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Lindy Grant

Cathedral dedicated to Notre-Dame in Manche, Normandy, France. The see of Coutances is first mentioned in 511, but in 836 Viking invasions forced the bishop to abandon his cathedral, and the see was not re-established until 1024. A new cathedral was begun by Bishop Geoffrey de Mountbray after his election in 1048, with financial help from Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia, Calabria, and Sicily. It was consecrated in 1056, though it is possible that work continued after this date. The earliest work in the present building dates from this campaign, all trace of previous cathedral churches on the site having disappeared.

The Livre noir of Coutances, containing a chronicle of the cathedral from 836 to 1093, reveals that there was a lantern tower over the crossing of the Romanesque building, though the arrangement of the east end is unclear. Substantial remains of the western parts of the Romanesque cathedral survive, with the west towers almost intact within their taller Gothic casings; they are square at the base and octagonal at the top, like the west towers of Jumièges Abbey. The Gothic nave seems to have been built on a Romanesque skeleton: the exterior and interior walls of the gallery are essentially 11th century, so that more 11th-century work must be encased in the arcade and aisle walls below. The unvaulted gallery of the Romanesque cathedral was lit by windows beneath arches of alternate dark and light stone reminiscent of the 11th-century work at the Le Mans Cathedral. It seems likely that some sections of the present clerestory are also Romanesque (though this view has recently been challenged) and that Coutances should be considered one of the earliest Norman buildings with a clerestory passage extended beyond the transept. All the Romanesque work is in the local granite....


Ryszard Brykowski

Church dedicated to St Michael at Dȩbno in the province of Nowy Sa̧cz, southern Poland. The 15th-century wooden church at Dȩbno has interested art historians since the middle of the 19th century; the stencilled paintings that decorate the interior were then regarded as an expression of ‘Slavonic taste’; soon afterwards the monument was defined as ‘a work in the pointed arch style’. In the 1920s it was included in the ‘Tatra Highlands group of wooden churches’ and regarded as the most characteristic and earliest example of a medieval wooden church in Poland.

A church was first mentioned on the site in 1335. Most of the present church is now dated to the second half of the 15th century: the curtain arch surmounting the south door is typical of Saxon architecture of the period, and the paintings are independently dated c. 1500. The nave and the chancel are both rectangular with a narrow sacristy north of the chancel. The spacing of the roof rafters with collar-beams corresponds to the width of the chancel, creating ‘plank-boxes’ on the sides of the wider nave, a structural solution typical of wooden Gothic church architecture in Little Poland. The lap joints and dowels survive, with the incised carpenter’s marks. Also original are the beam-framed ceiling, the same height in the nave and chancel; the ornate rood-screen; the western choir gallery; the west door and the door leading to the sacristy, both with pointed arches, and the south door; and a window with a curtain arch in the east wall of the chancel....


Gordana Babić

Monastic church dedicated to Christ Pantokrator in the Serbian Republic of Yugoslavia, situated 15 km south of Peć. It was founded by King Stephen Uroš III Dečanski (reg 1321–31) and his son, Stephen Uroš IV Dušan (reg as king 1331–46; emperor 1346–55). A sturdy wall surrounds the complex, which is entered by a fortified gate. Few of the conventual buildings remain. Archbishop Danilo II (1324–37) participated in the founding of the main church, which was built between 1327 and 1335 by Fra Vita, a Franciscan from Kotor. It is a five-aisled basilica modelled on Romanesque architecture with bands of grey, white and pink marble, a tripartite gabled façade and richly carved portals, windows, ribbed vaults and columns. These features are combined with a dome rising from a square base supported by four piers, three eastern semicircular apses and a narthex divided into three bays. The two lateral bays for the singers place the church within the so-called Raskian school of architecture. The interior is entirely covered in frescoes, which were completed between ...


Marc Deceneux

Castle in Brittany, France. It was built from 1382 by John IV of Montfort, Duke of Brittany (reg 1341–99), after his return from exile in England (1379). The site was particularly important to him: it was from Dinan, a strongly fortified city and commercial centre, that John organized resistance by the nobility to the threatened annexation of the Duchy by France. The castle, adjoining the city but independent of it, could both provide defence and compel submission in case of revolt: it was a substantial political symbol.

The castle, attached to the city ramparts, was enlarged in 1595–8 by the Duc de Mercoeur through the annexation of the fortified 13th-century Porte du Guichet and the artillery Tour de Coëtquen (built 1474), both of which were part of the city walls; this ensemble forms the existing castle. The building was altered between 1693 and 1711 by the military engineer ...


