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Article

Tom Richardson, Claude Blair and James D. Lavin

Military equipment. The study of arms and armour falls between that of the fine and decorative arts and that of technology, between scholarship catered for by a few museums (and almost no universities) and the self-taught collector and dealer. Although it is usually regarded as a highly specialist discipline, it covers every period of history and all cultures throughout the world. The history of arms and armour is one of continual development, characterized by the evolution of forms not from the simplest to the most complex but towards those most appropriate to the rapidly changing nature of warfare; there has been constant competition between the armour-maker and the weapon-maker, the one continually nullifying an advantage gained by the other through technological advances.

The historical survey in this article covers European arms and armour. The development of arms and armour elsewhere is discussed under ‘Other arts’ in individual culture and civilization surveys in this dictionary....

Article

Philip Ward-Jackson

(b London, June 18, 1828; d London, Dec 4, 1905).

English sculptor, silversmith and illustrator. He was the son of a chaser and attended the Royal Academy Schools, London. At first he gave his attention equally to silverwork and to sculpture, exhibiting at the Royal Academy from 1851. An early bronze, St Michael and the Serpent, cast in 1852 for the Art Union, shows him conversant with the style of continental Romantics, and his debut in metalwork coincided with the introduction into England of virtuoso repoussé work by the Frenchman, Antoine Vechte (1799–1868). In the Outram Shield (London, V&A), Armstead displayed the full gamut of low-relief effects in silver, but its reception at the Royal Academy in 1862 disappointed him, and he turned his attention to monumental sculpture. Among a number of fruitful collaborations with architects, that with George Gilbert I Scott (ii) included a high degree of responsibility for the sculpture on the Albert Memorial in Kensington Gardens, London. Here Armstead’s main contribution was the execution of half of the podium frieze (...

Article

Suzanne Tise

Descriptive term applied to a style of decorative arts that was widely disseminated in Europe and the USA during the 1920s and 1930s. Derived from the style made popular by the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, the term has been used only since the late 1960s, when there was a revival of interest in the decorative arts of the early 20th century. Since then the term ‘Art Deco’ has been applied to a wide variety of works produced during the inter-war years, and even to those of the German Bauhaus. But Art Deco was essentially of French origin, and the term should, therefore, be applied only to French works and those from countries directly influenced by France.

The development of the Art Deco style, or the Style moderne as it was called at the time, closely paralleled the initiation of the 1925...

Article

Michèle Lavallée

[Fr.: ‘new art’]

Decorative style of the late 19th century and the early 20th that flourished principally in Europe and the USA. Although it influenced painting and sculpture, its chief manifestations were in architecture and the decorative and graphic arts, the aspects on which this survey concentrates. It is characterized by sinuous, asymmetrical lines based on organic forms; in a broader sense it encompasses the geometrical and more abstract patterns and rhythms that were evolved as part of the general reaction to 19th-century historicism. There are wide variations in the style according to where it appeared and the materials that were employed.

Art Nouveau has been held to have had its beginnings in 1894 or 1895. A more appropriate date would be 1884, the year the progressive group Les XX was founded in Belgium, and the term was used in the periodical that supported it, Art Moderne: ‘we are believers in Art Nouveau’. The origin of the name is usually attributed to ...

Article

Alan Crawford

Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.

The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....

Article

Alan Crawford

(b Isleworth, Middx, May 17, 1863; d Godden Green, Kent, May 23, 1942).

English designer, writer, architect and social reformer . He was educated at King’s College, Cambridge. As a young man he was deeply influenced by the teachings of John Ruskin and William Morris, and particularly by their vision of creative workmanship in the Middle Ages; such a vision made work in modern times seem like mechanical drudgery. Ashbee played many parts and might be thought a dilettante; but his purpose was always to give a practical expression to what he had learnt from Ruskin and Morris. An intense and rather isolated figure, he found security in a life dedicated to making the world a better place.

