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Gordon Campbell

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Beaker  

Gordon Campbell

In current scientific usage, an open-mouthed glass vessel, with a lip for pouring, used in experiments; in historic usage, a large drinking vessel with a wide mouth; in archaeological usage, a type of tall wide-mouthed vessel found in the graves of a people of Iberian origin who spread throughout Europe in the early Bronze Age....

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Gordon Campbell

American glass factory founded in Steubenville, OH, c. 1850 by Alexander J. Beatty and relocated in Tiffin, OH, in 1888. Its blown and pressed tableware included goblets, of which it was able to make 500,000 per week. The company merged with the United States Glass Company in 1892, and became one of its 19 factories....

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K. Somervell

English family of glassware enamellers. In 1760 William Beilby (1705–65), a goldsmith, moved his family from Durham to Newcastle upon Tyne, where his son Ralph Beilby (1743–1817) worked as a heraldic engraver. In 1755 William Beilby jr (1740–1819) was apprenticed to the Birmingham enameller John Haseldine. He was then employed with his sister Mary Beilby (1749–97) at the Dagnia-Williams glasshouse in Newcastle upon Tyne, where they decorated drinking glasses called ‘light balusters’ or ‘Newcastle’ glasses and decanters. Their early work is thought to have been influenced by the heraldic work of their brother Ralph: the decoration includes the royal coat of arms of George III and the Prince of Wales’s feathers, painted in full heraldic colours on enamel-twist goblets. Their work then became more Rococo in style, displaying rustic scenes, such architectural fantasies as classical buildings and ruins, baskets of fruit, floral subjects, fruiting vines, exotic birds, gardens and landscapes, using only white enamelling. Designs often incorporated standard vine scroll and hop-and-barley motifs. They used white, monochrome or a combination of enamel colours, and some glasses have gilded rims. Their glasses are often signed with only the surname. Before ...

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Gordon Campbell

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Mairead Dunlevy and Gordon Campbell

Northern Irish glass manufactory. In 1771 Benjamin Edwards (d 1812) was brought from Bristol by the Tyrone Colleries, and by 1776 he had opened a glass factory in the port of Belfast. From there he advertised enamelled, clear and coloured glass, cut and plain wine-glasses, decanters and all kinds of chemical wares. By ...

Article

Barbara Haskell

(Stuart)

(b Chicago, IL, Dec 6, 1939).

American painter and sculptor. Bell Los Angeles from 1957 to 1959. After experimenting with geometrically shaped paintings, he turned to constructed paintings made of mirrored and transparent glass and canvas, for example Untitled (Magic Boxes) (canvas, acrylic, glass, 1964; Los Angeles, CA, Co. Mus. A.). The optical ambiguities created by the reflections of the viewer’s image and the ambient space became the hallmark of Bell’s work. Dissatisfied with the limitations of two-dimensional art, he began making faceted boxes of mirrored and transparent glass, the reflecting and refracting surfaces of which greatly extended the optical complexities and ambiguities of his earlier glass and canvas paintings. By late 1964 he had abandoned faceted, mirrored boxes in favour of pure glass cubes, whose sides he coated with various metals to create fields of elusive, evanescent colour, for example Untitled (1965; artist’s col., see 1982 exh. cat., p. 25). The environmental space seen through and reflected by the glass optically merged with the cube and became an intrinsic part of it....

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Jorge Glusberg

(b Rosario, May 14, 1905; d Buenos Aires, Oct 13, 1981).

Argentine painter, sculptor and printmaker. He trained at the stained-glass window workshop of Buxadera & Compañía, Rosario, province of Santa Fé, and with Eugenio Fornels and Enrique Munné. He held his first exhibition in 1920. At the age of 20 he won a scholarship for study in Europe awarded by the Jockey Club of Rosario, which enabled him to study in Paris under André Lhote and with Othon Friesz at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière. After showing his European works in Buenos Aires in 1927 he obtained another scholarship, this time from the government of the province of Santa Fé, as a result of which he established contact with the Surrealists in 1928; in particular he befriended Louis Aragon and the French philosopher Henri Lefebvre.

Berni returned to Argentina in 1930. In 1933 he established an artistic–literary group, Nuevo Realismo, and began to depict Argentina’s social reality. From the 1960s, through two characters he created (Juanito Laguna and Ramona Montiel) he began to create works from pieces of metal and wood, buttons, burlap, wires and other debris gathered by him in the shantytowns surrounding Buenos Aires. Combining in these works commonplace materials and a brutal realism (e.g. ...

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Fernando Mazzocca

(b Milan, Dec 11, 1825; d Milan, Nov 24, 1898).

Italian painter, decorative artist and museum director. After studying under Luigi Sabatelli, Giuseppe Bisi (1787–1869) and Francesco Hayez at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera, Milan, Bertini worked in his father’s firm, which manufactured stained-glass windows. He then won a prize for a work of art connected with industry in the Accademia competition of 1844, for which he had submitted a Rest on the Flight into Egypt, painted on glass. The following year his Dante and Brother Ilario (Milan, Brera) took first prize and in 1846 the large-scale Tasso Dying in the Monastery of S Onofrio (ex-priv. col., Milan) was acclaimed. In the same year Bertini began his work as a fresco painter by decorating a room in the Palazzo Busca in Milan, where he depicted Dante and other famous Italians. After inspiring visits to Rome and Venice (1847 and 1848), where the work of Giambattista Tiepolo impressed him enormously, Bertini returned to Milan and devoted himself to great historical subjects. He was especially drawn to Lombard themes, but the painting that made his name was ...

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(b Courtrai [Flem. Kortrijk], April 25, 1821; d Marke, June 18, 1894).

