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P. Knolle

(b Groningen, bapt March 12, 1745; d Amsterdam, 1818).

Dutch painter, restorer and art appraiser. He began work at an early age in Steven Numan’s factory of lacquered objects in Groningen. With Numan’s son Hermanus he decided to improve his skills in the wallpaper factory of Jan and Johannes Luberti Augustini in Haarlem. When Numan left for Paris to continue his studies, van Drielst moved to Amsterdam, where he worked again for a short period in a wallpaper factory before he began to work independently. He became a member of the Guild of St Luke in 1768, the year he attended the Amsterdam city drawing academy to practise life drawing. He also carried out restorations and appraisals and became a friend of Adriaan de Lelie and other artists.

Van Drielst became increasingly interested in landscape, and working from nature studies he made watercolours and paintings that sold easily to such collectors as Bernardus de Bosch and Jan Gildemeester. These landscapes, which appealed to the renewed interest in nature in the 18th century, were based on the work of 17th-century Dutch painters such as Meindert Hobbema and Jacob van Ruisdael. Van Drielst was nicknamed the ‘Drentse Hobbema’, as he increasingly frequented the province of Drenthe to supplement his series of sketches from nature, for example the ...

Article

Sarah J. Weatherwax

(b Geneva, Switzerland, Sept 18, 1737; d Philadelphia, PA, Oct 10, 1784).

American painter, draftsman, collector and museum proprietor of Swiss birth. Du Simitière, the son of Jean-Henri Ducimitière (or Dusimitière), an East Indies broker and Judith-Ulrique Cunegonde Delorme, studied art at the University of Geneva. In 1757 he left Amsterdam for the West Indies to document and sketch native flora and fauna and to collect historical materials, launching more than a decade of traveling and collecting in the New World including stops of varying lengths in New York City, Charleston, SC, Burlington, NJ, Boston, MA, Newport, RI, and Philadelphia, PA. In 1769 Du Simitière became a naturalized American citizen, living in Philadelphia (except for a two year sojourn in the West Indies) from 1770 until his death in 1784.

Du Simitière planned to write a natural and civil history of the West Indies and North America based on the large quantities of books, cartoons, manuscripts, coins, newspapers, natural history specimens, broadsides and art he amassed during his travels, but that project never came to fruition. In ...

Article

Alessandro Conti

(b Loreto, 1744; d Venice, March 17, 1821).

Italian restorer. He was a pupil of the painter Gaspare Diziani, but is known mainly as a restorer and as the organizer of the restoration workshop set up by the Republic of Venice in 1778 for the conservation of ‘public paintings’, such as those in the Doge’s Palace and in churches under the state’s jurisdiction. For this task he called on the services of several restorers, including Giuseppe Bertani (fl c. 1717–97) and Diziani’s son Giuseppe (fl until 1803). Some aspects of Edwards’ techniques were unusual. When relining paintings, for example, he would pour warm sand on to the backs in order to paste them to the new canvas, a method that was gradually replaced by the system of hot irons introduced by the French at the end of the 18th century. He always restricted retouching to areas of missing paint and refused to add or remove inscriptions or to make any alterations or ‘improvements’ to a painting. He also kept careful records of the planning of his restorations, paying attention to the protection of the setting of a work, as well as individual costings. Edwards’ extensive restoration of works in the ...

Article

J. M. Richards

(Melchior)

(b London, Sept 11, 1919).

English architect and conservator. He studied at the Bartlett School of Architecture, University of London (1938), and the Architectural Association School, London (1946–9). After working in architects’ offices in London and Norwich (1949–54), he entered private practice in Norwich and, in partnership (1954–77) with David Mawson, designed several buildings in the area such as Trinity Presbyterian Church (1954), some warehouses, housing and educational buildings including a group (1969) for the University of East Anglia, Norwich. Feilden was more widely known for his conservation and restoration work on historic buildings. In 1955 he took charge of a restoration programme for Norwich Cathedral and was subsequently appointed Cathedral Architect (1963–77). He also served as Surveyor to York Minster (1965–77), carrying out a major restoration programme, and as Surveyor to St Paul’s Cathedral, London (1969–77), where he planned and supervised repair and restoration work at a time when the fabric of the cathedral was in increasing danger from ground settlement, pollution and traffic vibration. His conservation work was notable both for its technical expertise and its scholarship. A member of the Ancient Monuments Board from ...