Mark Dike DeLancey

[Jenne] [Friday Mosque]

Malian mosque that was built in 1906–7 in the Sudanese style under the direction of master mason Ismaïla Traoré. Local historical traditions state that a mosque was first built on this site in the 12th century, replacing the palace of Djenné’s ruler Koi Konboro after he converted to Islam. By the turn of the 20th century the mosque was in ruins.

The mosque’s heavy earthen walls (see fig.) are inset with wooden timbers that act as scaffolding for replastering, while numerous pilasters create a sense of verticality. The horizontal emphasis of the eastern qibla wall is broken by three huge towers, creating a rhythmic alternation of reserved horizontal wall surfaces and projecting vertical towers. Towers in the centre of the north and south walls provide rooftop access for the call to prayer via internal staircases. A monumental entrance on the north side is composed of three projecting pillars enclosing two deep recesses. Seven projections at the top of the portal echo the tops of the pilasters extending beyond the roofline of the mosque walls....



Victoria Merrill

Building to house flocks of pigeons, which were popular until the 18th century because they provided fresh meat throughout the winter and required little attention. In large numbers, however, they were a menace, because they fed off any standing crop, and in England, Scotland and France ownership of dovecots was restricted by law to landowners, monasteries and parochial clergy. Nevertheless, there were 26,000 dovecots in England in the 17th century. With the introduction of root crops towards the end of the 17th century, however, animals could be fed throughout the winter, and the building of dovecots for anything other than ornamental purposes declined, particularly in England. In Scotland, however, they played a significant part in the local economy until the 19th century.

The needs of the birds dictated some internal and external features of the dovecot: nesting-boxes lined the walls; many had a potence (a revolving ladder on a stick) to allow access to the highest nesting-boxes; to deter animal predators from climbing up, the sides often had decorative brick string courses, as at the Manoir d’Ango, ...


R. Allen Brown

Castle in Kent, England, overlooking the seaport at the narrowest part of the English Channel. It has been described as ‘the key of England’ (Matthew Paris: Chronica majora, Rolls Series, iii, 28; 13th century). Occupation of the site has been traced to the Iron Age. In Roman times Dover was a military settlement and later a Saxon Shore fort. The Pharos (lighthouse; probably 1st century ad; see fig. (a)) survives as the bell-tower of the church of St Mary-in-Castro ((b)), within the castle precinct.

Although larger in area than the norm, Dover could not be a more instructive example of an ‘English’ castle. Founded immediately after the battle of Hastings in 1066 by William, it is even more than usually a product of the Norman Conquest, the site having been sought by the Norman duke in 1051 as a surety for his succession to the English throne. The castle was raised (in eight days according to William of Poitiers, the Conqueror’s biographer) within the existing Anglo-Saxon burgh on the hilltop, on the analogy of Old Sarum, Portchester, Wallingford, etc. The late 10th-century or early 11th-century church of St Mary-in-Castro (restored by ...


Tania Velmans

Monastic church in Bulgaria, 10 km south of Sofia on the northern slopes of the Vitocha Mountains. The monastery, consecrated to the Virgin, was founded by King John Alexander (reg 1331–71) towards the middle of the 14th century, but has since been destroyed; a small church (c. 10×4.5 m), however, remains. Its single nave has a barrel vault, and its decorations, which were painted at a much later date, are blackened and of little interest. Work of greater interest was executed in the narthex, however, which was also vaulted. Most of its walls are still covered with original scenes paid for, according to an inscription, by a certain Radislav Mavr in 1476. The principal schemes depicted on the upper parts of the walls are the Last Judgement and the Second Coming. They are interspersed with various other images including Christ and the Virgin and Child surrounded by an aureola shown on the east wall over the door leading to the nave and the ...


Francis Woodman

Former royal palace in south-east England. Eltham, once rural, is now surrounded by the south-east London suburbs. The old de Vesci manor was rebuilt between 1295 and 1311 by Bishop Bek of Durham, who bequeathed it to Prince Edward, later Edward II (reg 1307–27), from whom it passed to Queen Isabella. She made additions to it under the supervision of Michael of Canterbury. Before 1360 Edward III spent over £2500 on new buildings; by this time Eltham had a great hall, chambers, and chapels for the king and queen, a court, and a ‘long chamber’, all moated and walled. Eltham remained popular with Richard II, who added a ‘dancing chamber’, an outer court and further accommodation. Henry IV added new royal chambers fitted with stained glass and elaborate wooden ceilings, stretched over a cloister leading to his chapel, and in 1445 Henry VI built an additional great hall and chambers for Queen Margaret. ...


