41-60 of 669 results  for:

Clear all

Article

Article

Article

Article

Article

Article

Article

Natalia Vega, Fernando Carrasco Zaldúa, Liliana Herrera, Christopher Hartop, Eduardo Serrano and Francine Birbragher

Country in the northwest of South America. It is bordered to the northwest by Panama and the Caribbean, to the east by Venezuela and Brazil, to the south by Peru and Ecuador, and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. The region was colonized by the Spanish in the 16th century under the name of Nuevo Reino de Granada. The area of 1,141,748 sq. km that makes up modern Colombia was established in the years following independence from Spain (1819). This article discusses the art and architecture of the country since the settlement of the Europeans.

For a discussion of the arts of the Pre-Columbian period in Colombia, see South America, Pre-Columbian, §II.

Colombia is divided into 23 departments, with a total population of c. 35 million. The capital city, Santa Fe de Bogotá has a population of 6 million. The country has an extremely varied topography. Three ranges of mountains running from southwest to northeast divide it into five regions: the Caribbean (with the islands of San Andrés and Providencia) and Pacific coastal regions, the Andean zone, the eastern plains, and the Amazon region in the southeast (...

Article

Daniel J. Crowley

[République du Congo, formerly Moyen-Congo]

Country in Central Africa bordered by the Central African Republic to the north, the Angolan enclave of Cabuda to the south, Zaïre to the east and Gabon to the west, where there is also a short Atlantic coastline. It occupies 342,000 sq. km and has a population of 1,941,000 (UN estimate, 1989). The capital is Brazzaville, and the country is sometimes known as Congo–Brazzaville. Congo became a member state of France in 1958, before gaining full independence in 1960. The People’s Republic of Congo was under communist rule until 1990, since when a new constitution has been put into effect. About half the population are of the Kongo ethnic group, who also live in Zaïre and Angola, and another 20% are the Teke, famed for their traditional sculpture. This entry covers the art produced in Congo since colonial times. For earlier art of the area see Africa §VII 6....

Article

Claire Illouz

In 

Article

C. Guillermo Montero and Juan Bernal Ponce

[Sp. República de Costa Rica]

Central American country. It is bordered by Nicaragua to the north, by Panama to the south-east, by the Caribbean Sea to the east and by the Pacific Ocean to the south and west (see fig.). The Sierra Madre cuts across the country from north-west to south-east, forming a central plateau that is the main centre of population; the capital is San José.

C. Guillermo Montero

Columbus arrived at the town of Cariari (Puerto Limón) on 18 September 1502, during his fourth voyage. His brother Bartolomé explored the interior of the region but left no settlements. In 1509 the territory of Costa Rica became part of Castilla de Oro and was governed from Panama by Diego de Nicuesa. It was incorporated in the Audiencia de Guatemala, established c. 1521. During the government of Pedrarias Dávila, Gaspar Espinosa led an expedition to the Gulf of Nicoya, where the first Spaniards settled. ...

Article

Philip L. Ravenhill

[Ivory Coast]

Country in West Africa on the Gulf of Guinea, bordered by Liberia and Guinea to the west, Mali and Burkina Faso to the north and Ghana to the east. Côte d’Ivoire, formerly a descriptive name for part of the Western African coast known as a source of ivory, was a French colony from 1893 until its independence in 1960. Since 1983 its capital has been Yamoussoukro, though the former capital Abidjan continues to be the country’s most important city. This entry covers the art produced in Côte d’Ivoire since colonial times. For art of the region in earlier periods see Africa, §VII, 4. See also Akan, Akye, Baule, Dan, Guro, Lobi and Senufo.

With an area of some 322,463 sq. km, the southern region of the country is forest, and the northern region is open savannah. Between the two is an area of wooded savannah, which in its central part descends nearly to the coast—the so-called Baule V, between the Bandama and Comoé rivers. The population (...

Article

Croatia  

Paul Tvrtković, Sanja Cvetnić, Želimir Koščević and Flora Turner

[Hrvatska]

Republic of the former Yugoslavia in south-eastern Europe. It covers 56,594 sq. km (mainland and islands), including the historical regions of Dalmatia, Slavonia and most of Istria, and it has a population of c. 4.5 million, of whom over 85% are Roman Catholics. Much of northern Croatia is a plain, while the Dinaric Alps in the south adjoin the country’s Adriatic coast. Croatia is bordered by Slovenia to the north-west, Hungary to the north-east, Serbia to the east and Bosnia-Herzegovina to the south (see fig.). The capital is Zagreb.

Greek culture began to spread along the eastern Adriatic as early as the 8th century bc, with important Greek settlements at such sites as Vis, Korčula, Hvar, and Trogir. At the turn of the 4th into the 3rd century BC northern parts were colonized by Celts. The Roman occupation of the Dalmatian coast began in the second half of the ...

Article

Roberto Segre, Gerardo Mosquera, Liliana Herrera, Ernesto Cardet, Rebeca Gutiérrez and Marta Aguilera

Country situated in the Caribbean Sea between North and South America, near the Tropic of Cancer. It comprises over 1600 cays (low coral banks) and the Isla de la Juventud (see fig.), with a total land area of 110,922 sq. km. The capital is Havana.

See also Caribbean Islands.