Article

Alberto Villar Movellán

(b Barcelona, 1845; d Barcelona, 1924).

Spanish Catalan architect, restorer and teacher. He studied at the Escuela Superior de Arquitectura in Madrid and then continued his preparation in Barcelona under Elías Rogent before becoming a professor in the city’s newly created Escuela de Arquitectura (1871), teaching art history and design. With Rogent he specialized in the restoration of such great architectural ensembles as Tarragona Cathedral (1883), frequently using brick and generally adopting a historicist approach influenced by the rationalist theories of Viollet-le-Duc. Other noteworthy achievements include the reinforcement of the cupola of the basilica del Pilar in Saragossa and the construction of the cimborio of Barcelona Cathedral, in a perfect neo-Gothic style. Font i Carreras also built numerous mansions for the aristocracy and wealthy bourgeoisie of Catalonia and was responsible for the Palace of Fine Arts in the Exposició Universal (1888) in Barcelona. In the course of his successful career he also became an associate member of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando, Madrid, and in Barcelona was elected to membership of the Academia de S Jorge and the Academia de Ciencias y Artes; he was also President of the Asociacíon de Arquitectos de Cataluña and of the Comisión Provincial de Monumentos....

Article

Jean-Michel Leniaud

(b Boussat, Gironde, July 24, 1845; d Montfermeil, Aug 27, 1926).

French architect. He studied (1865–9) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, and had an important career in the Service des Edifices Diocésains, which he joined in 1876. He succeeded Charles Laisné as diocesan architect of Auch in 1879 and subsequently became architect of Meaux, Poitiers and Laval. He finally became inspecteur général adjoint in 1901. At the same time he worked for the Commission des Monuments Historiques. The various buildings he restored included the ancient abbey of Conques (begun 1878) and, in Poitiers, the churches of Notre-Dame-La-Grande, Ste Radegonde and St Hilaire Le Grand, as well as the Palais de Justice. He helped with the excavation (1881–2) of the ruins of Sanxay and restored the abbey of St-Savin-sur-Gartempe, the castle at Chauvigny (all Vienne) and the church at Poissy (Yvelines). Most of his work in the South of France involved the restoration or conservation of Romano-Gallic remains. He became a member of the Monuments Historiques in ...

Article

Alessandro Conti

(b Siena, c. 1820; d Florence, 1867).

Italian restorer. He worked in Florence from 1845. He is known for his manual, published in 1866, in which he frequently disagreed with Conte Giovanni Secco-Suardo. Although it lacks the clear presentation of the latter’s work, Forni’s handbook is nevertheless one of the most valuable manuals of 19th-century restoration. Apart from an over-extensive list of recipes and an inexact approach to bibliography and information, it reflects a more modern working context than Secco-Suardo’s work and devotes much space to the restoration of medieval paintings, as well as dealing with different methods of rescuing, restoring and transferring wall paintings, probably based on advice provided by Gaetano Bianchi. Forni is known to have worked on Cosimo Rosselli’s Adoration of the Magi (Florence, Uffizi) and Pontormo’s Venus based on a cartoon by Michelangelo (Florence, Accad.).

Manuale del pittore restauratore (Florence, 1866) G. Incerpi: ‘Conservazione e restauro dei quadri degli Uffizi nel periodo lorenese’, ...

Article

Foxing  

Rupert Featherstone

Term for brown or yellow stains that appear on old paper in a scattered pattern of spots and blotches. It is caused by a type of mould and can be distinguished from iron or other brown stains by its continuous development in suitable conditions (see Paper, §VI, 1). Foxing can be removed by using dilute bleach solutions....

Article

Rupert Featherstone

Article

Barry Bergdoll

(b Paris, Feb 24, 1802; d Paris, Nov 1852).

French architect. He was probably the son of an inspector in the Conseil des Bâtiments Civils during the Bourbon Restoration. In 1822 he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, under the aegis of Delespine. He was promoted to the first class in 1823, winning second prize in the Prix de Rome competition in 1829 and first in that of 1830 with a design for a ‘maison de plaisance pour un prince’. He spent the years 1831–6 at the Villa Medici in Rome, participating in the vibrant discussion of the second generation of Romantic classicists such as Victor Baltard and Simon-Claude Constant-Dufeux. This is reflected in his remarkable restoration of the Trajanic port of Ostia in 1834, where buildings and urban planning combined to record historical accretion. Like many of the Romantics, Garrez was drawn to the study of French medieval and Renaissance architecture. He toured France extensively and his travel sketches of Italy, France and Germany were much admired at the Salon in the 1830s and 1840s....