Phillip Lindley and Faith Johnson

Cathedral in Cambridgeshire, England. It began as the minster church for the city of Ely, having been founded in ad 673 on an island in the Fens by Queen Etheldreda (reg 630–79). After being sacked by the Danes in 870, the minster was reconsecrated and re-endowed by Bishop Aethelwold and King Edgar (reg 959–75) in 970 as the church of a Benedictine monastery. Before the Norman Conquest of 1066 Ely was one of the richest English monasteries. Little is known of the undoubtedly sizeable Anglo-Saxon church, which possibly lay on the north side of the present nave, because the first Norman abbot, Simeon (reg 1081–93), founded a new church in 1082. In 1109 Ely was made an episcopal see, and the endowments were divided between the bishop and the monastery. The monastery was dissolved in 1539, and the cathedral church refounded in 1541, when the dedication to SS Etheldreda and Peter was changed to the Holy and Undivided Trinity....


Eric Cambridge

Anglo-Saxon church dedicated to St John the Evangelist in Co. Durham, northern England. The church today consists of a simple rectangular nave, typically Northumbrian in its tall, narrow proportions (1:1.6), and a chancel that is almost square. But excavation has revealed further complexities. A porticus was added north of the chancel and overlapping the north-east corner of the nave, with access both from the chancel and probably also from outside. A second porticus was butted on to the west wall; there was probably an outside entrance at its north-east corner, and apparently no access from the nave. The height of the roof-line on the west gable suggests that it was two-storey.

The nave itself measures 13.25 × 4.42 m internally. It has a square-headed door in the centre of the north wall; the east jamb of another door (altered later) survives near the west end of the south wall, forming part of the present entrance. The nave was lit by four small windows with monolithic heads and single internal splays, square-headed on the north, round-headed on the south. Between the southern pair externally is a sundial, apparently ...


Michael W. Cothren

Cathedral dedicated to Notre-Dame at Evreux, in the département of Eure, France, 80 km west of Paris, known primarily for its collection of stained-glass windows. Begun after fire destroyed its predecessor in 1119, it was not completed until the 17th century, and its appearance reflects several phases of the Gothic style, with richly decorated Flamboyant traceried windows and a late 16th-century west façade. The cathedral has an aisled nave with a two-tower façade and transepts leading to a chevet with ambulatory and chapels. It was severely damaged in 1940 and was subsequently restored.

Although glazing survives from building campaigns from the late 13th century (south nave chapels, parts of the nave clerestory) to the 16th (north transept clerestory and rose window), the most important windows date from the 14th and 15th centuries, in particular the choir clerestory, whose glass is dated c. 1320–1400. The exact dating, patronage, and original disposition are controversial. The iconographic emphasis is on the Virgin Mary and the patron saints of the donors. The latter constitute some of the most powerful Normans of 1320–40 (...


Building where merchants, bankers or stockbrokers assemble to transact business. The origins of the exchange can be traced back to Roman market basilicas (see Basilica; see also Rome, ancient, §II, 1, (i), (b)), and to the market squares and loggias of medieval Italy, while its history is inextricably linked to the development of trade and banking. Exchanges are differentiated from market halls in that they are used for the sale of products through samples only, exchanges having no storage space for merchants’ goods. Markets and exchanges were sometimes housed in the same buildings, and many exchanges had shops attached to them in some form or another. The existence of exchanges, however, was dependent on the location of financial and trade centres. During the 14th century trade and commerce were firmly in Mediterranean hands. The first exchanges are recorded in Italy (Bologna, Loggia dei Mercanti, 1382) and Spain (...



Building for the commercial and usually mechanical production of goods. The modern factory was developed in the course of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century, and its subsequent architectural development was linked to advances in technology. Previously, goods had been produced, usually by hand, in the home or in specialized workshops (‘manufactories’). Nevertheless, some early manufacturing premises were substantial in size, such as the glass works at Saint Gobain, France, which received its royal patent in 1695, where workers’ housing was built concurrently with the workshops. Another early example of large-scale premises was the Real Fábrica de Tabacos, Seville (1728–57. However, it was only during the Industrial Revolution, with increases in the use of machinery and in the scale of production, that the factory as a distinct building type came into existence.

Pioneered in England, the early textile (and especially cotton) mills of Derbyshire and Lancashire served as stylistic models for the rest of the world from the 18th century until the early 20th. The first such building was ...


M. I. Andreyev

Monastery in the Vologda region of the Russian Federation, c. 500 km north of Moscow and 20 km north of the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery. It was founded in 1398 on the summit of a small hill near the White Lake by Ferapont, a monk from the Simonov Monastery in Moscow. In the mid-15th century the monastery became a major religious and cultural centre in the Russian north, with a scriptorium and a large library. It played an important role in the social and political life of the Moscow state and became a place of honourable exile for disgraced higher-ranking members of the clergy. At the end of the 17th century the monastery fell into decline, and it was dissolved in 1798, when its churches became parish churches. It was briefly revived as a convent between 1903 and 1923, and from 1908 to 1915, and in 1920–21 it was restored by the architects ...


