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Heinrich Magirius

German city in Saxony. It is particularly known for its Late Gothic hall church, the Annenkirche, and for its pottery.

Heinrich Magirius

The church was built after the foundation of the city in 1496/7 by Herzog Georg of Saxony, following the discovery of silver near by. Herzog Georg endowed the church and personally appointed the architects. The building, which was integrated into the regular plan of the city, was probably begun in 1499 by Conrad Pflüger, the highest-ranking Master of the Works in the Duchy. On Pflüger’s death in 1508 direction of the works was taken over by Peter Ulrich von Pirna (d 1513–14); the roof was built in 1512, the piers from 1514 to 1517. In 1515 Jacob Haylmann took over as Master of the Works, and the galleries and the imaginative vaults with patterns of loops and stars were built following his designs. The transept-like annexe to the south side, built in ...

Article

James D. Kornwolf

North American city and capital of the state of Maryland. It is situated on a peninsula in the Severn River and has a population of c. 36,000. It was founded as state capital in 1694. Originally called Providence, it was then named after Princess, later Queen, Anne, although it was also known at that time as Anne Arundeltown. Following the English Glorious Revolution of 1688, which brought William III and Mary II to the English throne, the formerly largely Catholic state of Maryland was divided into Anglican parishes by its new governor, Francis Nicholson. Although land had been set aside before 1694 on Annapolis’s site, little development had occurred. The city plan (1695) is attributable to Nicholson and while several towns in the English colonies, including New Haven (founded 1638) and Philadelphia (founded 1682), had adhered earlier to formal design principles, none was as obviously Baroque as his plan. Although the original was lost, another exists from ...

Article

Ansbach  

Walter Spiegl

German town in Bavaria, c. 40 km south-east of Nuremberg. Ansbach is known particularly as a centre of ceramics production. A faience factory was established by Matthias Baur and Johann Caspar Ripp in Ansbach c. 1708–10. Wares included jugs and tankards at first decorated in blue and later in the famille verte (green, yellow, iron-red, blue and purple) palette. In 1757 a porcelain factory was established beside the faience factory at the behest of Margrave Karl Alexander (d 1806), who in 1763 transferred it to Schloss Bruckberg. The secret formula for porcelain was brought to Ansbach by Johann Friedrich Kändler (1734–91), a nephew of the Meissen Modellmeister Johann Joachim Kändler, who had worked at the factory of Wilhelm Caspar Wegely (1714–64) in Berlin, as had the superb miniaturist and colour specialist Johann Carl Gerlach (1723–86) and the modeller Carl Gottlob Laut (...

Article

Jorge Luján-Muñoz

[formerly Santiago de Guatemala]

Guatemalan city. It is located in a valley at the foot of the Agua volcano, 1500 m above sea-level, and has a population of c. 30,000. It was founded in 1527 as Santiago de Guatemala, but following a landslide in 1541 it was relocated in 1543 to the Panchoy Valley. It was the capital of the Audiencia de Guatemala, which included the present Mexican state of Chiapas and the five Central American countries (excluding Panama), until 1773, when the last in a series of devastating earthquakes led to its abandonment as the capital; Guatemala City became the new capital in 1776. The old city quickly began to grow again and gained the status of capital of the Sacatepéquez department, acquiring its present name in 1790.

Antigua was originally laid out on the typical Spanish grid plan centred around a main square; the plan is believed to have been executed by ...

Article

M. Rautmann, Katherine M. D. Dunbabin and Mine Kadiroğlu

[now Antakya]

Greek and Roman city on the River Orontes in south-east Turkey (ancient Syria), which flourished from c. 300 bc to the 7th century ad.

Its advantageous site on the edge of the Amuk Plain at the foot of Mt Silpius, commanding important trade routes linking Anatolia with Palestine and the Mediterranean with inland Syria, attracted the attention of Seleukos I (reg 305–281 bc), who founded the city (c. 300 bc) as the capital of his Syrian empire. With its port at Seleucia and residential suburb at Daphne, Antioch prospered as capital of the Roman province of Syria from 64 bc. The city enjoyed the attentions of Roman benefactors from Julius Caesar onwards and attained the height of its prosperity during the 2nd to the 7th century ad, becoming the diocesan capital of Oriens. Its influence was particularly strong in early Christian affairs: Paul and Barnabas were active at Antioch, while Peter was regarded as its first bishop. ...