Article

Oldest and largest photography museum in the United States, located in Rochester, NY. Since it opened its doors to the public in November 1949, George Eastman House has played a pivotal role in shaping and expanding the field of American photography. George Eastman, founder of Eastman Kodak Company, never knew his home would become a museum; he bequeathed the mansion where he lived from 1905 until 1932 to the University of Rochester to serve as the residence of its president. In 1946 a board of trustees was formed to establish George Eastman House as an independent, non-profit museum, a memorial to Eastman and his advancements in photographic technology.

Working under director Oscar Solbert, a retired US Army general and former Kodak executive, was the museum’s first curator, Beaumont Newhall. Newhall transformed the museum from one primarily concerned with the technical applications of photography to one emphasizing its artistic development. The museum became an international centre of scholarship, and in ...

Article

Codruţa Cruceanu

(b Iaşi, Dec 12, 1869; d Bucharest, Dec 16, 1943).

Romanian architect, restorer, architectural historian and teacher. He studied engineering (1889–93) at the School of Roads and Bridges, Bucharest, and later studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in the studio of Victor Laloux, where he obtained a diploma in 1901. After 1906 he was active in the Romanian Historical Monuments Commission, researching the ancient historical architecture of Romania. He was among the promoters of the ‘neo-Romanian’ style, along with Ion Mincu, Petre Antonescu, Constantin Iotzu (1884–1962) and Grigore Cerchez (1850–1927). Ghika-Budeşti’s most significant building is the Museum of National Art (1912–38; now the Romanian Peasant Museum), Bucharest. Built of traditional stone, brick and tiles, it is remarkable both for a compositional balance characteristic of traditional Romanian architecture and for its monumental dimensions. At the same time the human scale is retained by the incorporation of various decorative elements: dogtooth motifs, mouldings, niches, balustrades and ornamental tendrils reminiscent of the Brâncoveanu period (...

Article

Linda Whiteley

French family of restorers, dealers, cabinetmakers and painters. François-Simon-Alphonse Giroux (d Paris, 1 May 1848) was a pupil of Jacques-Louis David and became a picture restorer, founding his business in Paris at the end of the 18th century. He specialized in genre paintings of medieval ruins and troubadours and bought particularly from a younger generation of artists such as Louis Daguerre, Charles-Marie Bouton (1781–1863), Charles Arrowsmith (b 1798) and Charles Renoux (1795–1846), all of whom painted church interiors. Giroux also admired Gothic art and became the official restorer for Notre-Dame, Paris. His daughter Olympe Giroux and son Alphonse-Gustave Giroux succeeded him in his business. Another son, André Giroux (b Paris, 30 April 1801; d Paris, 18 Nov 1879), was a painter. François-Simon-Alphonse’s firm publicized its stock by holding exhibitions of Old Master paintings and contemporary art and by publishing catalogues of works both for sale and for hire from their premises. After ...

Article

(b 1814; d 1881).

French architect. From 1850 he was architect for the Département of Indre-et-Loire and the city of Tours, for which he carried out most of his work; during the same period he was also the conservator for diocesan buildings in Tours. His best-known secular works there are the extensions that he designed for the Musée des Beaux-Arts; the covered markets (1869); and the extension to the Lycée. He is best remembered, however, for his many religious buildings. In Tours he restored the cathedral, repaired the portals of Notre-Dame-la-Riche (1852), and built the churches of Ste Anne (1857), St Pierre-des-Corps (1866) and St Etienne (1873–4) and the chapel of the Petit Séminaire (1849) and the Chapelle des Lazaristes (1861). St Etienne and the Chapelle des Lazaristes are generally considered to be among the best provincial examples of churches of the Romanesque Revival, a style that became fashionable throughout France in the second half of the 19th century. The solid, severe walls of these buildings, their steeply pitched roofs and bold semicircular chancels are reminiscent of 12th-century churches....

Article

(b London, 1808; d Paris, April 27, 1878).

French archaeologist and architectural historian. He came from a noble family of royalist, Catholic lawyers, and studied law himself before embarking on a career in the civil service. At the same time he followed courses at the Sorbonne and Bibliothèque Royale and pursued a career as a scholar and archaeologist. He submitted reports to the Comité des Arts et Monuments, which was drawing up an inventory of French monuments. In 1855 he was asked to record inscriptions in France dating after the 5th century ad, and he spent the rest of his life on this work, which was published from 1873. Guilhermy also published numerous articles dealing mainly with the iconography of medieval historical and literary figures; in other articles he discussed the dispersed collections of the old Musée des Monuments Français (Petits-Augustins).