In 1888, while he was training to be an architect in the office of G. F. Bodley and Thomas Garner (1839–1906), Ashbee set up the Guild and School of Handicraft in the East End of London. The School lasted only until 1895, but the Guild, a craft workshop that combined the ideals of the Arts and Crafts Movement with a romantic, apolitical socialism, was to be the focus of Ashbee’s work for the next 20 years. There were five guildsmen at first, making furniture and base metalwork. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Marion Hagenmann-Bischoff

[Franciscus]

(b Brussels, c. ?1570–80).

Flemish goldsmith, draughtsman, sculptor, copper engraver and embosser, active in Germany . As a skilled goldsmith from Brussels, he is documented at Augsburg between 1598 and 1604, and from 1603 as a tax-paying citizen; before this he was probably living in Friedberg nearby. After he is recorded as paying taxes three years in advance, traces of Aspruck fade away in 1604. Since he was not accepted as a master craftsman by the Augsburg goldsmiths’ trade, he worked with them as a ‘free artist’. His skills included draughtsmanship, modelling and casting as well as copper engraving, which he also taught to goldsmith apprentices and journeymen. Aspruck’s drawings from 1597 to 1601 show an individual style influenced by Hendrick Goltzius and Bartholomäus Spranger, for example Venus and Amor (1598; Hamburg, Ksthalle). He also sketched for other engravers, as is known, first of all, from the surviving publishing production of the Antwerp engraver Dominicus Custos in Augsburg. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Ismael Gutiérrez Pastor

(b Mechelen, Flanders, c. 1585–90; d ?Madrid, c. 1650).

Spanish engraver and medallist of Flemish birth. From the beginning of the 17th century until 1609 he lived in Toledo, where, under the supervision of El Greco, he worked as an engraver and printed (1605–6) such works of his master as SS Peter and Paul (1603–7; Stockholm, Nmus.) and St Francis and Brother Leo (c. 1600–05; Ottawa, N.G.). Other engravings from this period include frontispieces for Historia de … Nuestra Señora de Valvanera (Ávila, 1607) by Francisco de Ariz and the Index librorum prohibitorum (Madrid, 1612) by Bernardo de Sandoval y Rojas, the Archbishop of Toledo. From 1609 to 1636 he was engraver at the Casa de Moneda in Segovia, where he created designs for currency and made the printing plates. He also executed engravings for Obras espirituales (Alcalá de Henares, 1618) by St John of the Cross and the frontispiece for Historia … de Segovia...

Article

Principal instrument of the pre-modern astronomer for taking readings of the altitudes of stars and planets. The astrolabe was invented by the Greeks; together with Greek science it was passed to the Islamic world in the 8th and 9th centuries ad, and thence to western Europe. The earliest extant astrolabe was made in 927–8 by an Arab named Nastalus or Bastalus, and at least eight 10th-century astrolabes are known.

Astrolabes are of several types. The most familiar is the flat or planispheric (Arab. sathī or musattah) astrolabe employing a stereographic projection of the heavens. Spherical (kūrī) astrolabes were invented in antiquity, and a linear (khattī) astrolabe was invented by the Persian astronomer al-Muzaffar ibn Muzaffar al-Tusi (d c. 1213), but no examples of these types are known to have survived. Celestial globes (e.g. 1085–6; Florence, Mus. Stor. Sci.) and armillary spheres were made in the Islamic world, but as these models of the heavens have no provision for the solution of problems of spherical astronomy or for the calculation of trigonometric functions, they are not true astrolabes. Flat astrolabes employing non-stereographic projections are described in astronomical texts, but none seems to have been built....

