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Nubia  

William Y. Adams, R. G. Morkot, Timothy Kendall, L. Török and Khalid J. Deemer

Region in the Nile Valley, immediately to the south of Egypt, in which several cultures flourished, from the Khartoum Mesolithic period (c. 10,000–c. 5000 bc) to the establishment of the Islamic Funj sultanate c. ad 1505. Ancient Nubia corresponds essentially to the ‘Aethiopia’ of Herodotus and other Classical writers and the ‘Kush’ of the ancient Egyptians and Hebrews. It extends approximately from Aswan in southern Egypt to Khartoum in Sudan (see fig. 1 and fig. 2). The most northerly part, Lower Nubia, has always been regarded as an Egyptian sphere of influence, and it is included within the borders of the modern Arab Republic of Egypt. Egyptian control of the larger, southerly region, ‘Upper Nubia’, was much more sporadic.

Article

Robert D. McChesney

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Robert D. McChesney

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Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

Region between the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea and the Arabian desert, containing sites holy to Jews, Christians and Muslims. The exact borders have varied in different periods, but the term has come to be applied to the area now covered by Israel and Jordan, Hashemite Kingdom of. Artistic development in this region between the 13th millennium and the 1st bc is discussed in the survey on Syria-Palestine, and development of some specific types of art is also discussed in the wider context of the Ancient Near East. The first permanent agricultural settlements were established in 8000 bc at Jericho. After c. 1200 bc the coastal zone of Palestine was settled by the Peleset, later known as the Philistines (see Philistine), from whom the name of the region is derived. By 1000 bc the area was dominated by Hebrew tribes, who made Jerusalem their capital. The Kingdom of Palestine became divided into the Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah, but these were destroyed, the former by Assyria in ...

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Robert D. McChesney

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Prespa  

N. Moutsopoulos

Region comprising two lakes, c. 30 km west of Florina, Greece: Great Prespa is shared between Albania, the Republic of Macedonia and Greece and Little Prespa between Albania and Greece. Among the region’s earliest known architectural remains are those belonging to the ancient city on the island of St Achilles in Little Prespa lake. It was from here that the four sons of comes Nicholas, otherwise known as the Cometopuli, led a full-scale revolt against Byzantine occupation of the Balkans in ad 976. The youngest brother, Samuel, continued the struggle from his island base until his death in 1014. His empire survived him by only a few years. A modern village lies near the site of his capital.

Samuel also established a patriarchal see on the island (c. 990–1000), of which the first patriarch was Germanos, formerly of Tǎrnovo (Bulgaria). The patriarchal church, which was dedicated to St Achilles, whose relics were transferred to there from Larissa ...

Article

Anne Riches, Duncan Macmillan, W. T. Johnston, Rosalind K. Marshall, Veronica Steele, Ian Gow, David Jones, G. R. Haggarty, Brian J. R. Blench, David H. Caldwell, George R. Dalgleish, Naomi Tarrant, John Morrison, M. A. Forrest, Jennifer Melville and Patricia Brookes

Region of the United Kingdom bounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and by the North Sea to the east; it is bordered to the south by England. The west coast in particular is broken by lochs, and the mainland is surrounded by many islands including the Inner and Outer Hebrides, the Orkneys, and the Shetlands. The administrative arrangements for the mainland were altered with effect from 1 April 1996, when 29 unitary councils replaced the 9 regional and 53 district councils. The three Islands councils for Orkney, Shetland, and Western Isles remained unchanged. In this article places on the Scottish mainland are cited with a location within one of the 9 regional councils that existed until April 1996. These are: Highland, Grampian, Tayside, Central, Fife, Lothian, Strathclyde, Dumfries and Galloway, and Borders (see fig.). The landmass of Scotland is 78,762 sq. km and the population is ...