Guilhermy was admitted to the Commission des Monuments Historiques only in 1860, but very soon he became associated with a number of major restoration workshops. At Saint-Denis Abbey he advised Eugène Viollet-le-Duc on the restoration of the crypts, having joined Charles Lenormant, Prosper Mérimée and Louis Vitet in deploring the anachronisms and incorrect restorations of François Debret. At the Sainte-Chapelle he collaborated with ...

Article

W. Iain Mackay

(b Ica, 1914; d Lima, July 21, 1961).

Peruvian painter, potter and sculptor. He had little formal education, but after training as a boxer in Lima he settled in Buenos Aires, where his interest in pottery led him to set up a workshop for the conservation of Pre-Columbian pottery and for the manufacture of pottery in the style of this period. He learnt to sculpt and studied painting under Emilio Pettoruti (1892–1971). In 1938 he went to Paris, where he studied the work of the French masters and relaxed his style, rejecting academic canons. Returning to Peru in 1942, he adopted a rather Expressionist style of painting, with clear lines, suggestive of sculpted forms. He avoided the other avant-garde European styles of the period, opting for a while for elements of the Indigenist style (see Peru, Republic of, §IV, 2). Under Pettoruti he developed a great interest in sculpture. His activity in this field was limited to a few works, culminating in ...

Article

Achim Sommer

(b Euskirchen, April 22, 1924; d Cologne, April 5, 1987).

German collector and restorer. After World War II he trained as a restorer of paintings in Cologne, Munich and Vienna. He worked in the Wallraf-Richartz-Museum in Cologne from 1949 and took charge of the restoration department in 1963. He started his collection with paintings by Cologne painters such as Peter Abelen (1884–1962), Joseph Fassbender, Peter Herkenrath (1900–93) and Ludwig Egidius Ronig (1885–1959). Under the stimulus of avant-garde exhibitions in Cologne and Düsseldorf, a keen interest in current events in the world of art and his friendships with artists and gallery owners, Hahn widened the scope of his collection. His advice as a connoisseur of contemporary art was valued not only by his museum colleagues but also by collectors such as Peter Ludwig.

Hahn assembled a remarkably complete collection of works by many artists closely connected with Nouveau Réalisme, including Arman, Christo, César, Jean Tinguely, ...

Article

Haro  

Linda Whiteley

French family of painters, colourmen, dealers, restorers and collectors. The father of Etienne-François Haro (b Paris, 13 April 1827; d Paris, 4 Feb 1897) was a painter but also a colourman and supplier of artists’ materials in Paris, selling them from his shop the Palette d’Or (renamed Au Génie des Arts at Delacroix’s suggestion). Two of the more important customers were Ingres, who patronized the shop from the late 18th century, and Delacroix, who from about 1826 bought his canvases and paints there. When Etienne-François’s father died he left the business to his wife, from whose aunt they had inherited it.

Etienne-François Haro was the great-nephew of Hubert Robert and was a pupil of Ingres and Delacroix, maintaining a lifelong friendship with both. From the mid-1840s he took an active part in running the business with his mother, but by the first years of the Second Empire (...

Article

(b Stuttgart, Feb 2, 1789; d Hassfurt, Sept 28, 1865).

German architect, painter, sculptor, printmaker and writer. He belonged to a large family of artists descended from Franz Joseph (Ignatz Anton) Heideloff (1676–1772), who was a sculptor and possibly also a painter. He was trained by the architect Nikolaus Friedrich von Thouret, the sculptor Johann Heinrich von Dannecker and the painter Johann Baptist Seele. He also studied mural painting as assistant to his father, Victor (Wilhelm Peter) Heideloff (1757–1817). As a young man he became interested in Gothic and Romanesque architecture, and while he was in Mainz in 1814 he made the acquaintance of Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (reg 1826–44), who employed him as his architect until 1821. In 1822, having settled in Nuremberg, he was appointed curator of the city’s historical monuments; he used this position to encourage widespread interest in early German art and to rescue many examples from destruction. He also taught at the local Polytechnische Schule from its foundation in ...

Article

Rupert Featherstone