Cuba is characterized by fertile territory that until the 19th century was covered with forests of valuable timber; these have been replaced by orchards and extensive plantations of sugar cane, tobacco, and coffee. The mountains, of moderate height, include the Guaniguanico range, the Sierra de los Organos, and the Sierra del Rosario in the west; the Sierra del Escambray in the center; and the Sierra Maestra in the east. The most important rivers are the Cayagualeje, Almendares, Mayabeque, Hatiguanico, Canimar, Sagua la Grande, Toa, and Cauto. The climate is moist and subtropical, and there are two main seasons: dry, from November to April, and rainy, from May to October. The islands are also sporadically swept by hurricanes and cyclones....

Article

Jan Royt, Karla Huebner, Jiří T. Kotalik, Ivo Kořán, Ivo Krsek, Olga Herbenová, Dagmar Tučná, Olga Drahotová, J. Brožová, Alena Adlerová, Libuše Urešová, Helena Koenigsmarková, Věra Vokáčová, Annamaria Giusti, Vladimír Hrubý and Tomáš Pergler

[Česká Republika; formerly part of Czechoslovakia]

Central European country comprising Bohemia and Moravia. It is landlocked and bounded by Austria, Germany, Poland and Slovakia and has a population of approximately 10 million. The independent republic of Czechoslovakia was founded in 1918; on 1 January 1993 it was divided into the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The capital is Prague, in Bohemia, while the main city in Moravia is Brno. The country’s border areas are wooded and mountainous, the central areas gently rolling. Its historical and cultural development has been determined by its geographical position between Western and Eastern Europe (see fig.).

Jan Royt, revised by Karla Huebner

The first evidence of settlement in the area of the Czech Republic dates to 750,000 bc. The earliest artefacts—female figures, sculptures of animals, petroglyphs—date to the Palaeolithic period, while the earliest ceramic artefacts date to the Neolithic period and the earliest metal objects to the Late Neolithic period. The Celts settled in the country ...

Article

Grethe Kusk, Hugo Johannsen, Elisabeth Kofod-Hansen, Birgitte Bøggild Johannsen, Hanne Abildgaard, Ebbe Nyborg, Mirjam Gelfer-Jørgensen, Lene Olesen, Mogens Schlüter, Kirsten Rykind-Eriksen, Jørgen Hein, Vibeke Woldbye, Katia Johansen, Charlotte Paludan, Nils Georg Brekke, Julie Harboe and Marianne Saabye

[Danmark]

Country in northern Europe. Lying between the North Sea on the west and the Baltic Sea on the east, it is separated from Norway in the north by the Skagerrak Strait and from Sweden in the east by the Kattegat Strait and the Øresund. The country consists of the western peninsula of Jutland, which borders Germany to the south and constitutes c. 70% of the land mass, and c. 450 islands, of which the largest are Fyn (Funen) and Zealand (Sjaelland). The capital, Copenhagen, lies on the east coast of the latter (see fig.). The land is mostly flat or undulating and highly cultivated. Of the population of over 5 million, c. 84% live in the urban centres. Denmark constitutes a connecting link between the European mainland and northern Scandinavia. This has had a marked effect on the country’s culture, which has been influenced from many sides, often through maritime contacts. As Denmark ruled over much of Scandinavia after the 9th century, a common Nordic culture developed. This article covers the art produced in Denmark from the establishment of a kingdom covering the present-day area. For a discussion of the art produced by the peoples of Scandinavia during the 9th to 11th centuries ...

Article

[Jibuti; Arab. Jumhūriyya al-Jibuti; formerly French Somaliland (1896–1967), French Territory of the Afars and the Issas (1967–77).]

Country on the north-east coast of Africa, bordered by Eritrea to the north, by Ethiopia to the west and south-west, and by Somalia to the south. Djibuti gained independence in 1977. The official languages are French and Arabic. About 89% of the total land area of c. 22,000 sq. km is desert. Most of the population live in the capital and port of Djibuti city with the remainder following a nomadic way of life. This entry covers the art produced in Djibuti since colonial times. (For art of the region in earlier periods see Africa §VII 2..)

Djibuti city was founded in 1888 and doubled in size between 1896 and 1899. During this period there was much building in the colonial style: streets were also laid out. The port, which handles about half of Ethiopia’s trade, is the basis of the country’s economy. The population (395,000; UN estimate, 1989...

Article

Article

Janet Henshall Momsen, Marianne de Tolentino, Paul Niell and Liliana Herrera

Country occupying the eastern two-thirds of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola. The western part is occupied by Haiti (see fig.). The capital is Santo Domingo, and Spanish is the official language; the population (7.4 million in 1996) is of mixed African, Indian, and European descent. It has the highest mountain in the Caribbean, Pico Duarte (3075 m), but also includes much rich agricultural land with large plantations. Cultivation of sugar cane began in the 16th century, and its need for a large workforce led to imposition of slavery on the Amerindian population and importation of Africans for forced labor; ratification of the abolition of slavery took place in 1844. Mining of nickel and textile manufacture are also important, although tourism is the main source of foreign exchange.

The Dominican Republic is the oldest settlement of European origin in America. After its discovery by ...

Article

John E. Vollmer and Verity Wilson

In 

Article

Monica Bethe

In