance, was exchanged for a placement of sounds in space with no defined beginning or end. In the same year he made the first of a series of works known as Public Supply (I–IV, 1966–73), in which he remixed and redistributed sounds drawn from New York’s WBAI radio phone-in audience. In his subsequent work he developed this reconsideration of the relation between artist and audience, his effort to locate artistic activity beyond institutional walls chiming with an increasing enthusiasm for public art....


Anne K. Swartz

[née Berliawsky, Leah]

(b Kiev, Russia [now Ukraine], Sept 23, 1899; d New York, NY, April 17, 1988).

American sculptor. In her lifetime Nevelson was considered one of the leading American sculptors and one of the most successful women artists of the post-war years. She is represented in major museum collections and was given important public commissions. Born in Kiev in 1899, Louise Nevelson immigrated to America at the age of six and grew up in Rockland, ME. Her father had a successful lumber and construction business there. With her marriage to Charles Nevelson in 1920, she moved to New York and eventually began her studies at the Art Students League where she was instructed by Kenneth Hayes Miller and Kimon Nicolaides (1891–1938). In 1931 Nevelson travelled to Germany to meet Hans Hofmann and later studied with him in New York. In 1933 she served as an assistant to Diego Rivera on one of his New York mural projects.

Nevelson’s marriage was brief, but it produced a son and helped her move to New York where she began her career. From ...


Bailey Van Hook

(b Bergen Heights, NJ, June 10, 1874; d Philadelphia, PA, Feb 25, 1961).

American painter, illustrator, stained-glass artist and author. Although she worked as an illustrator early on, Oakley is remembered as a muralist. Oakley attended the Art Students League, New York, Académie Montparnasse, Paris, and the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, but, most importantly, a class in illustration with Howard Pyle at the Drexel Institute, Philadelphia. Pyle teamed her together with Jessie Willcox Smith (1863–1935) to illustrate an edition of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s Evangeline (1897). Smith and Oakley and another illustrator, Elizabeth Shippen Green (1871–1954), rented adjoining studios in Philadelphia and subsequently lived together in a supportive camaraderie until Green’s marriage in 1911. During her brief career as an illustrator, Oakley completed over 100 illustrations, mostly for novels and short stories.

In 1900 she created a stained-glass window on speculation, which led to a major commission for stained-glass windows, mural decoration and a mosaic altarpiece for a church in Manhattan. That project brought her to the attention of architect Joseph Huston (...



Miško Šuvaković and Žarko Cvejić

Artists’ group active in Kranj and Ljubljana, Slovenia, between 1966 and 1971. Initiated in Kranj by Marko Pogačnik (b 1944) and I. G. Plamen (Iztok Geister, b 1945), the group also included Aleš Kermauner (1946–66), Franci Zagoričnik (1933–97), Milenko Matanović (b 1947), Andraž Šalamun (b 1947), Tomaž Šalamun (b 1941), and David Nez (b 1949), among others.

The group emerged in the context of European neo-avant-garde concrete and visual poetry. In the Slovenian context, concrete and neo-avant-garde poetry were determined by the doctrine of reism. Reism is an aesthetic and artistic doctrine that replaces the subject with the object in art and culture. The artwork thereby becomes an object that says and shows tautologically that it is an object. Reism emerged as a critique of the humanist world view.

The OHO-Katalog (‘Catalogue’) movement emerged when the OHO group expanded onto ...


(b Mason City, WA, Sept 6, 1938; d New York, NY, Jan 21, 2011).

American conceptual and performance artist. He studied art at California College of Arts and Crafts, Oakland, CA (1959–64) and at Stanford University, Stanford, CA (1964–5). His early work was Land art and involved large-scale outdoor projects documented by photographs. In Directed Seeding—Cancelled Crop (1969; see 1974 exh. cat.), he organized the planting of a field of wheat at Finsterwolde in Holland according to a specific pattern and then had a huge cross shape harvested out of the grown crop. He prevented any of the crop from being sold, an act he likened to ‘stopping raw pigment from becoming an illusionistic force on canvas’ (1974 exh. cat.). In the early 1970s he turned to such performance works as Reading Position for Second Degree Burn (1970; see 1974 exh. cat.), in which he lay in the sun for five hours with a book across his chest so that his skin burned, leaving a silhouette of the book. He saw this as a form of painting....


Michelle Yun

(b Wichita, KS, 1952).

American sculptor. Otterness moved to New York in 1970 to study at the Art Students League. He participated in the Whitney Independent Study Program in 1973 and in 1977 he joined the New York based Collaborative Projects (Colab) as a founding member. Otterness is best known for his playful, figurative cast bronze sculptures and his belief that art gains value through public engagement. Between 1978–82 he created a series of cast Hydrocal (fiberglass and concrete) figures inspired by the statuettes found in Latin American botánicas (stores selling folk medicine, perfumes and religious statuettes, rosaries and candles). These diminutive spoofs on historic monuments were set on marble bases and inexpensively sold as “hand-produced collector’s items.” Continuing on this populist track, in 1982 he built a modular plaster frieze in the form of cornice molding that was sold by the foot. These early works serve as important precursors for the artist’s longstanding commitment to public art. In ...


City parks are areas of land specifically allocated for public recreation. The word ‘park’ was originally used to define enclosed pieces of land stocked with wild animals and managed for hunting purposes. Parks such as the Tiergarten in Berlin, the Bois de Boulogne in Paris, and the Royal Parks in London were established as royal preserves in or adjacent to capital cities. Informal public access to the London parks was allowed from the early 17th century.