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Robert D. McChesney

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Shusha  

E. R. Salmanov

Regional centre in the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan. The town was founded in 1756–7 when the Karabakh potentate Panah ‛Ali Khan built a fortress on a rocky area surrounded by the mountain streams Dashalty and Khalfali-chay. The eponymous fortress Panakhabad was later renamed Kala or Shusha-qalasy and finally Shusha. Situated in the strategic and economic centre of Karabakh, it became the capital of the Karabakh khanate. The town was surrounded by stone walls with round towers protecting the gates. The khān and his court lived in a rectangular citadel surrounded by bazaars, a Friday Mosque and residential quarters. The first nine residential quarters, known as Ashagy Mekhelle, were built in the 1760s. Another eight were added under Khan Ibrahim Khalil (reg 1759–1806), and another twelve after the khanate was absorbed into the Russian empire in 1805. Each quarter was centred around a mosque surrounded by small squares containing a source of drinking water set in a stone façade sometimes decorated with blind arches. Town estates incorporating a garden and vegetable plot were separated from the street by stone walls. A typical example is the Mehmandarov House (...

Article

Philip Stott, Ian Glover, John Guy, Michael Hitchcock, Ian Brown and Hiram W. Woodward jr

Region comprising the south-eastern portion of the Asian mainland and many thousands of islands to the south and east of it lying between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea (see fig.). At the end of the 20th century it consisted of ten independent states. Of these, five—Burma (Myanmar), Thailand, Kingdom of, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, Socialist Republic of—constitute mainland South-east Asia, and five—Malaysia, Singapore, Republic of, Indonesia, Republic of, Brunei and the Philippines, Republic of the—constitute insular or maritime South-east Asia. The different historical development and cultural evolution of these ten states and their predecessors in the region (e.g. Angkor, Champa, Pagan), and the ethnic diversity of their populations are reflected in their arts, which are therefore discussed in detail in separate country surveys. However, they share a number of important elements of their culture and certain basic art forms and techniques, many of them already apparent in the prehistoric period, and these are considered here, together with certain general issues that are also common to the whole region....

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Marie Mauzé

Region of eastern Vancouver Island and the adjacent Canadian–US mainland, opposite the Fraser River delta and canyon. It is the homeland of the Native American Coast Salish and the location of a number of Pre-Columbian sites, including Marpole, Glenrose, St Mungo, Locarno Beach and Musqueam around the Fraser delta. The first art, including sculpture in the round, appeared during the Developmental period (c. 3500–c. 1100 bc). The Marpole site, for example, has yielded ground slate fragments decorated with drilled holes, notched or scalloped edges and patterns of incised lines. Similar decorations were applied to bone and antler. From St Mungo come carvings in bone or soft stone resembling segmented insect larvae (Vancouver, U. BC, Mus. Anthropol.). The most impressive example, from Glenrose, is a small tool handle of antler in the shape of a human figure (Vancouver, U. BC, Mus. Anthropol.). It has a large, deeply carved face, perforated earlobes, almond-shaped eyes and eyebrows and nose forming a ‘y’. It is one the oldest anthropomorphic sculptures from the Northwest Coast (...

Article

Dominique Collon, A. R. Millard, Lorraine Copeland, J. B. Hennessy, Rupert L. Chapman, G. R. H. Wright, Pierre Amiet, Ora Negbi, Vronwy Hankey and A. Nunn

Region of the Ancient Near East. The term describes the area now occupied, from north to south, by Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Israel (see fig.). Syria-Palestine has always been fragmented politically: there has never been a unified name for the area and its boundaries have constantly fluctuated. The etymology of the word Syria is uncertain: it may originally have denoted the hinterland of the coastal city of Tyre (Ṣur), or it could have entered the Greek language when Syria was under Assyrian control in the 8th–7th centuries bc. Palestine was originally the coastal zone settled after c. 1200 bc by the Peleset, later known as the Philistines, but this term came to be applied to the whole area until it was divided between Israel and Jordan in 1948.

This article covers the artistic development of Syria-Palestine from the 13th millennium bc to the 1st, when the region fell under the control, successively, of the ...