Article

Clare Le Corbeiller

French family of gold- and silversmiths. Robert-Joseph Auguste (b 1723; d ?1805) became a master in 1757 after an apprenticeship that included work for Louis XV. His repertoire was unusual in that it embraced both silver tableware and gold objects of vertu; the latter includes four gold boxes made between 1762 and 1763, and 1769 and 1771 (Paris, Louvre; New York, Met.; London, V&A; Althorp House, Northants). In 1775 he received payment for the royal crown and other regalia (destr.) made for the coronation of Louis XVI in 1774. The majority of his work in silver is tableware and includes partial or complete services for the courts of Denmark (Copenhagen, Kon. Saml.) and Russia (St Petersburg, Hermitage) and for Gustav Filip Creutz of Sweden (1775–6; Stockholm, Kun. Slottet). He also made a service for George III of England (1776–85; Paris, Louvre). Auguste’s style is characterized by a light and graceful Neo-classicism, in which festoons and figures of children as handles or finials are prominent....

Article

Mark Jones

In 

Article

Timothy Schroder

[Dut. Kwabornament; Ger. Knorpelwerk, Ohrmuschelstil]

Term used to describe a type of ornament popular in the 17th century, characterized by smooth, curved and rippling forms resembling the human ear. This highly plastic style evolved during the first two decades of the 17th century in Utrecht, and in its fully developed form is found only in metalwork. The style in this medium is characterized by the use of amorphous, lobate scrolls and embossed, relief ornament that emphasize the malleable nature of the metal. At its most extreme, it exaggerates this quality by suggesting that objects were modelled in a semi-molten state. The goldsmiths Adam van Vianen and Paulus van Vianen (see Vianen, van family, §1) of Utrecht are credited with the invention of the style, although its origins seem to lie in the graphic designs of such 16th-century Italian Mannerist artists as Giulio Romano (e.g. drawing for a fish-shaped ewer; Oxford, Christ Church) and Enea Vico. The latter’s designs for plate were published in the mid-16th century and may have been known in Utrecht....

Article

José Manuel Cruz Valdovinos

(b Toledo, c. 1525; d Madrid, 1594).

Spanish silversmith . He worked for the cathedral and various churches in Toledo until his departure for Alcalá de Henares in 1557. While in Toledo he made an altarpiece (1554) for Segovia Cathedral. In Alcalá he made the crosses of Daganzo de Arriba, of which only the cuadrón (Madrid, priv. col.) and the cross of Algete (Toledo, Mus. Santa Cruz) remain. Both are Mannerist in structure and ornamentation. By 1563 Babia had established himself in Madrid, where the court had already settled, and shortly afterwards was appointed silversmith to Philip II. In this capacity he executed over a period of years several chalices for alms donated by the king during the feast of Epiphany (examples at Juan de la Penitencia de Alcalá, 1571; Elvas, Portugal, 1581; Lisbon, Mus. N. A. Ant., 1582; Augustinian convent, Segovia, 1589). The chalices made by him for Carranque, Madrid, and the Escorial were not made for alms, despite their similarity to the royal chalices. Babia also executed a reliquary for the Escorial. In ...

Article

Margot Gayle

revised by Carol Gayle

(b Badger’s Island, Portsmouth, NH, Oct 15, 1806; d Brooklyn, New York, Nov 17, 1884).

American iron manufacturer and builder in cast iron. Beginning as a blacksmith’s apprentice, he was in Boston by 1830 making decorative wrought ironwork at his own smithy. In 1842 he built Boston’s first example of an iron-fronted shop, a one-storey combination of iron columns and lintels that allowed large glass display windows. The following year he began producing rolling security shutters that fitted into grooves in the iron columns, having bought the patent from Arthur L. Johnson (1800–60). The ‘Badger front’ design was sold and copied across the USA, winning a gold medal at the American Institute Fair (1847).

In 1846 Badger moved to New York City, where he continued to manufacture his ‘fronts’. Soon afterwards he began producing the new form of iron building, commonly called ‘cast-iron architecture’, promoted by James Bogardus: structures with self-supporting, multi-storey exterior iron walls, constructed of cast-iron panels and columns bolted together. From ...

Article

(b Bolsward, Friesland, 1628; d Bolsward, 1691).