Boston Common, established in 1634 as pasture owned in common by the citizens, is the oldest public urban park in North America. The first walkway on the Common was created in 1675 and the first tree-lined pedestrian mall was planted in 1728. Equally, Mount Auburn Cemetery (1831) in Cambridge, MA, and subsequent urban cemeteries of the period, performed many of the functions of a public park. But the 843-acre Central Park (...


John-Paul Stonard

(b Minneapolis, MN, 1960).

American sculptor and installation artist. After studying at the University of Wisconsin (BFA, 1983) and the University of Chicago (MFA, 1986), Peterman worked as a sorter and shifter for the Resource Center, a Chicago-based recycling company. In 1994 he bought the building that had been vacated by the company and developed it as a centre for diverse community art projects, based on the idea of ecologically sustainable production processes. After the building was seriously damaged by fire in April 2001, it was renamed the Experimental Station and plans for rebuilding began. Peterman’s involvement with the centre formed the background to his interest in production cycles and the problems of over-consumption and waste generation. The early project Chicago Compost Shelter (1988), in which an old Volkswagen bus was renovated and then half-buried in active compost that produced heat as it decomposed, the whole serving as a shelter during the cold winter months, showed Peterman’s concerns with producing socially useful works of art. Such activities relate to Joseph Beuys’s belief that art could provide the solution to social and ecological problems, although the symbolic and aesthetic values that Beuys used to promote a utopian vision are transformed into entirely pragmatic values by Peterman, who rejected Beuys’s mandarin attitude. This concern with functional rather than solely symbolic intervention is demonstrated by public art projects such as ...


Stephan von Wiese

(b Laasphe, Westphalia, April 18, 1928; d Berlin, Jul 17, 2014).

German painter, printmaker and environmental artist. He studied art at the Hochschule für Bildenden Künste in Munich and the Staatliche Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf and then philosophy at Cologne University, graduating in 1957. In the same year he developed the Grid Picture, a type of stencilled painting made from half-tone screens with regularly arranged points in single colours (yellow, silver, white or gold), for example Pure Energy (1958; New York, MOMA). The vibrating pattern and slight shadow in these works, which were first shown in September 1957 at the first evening exhibition in Piene’s studio in Düsseldorf as avant-garde manifestations of the West German art scene, seemed to take the play of light itself as their theme. Their objectivity lay in their lack of any subjective painterly gestures. The connection between art, nature and technology remained the goal of Piene’s work, first of all within the Zero group and then, from ...


Miško Šuvaković and Žarko Cvejić

(b Kranj, Slovenia, 1944).

Slovenian artist and self-described landscape healer. Pogačnik’s artistic career began in 1963 at the Plamenica (The Flame) journal of the Kranj secondary school. He studied sculpture and graduated from the Ljubljana Academy of Fine Arts in 1967. Along with I. G. Plamen he founded the OHO in 1966. His early works, which could be described as ‘socialist pop art’, included Plaster casts of bottles and other objects (1965–8). Pogačnik also created comic strips expressive of an urban pop sensibility, such as Strip dana (‘The Daily Comic Strip’, 1966). In a critical way, he addressed the phenomena of the mass market and consumer culture in Yugoslavia’s self-managed socialist society, in which workers were encouraged to make decisions concerning production, schedules, and labor relations.

Pogačnik played a leading role in the OHO group. In its early stages, his activities closely complemented those of I. G. Plamen; the OHO group and movement emerged out of their cooperation. During ...


Jeremy Hunt and Jonathan Vickery

At the turn of the millennium, public art was an established global art genre with its own professional and critical discourse, as well as constituencies of interest and patronage independent of mainstream contemporary art. Art criticism has been prodigious regarding public art’s role in the ‘beautification’ of otherwise neglected social space or in influencing urban development. Diversity and differentiation are increasingly the hallmarks of public art worldwide, emerging from city branding strategies and destination marketing as well as from artist activism and international art events and festivals. The first decade of the 21st century demonstrated the vast opportunity for creative and critical ‘engagement’, activism, social dialogue, and cultural co-creation and collective participation. New public art forms emerged, seen in digital and internet media, pop-up shops, and temporary open-access studios, street performance, and urban activism, as well as architectural collaborations in landscape, environment or urban design.

Intellectually, the roots of contemporary public art can be found in the ludic and the architectonic: in the playful public interventions epitomized in the 1960s by the ...


Mark Stocker

Object created to remind viewers of specific individuals or events, or an object regarded as representing a past civilization, even if its original purpose was different. This article discusses the first meaning—purpose-built, mainly sculptural monuments created for commemoration and addressed to the public—and it is concerned primarily with the history and development of the public monument in the Western tradition. Further information on specific monuments can be found under the relevant city or site article, and information on types of monuments is given in the following art form articles: Bridge, Bust, Cross, Equestrian monument, Fountain, Mausoleum, Obelisk, Pyramid, Reliquary, Sarcophagus, Statue, Stele, Tomb, and Triumphal arch.

The desire to commemorate human values through monuments is universal. Their form varies from sculptural monuments—the main emphasis in this article— to menhirs, mausoleums, or entire cities honouring a ruler, for example Versailles in France or Karlsruhe in Germany. Treated as propaganda tools, monuments are often used to reinforce the political power of their patrons. To render their messages intelligible and effective they are often traditional in style and iconography. If abstract, they generally have a simple, geometric shape, such as ...