Article

Robert D. McChesney

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Tibet  

Heather Stoddard-Karmay, Gilles Béguin, Deborah E. Klimburg-Salter, N. G. Ronge, Veronika Ronge, Paola Mortari Vergara Caffarelli, Chandra L. Reedy, Jane Casey Singer, Günter Grönbold, Philip Denwood, Joe Cribb, John Clarke, Mireille Helffer, Yoshiro Imaeda, David Jones and Amy Heller

[Tib. Bod; Chin. Xizang Zizhiqu; Tibetan Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China]

Himalayan region bordered by India, Nepal, Bhutan and Burma to the west and south and by China to the north and east. An independent country until 1951, it is presently controlled by China. With a historical cultural relevance extending far beyond the borders of the present Tibetan Autonomous Region, Tibet and its art—largely based on Vajrayana Buddhism—are becoming increasingly better known worldwide. The activities of an articulate Tibetan community in exile since the late 1950s and a growing international interest in Tibetan Buddhism have given impetus to the appreciation of Tibetan culture, as have spectacular special exhibitions of its art (see §VIII below).

D. L. Snell and H. E. Richardson: A Cultural History of Tibet (London, 1968/R London and Boulder, 1980) R. A. Stein: Tibetan Civilisation (London, 1972, 2/Paris, 1981) G. Tucci: Tibet (Geneva, 1975) S. Batchelor: The Tibet Guide (London, 1987)

The Tibetan language belongs to the Tibeto-Burman group of languages; the ...

Article

Duccio Bonavia

Region in South America, centred on Lake Titicaca on Peru’s south-eastern border with Bolivia. It was an important culture area in Pre-Columbian times (see South America, Pre-Columbian, §III), being one of only six areas in the Central Andes large enough to allow important human concentrations. Geographically, it corresponds to the Puno depression of south-eastern Peru and the Bolivian altiplano (a small part of the Andean altiplano that extends as far south as Argentina). Lake Titicaca is endorheic (its waters do not reach the sea) and has a large plateau catchment area, whose rivers all flow into the lake. It has one outlet, the River Desaguadero, which flows into Lake Poopó (also endorheic) in Bolivia. Titicaca, at c. 3809 m above sea-level the highest navigable lake in the world, is surrounded by extensive plains and pastures, which rise gradually to form plateaux (punas) at over 4000 m, until they reach the arid areas at the foot of the snow-capped mountain peaks ...

Article

Troad  

Donald F. Easton and Reynold Higgins

Region in north-west Anatolia, now part of Turkey, named after the ancient city of Troy.

Donald F. Easton

The Troad is largely mountainous, and most of its sites are therefore situated on the coast. Stray finds of stone tools indicate the presence of palaeolithic occupation, and a neolithic site has been identified at Coşkuntepe towards the south-west tip of the Troad. The earliest traces of occupation in the region are Late Chalcolithic and were revealed by soundings at the coastal sites of Kumtepe (level Ia) and Beşik-Sivritepe, where pattern-burnished ware is characteristic. Early Bronze Age deposits of Kumtepe (level Ib), Beşik-Yassıtepe and Early Troy I, again on the coast, produced finds partly paralleled at Poliochni on Lemnos. Beşik-Yassıtepe was a fortified site with megara and apsidal structures. Clay model axes found there are paralleled at Ezero. Bronze Age Troadic culture is most fully represented at Troy (c. 3000–1050 bc...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Region in northern England known for its pottery production. Pottery has been made on the banks of the river Tyne to the west of Newcastle since the early 18th century. By 1827 there were at least 20 potteries producing household wares (especially Willow pattern plates), and a smaller number making tiles. In the 19th century the most important firms were Thomas Fell & Co. (1817–90) and C. T. Maling and Sons (c. 1850–1963); Maling replicas are now produced by Ringtons Ceramics, and New Castle Delft operates in the buildings of the Maling pottery. In the 20th century the most prominent pottery was Adams & Co., which was founded in 1880 as a manufacturer of toilets and sinks, and from 1904 to 1975 made art pottery (notably Art Nouveau pottery) that it sold as ‘Adamesk’.

R. C. Bell and M. A. V. Gill: The Potteries of Tyneside...

Article

Anne Riches, Duncan Macmillan, W. T. Johnston, Rosalind K. Marshall, Veronica Steele, Ian Gow, David Jones, G. R. Haggarty, Brian J. R. Blench, David H. Caldwell, George R. Dalgleish, Naomi Tarrant, John Morrison, M. A. Forrest, Jennifer Melville and Patricia Brookes

In 

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Heather Stoddard-Karmay

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Dominique Collon

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