Belgian architect, designer, mural and glass painter. Born into a prominent family, he was originally destined for a career in politics or administration but became known, in the words of W(illiam) H(enry) J(ames) Weale, as the ‘ Pugin of Belgium’ (Building News, xxxvi, 1879, p. 350). From 1837 to 1842 he read law at Leuven University and followed a basic training as an artist at the Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Courtrai and as a pupil of L. Verhaegen and Jules Victor Génisson (1805–60). Under the guidance of Paulus Lauters he became a skilful draughtsman of landscapes; he also took lessons with the sculptor C. H. Geerts (1807–55), who was an important pioneer of the Gothic Revival style. Through personal contacts with Charles Forbes René, Comte de Montalembert, and A. W. N. Pugin (see Pugin family, §2) and through his tours of England in ...

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Gordon Campbell

(d 1767).

English glasscutter. He sold cut glass and mirrors from his London shop from c. 1740. In about 1756 he became the first Englishman to use a water-powered cutting wheel, using the Ravensbourne river at Lewisham to drive iron lapidary and glass-cutting wheels.

A. Werner: ‘Thomas Betts: An 18th Century Glasscutter’, ...

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Bezel  

Gordon Campbell

In lapidary usage, the oblique sides or faces of a cut gem. A bezel setting is a metal rim that holds the gem in a finger ring. The term is used in a transferred sense by horologists to denote the ring that secures the glass in a watch or clock, and by metal specialists to describe the ring inside the lid of silver and pewter objects....

Article

Freya Probst

(b Harrachsdorf, April 1, 1800; d Eger, Sept 29, 1857).

Bohemian glass-engraver. He was the son of a carpenter and patternmaker at the Harrachsdorf glassworks and received his training as a glass-engraver at the Nový Svět glassworks on the estate of the counts of Harrach, which was then one of the largest in Bohemia. His teacher was Franz Pohl (1764–1834), the glass-engraver and stone-carver, and Biemann’s skill was such that he was nominated First Glass-engraver. Despite his success, in 1825 he went to Prague where he studied painting and anatomy at the academy from 1826. From 1827 he earned his living as an independent stone-carver both in Prague and in the popular spa town of Franzenzbad (now Františkovy Lázně) in western Bohemia in the summer months, where he soon took up permanent residence. At first he primarily depicted landscapes, hunting scenes and mythological and religious scenes on glasses and cups for affluent guests. He also worked for the wholesale glass dealers Muttoni and Steigerwald. In ...

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(b Utrecht,?1597–8; d Utrecht, bur Nov 12, 1671).

Dutch painter. He was the son of the Utrecht glass painter Herman Beerntsz. van Bijlert (c. 1566–before 1615). Jan must have trained first with his father but was later apprenticed to the painter Abraham Bloemaert. After his initial training, he visited France and travelled to Italy, as did other artists from Utrecht. Jan stayed mainly in Rome, where he became a member of the Schildersbent; he returned to Utrecht in 1624. In Rome he and the other Utrecht artists had come under the influence of the work of Caravaggio; after their return home, this group of painters, who became known as the Utrecht Caravaggisti, adapted the style of Caravaggio to their own local idiom. The Caravaggesque style, evident in van Bijlert’s early paintings, such as St Sebastian Tended by Irene (1624; Rohrau, Schloss) and The Matchmaker (1626; Brunswick, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Mus.), is characterized by the use of strong chiaroscuro, the cutting off of the picture plane so that the image is seen close-up and by an attempt to achieve a realistic rather than idealized representation. Van Bijlert continued to paint in this style throughout the 1620s, a particularly productive period....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1801; d 1882).

French glassmaker. He was a director of the glassworks of Choisy-le-Roi from 1823 to 1848, when he went into political exile in England, where he joined Robert Lucas Chance’s glassworks in Smethwick (near Birmingham). In Choisy-le-Roi he initiated the production of opaline (1827) and of filigree glass in the Venetian style (...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

American glass factory formed by Deming Jarves (1790–1869), who left the New England Glass Co. in 1825. He acquired a site and built a glasshouse in Sandwich, MA. In 1826 the Boston & Sandwich Glass Co. was incorporated, with Jarves gaining financial aid from several partners. In Sandwich, Jarves was agent and general manager and during the following 22 years greatly increased the size and output of the company from 70 to over 500 employees and from $75,000 to $600,000 in value.

Table glass, lighting devices and ornamental wares were produced by using the fashionable techniques of each era. The firm’s repertory included free-blown, mould-blown, cut, engraved, colourless and cased products, and various art wares, especially opaline, ‘Peachblow’ and satin glass. The company is best known for its lacy pressed glass (see fig.), giving rise to the generic term ‘Sandwich Glass’ for any American examples of this type. The firm’s products were of very good quality but, as with many other New England glasshouses, its fortunes declined after the Civil War (...

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Ludovica Trezzani

Dutch family of painters, draughtsmen and etchers, active also in Italy. The brothers (1) Andries Both and (2) Jan Both were the sons of Dirck Both (d 1664), a glass painter from Montfoort, who by 1603 had settled in Utrecht, where he apparently specialized in painting coats of arms on windows. Andries and Jan were in Italy between 1638 and 1641, when they shared a house on the Via Vittoria in the parish of S Lorenzo in Lucina. In 1641 they set off together for Holland, but on the way home Andries drowned in a canal in Venice, and Jan returned alone. The 17th-century biographer Joachim von Sandrart, followed by later writers, claimed that the brothers had collaborated on the greater part of the production. This view, however, has been largely revised by late 20th-century critics, and the two artists are better understood independently.

(b Utrecht, c....