Dutch silversmith . He was the son of the silversmith Frans Rienckes, and he started his apprenticeship at the age of 11 or 12, becoming a master of the Bolsward guild in 1654. His use of embossed botanical decoration on silverware was part of the Dutch late 17th-century expression of floral naturalism in the decorative arts. He appears to have remained in Bolsward throughout his life, producing domestic and church silver. The small number of objects attributed to him includes presentation and alms dishes, salts and such smaller objects as hinges, plaquettes and brush backs. Three objects dating from 1680–81 (Leeuwarden, Fries Mus., 8023, 1949-260, 1955-521) demonstrate his different approaches to the floral theme: the rim of one large dish is divided into sections, each containing an individual embossed flower, whereas another has a swirling pattern of flowers tumbling out of cornucopias and fruits, vegetables and insects; a pair of hinges is decorated with a tight symmetrical design of flower heads and leaves. In other examples fish and crustacea are included in the decorative scheme, and putti playing musical instruments appear on dish rims and centres....

Article

Werner Wilhelm Schnabel

(b c. 1495; d Nuremberg, Aug 3, 1577).

German gold- and silversmith. He may have been descended from a family of artists who settled in Nuremberg, where on February 6, 1525 he was recorded as a citizen and master goldsmith . From 1534 to 1537 he was a master of the guild. Despite the lack of biographical details, his importance among the German goldsmiths of his day is uncontested; as early as 1546 Johann Neudörfer in his Nachrichten gave him special emphasis. Additional material in archives (Bösch; Hampe) provides further information about Baier’s life and work. It is clear that Baier collaborated closely with Peter Flötner, who produced the models for almost all Baier’s gold figures (Kohlhausen), and he also worked with Dürer family, §2, Labenwolf family, §1 and . Baier probably had a large workshop, as evinced by the number of documented works dating from 1530 to 1547. Since few of the extant pieces are marked, Baier’s direct contribution to the works attributed to him must be questionable....

Article

(b Uttoxeter, 1682; bur; ?Derby, Oct 31, 1752).

English metalworker . He was the son of Sampson Bakewell, a blacksmith, and c. 1696 was apprenticed in London, possibly to a craftsman associated with the metalworker and designer Jean Tijou. In 1700 Bakewell made railings for a house in St James’s Place, London (in situ), belonging to Thomas Coke, Vice-Chamberlain to Queen Anne and King George I. He subsequently received a second commission from Coke for a garden arbour at Melbourne Hall, Coke’s country house in Derbyshire (in situ); Bakewell opened his forge in a house opposite the hall in 1707. The arbour, which is Bakewell’s best-known work, was completed in 1711; the panels of the cupola are filled with delicate scrollwork, with oak and laurel leaves at the front. The decorative elements are quite restrained and representative of the trend towards simplification of design in early 18th-century English ironwork, compared to the heavy, Baroque forms of Tijou’s work. In ...

Article

Lucy Whitaker

(b ?1436; ? bur Florence, Dec 12, 1487).

Italian goldsmith and engraver . According to Vasari, he was a follower of Maso Finiguerra and engraved a series of 19 prints after designs by Botticelli. These illustrate an edition of Dante’s Divine Comedy published in 1481. A group of prints in the same Fine Manner style is attributed to Baldini. His designs incorporate figures and motifs derived from Botticelli, Piero Pollaiuolo and also German printmakers, such as the Master E.S. and Martin Schongauer, but particularly from Finiguerra. Baldini’s Fine Manner style developed from Finiguerra’s niello print technique; the rendering of spatial recession in the large Judgement Hall of Pilate (435×598 mm) suggests it was designed by Finiguerra. With the other prints, however, it shares the decorative quality and emphasis on pattern characteristic of Baldini.

Prints attributed to Baldini include the series of Planets (c. 1465), based on northern woodcuts, and a series of Prophets and Sibyls (early 1470s), as adapted from the characters in a mystery play; the exotic costumes reflect those worn in festival processions. Antonio Bettini’s ...