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Ansbach  

Walter Spiegl

German town in Bavaria, c. 40 km south-east of Nuremberg. Ansbach is known particularly as a centre of ceramics production. A faience factory was established by Matthias Baur and Johann Caspar Ripp in Ansbach c. 1708–10. Wares included jugs and tankards at first decorated in blue and later in the famille verte (green, yellow, iron-red, blue and purple) palette. In 1757 a porcelain factory was established beside the faience factory at the behest of Margrave Karl Alexander (d 1806), who in 1763 transferred it to Schloss Bruckberg. The secret formula for porcelain was brought to Ansbach by Johann Friedrich Kändler (1734–91), a nephew of the Meissen Modellmeister Johann Joachim Kändler, who had worked at the factory of Wilhelm Caspar Wegely (1714–64) in Berlin, as had the superb miniaturist and colour specialist Johann Carl Gerlach (1723–86) and the modeller Carl Gottlob Laut (...

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José Meco

(b Lisbon, 1688; d Lisbon, 1753).

Portuguese decorative artist. He was highly active in the second quarter of the 18th century, during the period when High Baroque glazed tiles were produced in the Lisbon factories. His output was enormous, and his work was distributed throughout Portugal and Brazil. In partnership with his son-in-law, the painter Nicolau de Freitas (c. 1703–65), he continued the tradition of António de Oliveira Bernardes (see Bernardes family, §1). Under the influence of Joanine wood-carving and silver, the decorative borders of their tiles became richer and more elegant, dominated by grimacing masks and cascading palm and acanthus foliage. The tile makers adapted the convention of using arched frames, which end in garlanded volutes often accompanied by cherubs, for their high dado panels.

Two chapels in the church of Vilar de Frades, Barcelos, dated 1736 and 1742 are decorated with scenes, signed by Antunes and Freitas, from the Life of the Virgin...

Article

Gordon Campbell

French pottery manufactory. In 1744 Jacques Lallemant, Baron d’Aprey, established a pottery on his estate at Aprey (near Dijon.). In 1760 his brother Joseph joined the factory, and the brothers engaged the Swiss pottery painter Protaix Pidoux (who had been working in the Mennecy Porcelain Factory); in the course of the next three years Pidoux produced many fine examples of elegant floral decoration for Aprey pottery. In 1769 Jacques withdrew from the partnership, and Joseph invited the potter François Ollivier to join the factory; Ollivier became the director of the factory in 1774, and managed it until his death in 1792. Under Ollivier’s directorship the factory produced its finest pottery, which was decorated with birds, flowers and landscapes by Antoine Ergot, Antoine Mège and Jacques Jarry, and sold at the factory’s shop in Paris and its outlets in Lyon and Angoulême. After the Revolution the factory continued to make pottery of a modest quality until it closed in ...

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Gordon Campbell

French pottery manufactory in Le Castellet, near Apt (about 65 km north of Marseille) established in 1723 by César Moulin, who produced a distinctive marbled yellow-glazed pottery; the designs are modelled on English pottery (perhaps Wedgwood), and look more English than French. The success of this pottery encouraged others to open in and around Apt, which is still an important pottery centre....

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Heikki Hyvönen and Gordon Campbell

Finnish ceramics manufactory estabished in 1873 in Helsinki (Swed. Helsingfors) as a subsidiary of the Swedish Rörstrand Factory; it became the leading Finnish ceramics factory for the domestic and Russian markets. In the early period, it followed Rörstrand's styles and decoration. Porcelain was manufactured there from 1877. Arabia's first independent designs date from 1893, when the manufacture of maiolica also began. The most important artist was the Swedish-born potter Thure Öberg (1871–1935), who was the factory's artistic director and who produced some distinguished Art Nouveau vases. In the post-war period the factory's most innovative lines were ‘Kilta’ (designed by Kaj Franck in 1948, sold from 1953 and relaunched in 1981 as ‘Teema’), ‘Ruska’ (designed by Ulla Procopé (1921–68) in 1960), ‘Paratiisi’ (designed by Birger Kaipiainen (1915–88) and sold from 1970) and ‘Arctica’ (designed by Inkeri Leivo, and sold from 1979); ‘Arctica’ was the first series to be made of vitreous china. The company now trades as Arabia Finland; its products are displayed in the company's museum....

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Gordon Campbell

Article

Gordon Campbell

French pottery manufactory. In 1737 Baron François Duval established a pottery on his estate of Lamothe; it became a Manufacture Royale in 1749. In 1774 Duval’s son Joseph de Varaire assumed responsibility for the pottery; his death in 1789, together with the advent of the Revolution, marked the end of high quality production, and thereafter only utilitarian white wares were made. The early pottery of Ardus included tableware in the style of Berain. Enamel decoration was introduced in the 1770s, when the pottery’s production included fine pharmacy jars....

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Arita  

Hiroko Nishida

Region in Japan, now part of Saga Prefecture, and the name of a type of porcelain first produced there during the early Edo period (1600–1868). The ware was originally known as Imari yaki (‘Imari ware’) because it was shipped from the port of Imari (Saga Prefect.). During the Meiji period (1868–1912) porcelain was produced throughout the country. The need to distinguish it from other porcelain wares led to the use of the name Arita (Arita yaki). As a result, the names Imari and Arita wares were used interchangeably. In the West, Arita porcelain was known by several names, including Imari, Amari, Old Japan and Kakiemon (see Japan, §IX, 3, (iii)).