Alan Borg

Former Cluniac priory dedicated to Notre-Dame in Provence, France. Ganagobie is a Carolingian monastic foundation, although none of the surviving buildings is earlier than the 12th century. The church consists of a single nave with a pointed barrel vault, transepts of a single bay, and an east end comprising a central main apse flanked by apsidal chapels. The cloisters and associated monastic buildings are to the south of the church. Set high on a hilltop above the valley of the Durance, north-east of Forcalquier, Ganagobie was remote from the main centres of Romanesque sculpture. Its Cluniac affiliation, however, may explain its rich decoration, which includes an extensive mosaic floor. The main sculptural decoration is on the west door, where the jambs and arches are enriched with multiple lobes. Although this curious form does have parallels in Aquitaine, Languedoc, and Spain, the particular example here is thought not to be original but to date from a later medieval reconstruction of the portal. The tympanum shows ...


Patrick Donabédian

Armenian monastery c. 30 km east of Erevan, set among the wild and impressive rock faces of the deep valley of the River Azat. In the early 4th century ad a monastery known as Ayrivank’ (‘cave monastery’) was founded on this site in a cave. The name Geghard dates from the 13th century, when a fragment of the Holy Lance (Armen. geghard; now in Ēdjmiadzin Cathedral, Sacristy) was brought here. The monastery is set in a courtyard (c. 100×65 m) surrounded on three sides by walls with towers and on the fourth (north) by a rock face. The earliest monument is the chapel of St Grigor the Illuminator (later dedicated to the Mother of God) which lies outside the monastery walls 100 m to the west and, according to inscriptions, dates from as early as 1160. At the beginning of the 13th century the site became the property of the Zakarid princes under whom the monastery developed. Around ...


V. Beridze

Architectural complex founded in 1106 as a monastery and academy on the south bank of the Tskaltsitela River, 12 km from Kutaisi, Georgia. It was founded by King David III the Builder (reg 1089–1125) and is generally regarded as the most important centre of medieval Georgian culture and art. Among the many outstanding scholars there was the Neo-Platonist philosopher Ioann Petrisi (fl c. 1080–1120), who translated texts of Aristotle and Proclus into Georgian and wrote commentaries upon them. The wealth of the monastery was based on land grants and contributions from the Georgian kings and from private individuals.

Three churches now remain, together with a bell-tower and the ruins of the academy building. The main church (1106–25) is dedicated to the Dormition and has a cruciform plan (35.5×35 m) with three projecting eastern apses and a dome resting on two piers and the corners of the altar apse. Three chapels were subsequently added to the east, south and north sides in the 12th and 13th centuries. The walls are built with hewn stone and decorated on the exterior with a complex system of arches. The interior decoration includes a mosaic (...


Fritz Arens

Former imperial palace in Hesse, Germany. It was founded by Frederick I (Barbarossa), Holy Roman Emperor (reg 1152–90), who apparently planned it as part of a gradual expansion of his ancestral Hohenstaufen lands. Situated on an island in the River Kinzig, the palace is a fortress protected by water. Next to the palace Frederick founded a new town with a regular street plan and two markets on the great Frankfurt–Leipzig trade route. The palace seems to be the earliest building on the site. The buildings have tended to be dated far too early: between 1150 and 1170 (the date of the town’s charter), or up to 1180 (the date of the imperial diet held at Gelnhausen), or 1190. However, a document relating to the deposition of Henry the Lion at the diet of 1180 was drawn up in territorio Maguntino, suggesting that it took place in the older castle belonging to Mainz, which presumably stood on another site. Dendrochronological tests have now provided a date of ...


Fritz Arens

Imperial palace in Lower Saxony, Germany, c. 40 km south of Brunswick. Goslar, an Imperial Diet town whose wealth was derived from the lead- and silver-mines of the Harz Mountains, was the favourite residence of the Salian emperors (reg 1024–1125). The imperial hall was originally built under Henry III (reg 1039–56), but it had to be repaired after a fire in 1065 and a partial collapse in 1132. The palace received much attention from late 19th-century patriots and revivalists: in its present form it mostly dates from a restoration of 1873–9, which gave it a 12th-century character. A vast cycle of frescoes by Hermann Wislicenus (1825–99), celebrating its days as an imperial residence, was added to the upper hall between 1879 and 1897.

The imperial hall stands at the top of an eastward-facing slope, which was used for large official assemblies, and at the bottom of which the royal chapel (later the cathedral; destr. ...