Porcelain production is said to have begun in Japan in 1616, when the Korean ceramicist Ri Sanpei [Jap. Kanagae Sanbei] (1579–1655), who had been brought to Japan after Toyotomi Hideyoshi’s invasions of Korea (...

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Gordon Campbell

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Joan Marter

(b Benicia, CA, Sept 4, 1930; d Benicia, Nov 2, 1992).

American ceramicist. Arneson was an influential artist of the Bay Area from the 1960s until his death. He was identified with Funk art in the 1960s and expanded his creation of witty ceramic sculpture by focusing on self-portraits and political subjects. He spent his youth in a small working-class town and worked as a cartoonist for the local paper. Arneson received an undergraduate degree in 1954 from the California College of Arts and Crafts in Oakland and taught at a local high school. His master’s degree was awarded in 1958 by Mills College. In 1962 he began teaching at the University of California, Davis, and he continued there as head of the ceramics department for 30 years. Also on the faculty were Wayne Thiebaud, William Wiley, and Roy De Forest. Graduates from UC Davis include renowned clay artists David Gilhooly (b 1943) and Richard Shaw (b 1941...

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Inmaculada Julián

(b Madrid, Feb 26, 1937).

Spanish painter, sculptor, potter, printmaker and stage designer . As a painter he was mainly self-taught. After working as a journalist in 1957, he left Spain in 1958 to avoid military service, settling in Paris. There he continued to work both as a journalist and painter. From 1968 to 1972 he lived in Milan, returning to Paris in 1973. His work developed from expressionism to realism (Nueva figurina), which reflected on the pictorial language and function of painting and the artist’s role in society. He manipulated ready-made images, words and elements derived from commercial art and the work of other painters. His pieces formed series whose titles referred to the legacy of the Spanish Civil War and the contemporary political situation to help make their critical point. His work frequently provoked controversy, for example his series Arcole Bridge and St Bernard’s Pass (1962–6) was based on the theme of Napoleon Bonaparte as a symbol of imperialism (e.g. ...

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Suzanne Tise

Descriptive term applied to a style of decorative arts that was widely disseminated in Europe and the USA during the 1920s and 1930s. Derived from the style made popular by the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, the term has been used only since the late 1960s, when there was a revival of interest in the decorative arts of the early 20th century. Since then the term ‘Art Deco’ has been applied to a wide variety of works produced during the inter-war years, and even to those of the German Bauhaus. But Art Deco was essentially of French origin, and the term should, therefore, be applied only to French works and those from countries directly influenced by France.

The development of the Art Deco style, or the Style moderne as it was called at the time, closely paralleled the initiation of the 1925...

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Michèle Lavallée

[Fr.: ‘new art’]

Decorative style of the late 19th century and the early 20th that flourished principally in Europe and the USA. Although it influenced painting and sculpture, its chief manifestations were in architecture and the decorative and graphic arts, the aspects on which this survey concentrates. It is characterized by sinuous, asymmetrical lines based on organic forms; in a broader sense it encompasses the geometrical and more abstract patterns and rhythms that were evolved as part of the general reaction to 19th-century historicism. There are wide variations in the style according to where it appeared and the materials that were employed.

Art Nouveau has been held to have had its beginnings in 1894 or 1895. A more appropriate date would be 1884, the year the progressive group Les XX was founded in Belgium, and the term was used in the periodical that supported it, Art Moderne: ‘we are believers in Art Nouveau’. The origin of the name is usually attributed to ...

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Trevor Proudfoot

Material most commonly used as a cheaper alternative to stone. Occasionally, its special properties make it a preferred but more expensive choice to stone. In its simplest form, artificial stone is an ashlar covering for buildings (e.g. 18th-century terraced houses by John Nash). It is found in its most sophisticated form as the component of numerous 19th-century terracotta or cement-based sculptures.

The earliest and simplest form of artificial stone is the lime-and-gypsum plaster used to decorate the walls of Egyptian tombs. These facings were predominantly of gypsum plaster lined and painted to simulate the texture of stone. In ancient Rome, renders (first coats of plaster) had a similar design and purpose, although they were applied to a wider variety of buildings. The incorporation of lime, pozzolana, additives of volcanic ash, sherds of pottery and brick dust strengthened the mortars and gave them greater durability. The renders were often painted to increase the illusion that actual stone was used (...

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José Corredor-Matheos

Spanish Catalan family of ceramicists . Josep Llorens Artigas (b Barcelona, 16 June 1892; d Barcelona, 11 Dec 1980) studied art in Barcelona at the Escuela de Artes y Oficios de la Lonja, at the Cercle Artístic de Sant Lluc and in 1915 at the Escola Superior de Bells Oficis. In 1923 he went for a lengthy stay to Paris, where he carried out a profound reconsideration of his pottery, divesting it of all decoration. In 1941, once more in Barcelona, he joined the Escuela Massana as a teacher, giving new impetus to Spanish pottery. His vessels, made of monochrome earthenware on the wheel, were not particularly unusual in their shape, but they were distinguished by the extraordinary quality of their glazes.

Llorens Artigas exhibited widely internationally and received several major awards. He collaborated with several major painters, beginning in 1923 with Raoul Dufy in Paris and later with ...

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Alan Crawford

Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.

The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....

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