Article

Stephen Mitchell

[‘Pisidian’]

Greek and Roman city in western Asia Minor (now Turkey) on a plateau above Yalvaĉ. It was founded by the Seleucids in the 3rd century bc and refounded as a colony for veteran soldiers by Augustus c.25 bc; it flourished until the Early Christian period. The site was excavated in 1924 by D. M. Robinson and was the object of a detailed archaeological survey by S. Mitchell and M. Waelkens in 1982–3. Further excavations have taken place during the 1980s and 1990s, directed by M. Taslianan. About 4 km south of the city Hellenistic remains survive at the sanctuary of Mên Askaênos, where an imposing temenos with porticos on four sides enclosed a mid-2nd-century bc Ionic temple (6 by 11 columns) on a high, stepped podium. The design of the temple was influenced by the layout of the temples of Zeus Sosipolis and Artemis Leukophryene at Magnesia on the Maeander...

Article

Antwerp  

Leon Voet, Erik Duverger, Claire Dumortier, G. van Hemeldonck, Leo de Ren, Jacques Thiébaut and Jan van Roey

[Flem. Antwerpen; Fr. Anvers]

Belgian city and port on the River Scheldt, c. 90 km from the sea, with a population of c. 465,000 (1992). In the 16th and 17th centuries it was one of the leading centres of art in northern Europe, with such painters as Quinten Metsys, Peter Paul Rubens and Jacob Jordaens. Prints were published there, and it was a centre for the production of ceramics, tapestry, furniture and objects of vertu, the last encouraged by the establishment of the European diamond trade from the late 15th century. Antwerp was considerably damaged in World War II. It is now a leading international port and a sprawling industrial town.

F. Prims: Geschiedenis van Antwerpen, 29 vols (Brussels and Antwerp, 1927–49) Antwerpen in de XVIIIde eeuw: Instellingen, economie, cultuur, Genootschap voor Antwerpse Geschiedenis (Antwerp, 1952) H. Gerson and E. H. ter Kuile: Art and Architecture in Belgium, 1600–1800, Pelican Hist. A. (Harmondsworth, 1960)...

Article

Senake Bandaranayake

[Anurādhapura]

Ancient city and religious centre in north-central Sri Lanka on the Malvatu Oya River. The site (see fig.) extends over an area of about 64 sq. km. At its centre are the vestiges of a fortified inner city, surrounded by several ancient Buddhist monastery complexes and four large, man-made lakes. The founding of Anuradhapura as a major urban complex is traditionally ascribed to the semi-historical figure of the pre-Buddhist period, King Pandukabhaya, in the 4th century bc. Recent excavations indicate the existence of settlement, import ceramics and early writing from a horizon of the 5th century bc or earlier, indicating the possibility of urbanization taking place from c. mid-1st millennium bc. The earliest rock shelter monasteries at the site date from the last few centuries bc.

Anuradhapura was the country’s principal political and religious centre for nearly a millennium and a half, until the closing decades of the 10th century ...

Article

Anyang  

Robert W. Bagley

[An-yang]

Chinese city in Henan Province, near the site of the last capital of the Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, occupied c.1300– c. 1050 bc. The site is sometimes called Yinxu, ‘Waste of Yin’, an ancient name for the abandoned city.

At least as early as the Northern Song period (960–1127) Anyang was known to antiquarians as a source of ancient bronze ritual vessels. At the beginning of the 20th century archaeologists were led there by the realization that animal bones and turtle shells found by local farmers were carved with inscriptions in a form of Chinese script more archaic than any previously known (for a discussion of the oracle-bone texts see China, People’s Republic of, §IV, 2, (i)). The bones had been used in divination rituals; their inscriptions, which showed the divinations to have been performed on behalf of the last nine Shang kings, secured the identification of the Anyang site. According to historical texts of the last few centuries ...

Article

Aosta  

Christine Verzar and Diane Favro

[anc. Augusta Praetoria]

City situated at the confluence of two ancient Alpine passes, the Great and Little St Bernard, in Piedmont, Italy. The medieval nucleus lies within the Roman walls and important monuments of both periods survive. Founded as a Roman camp in 24 bc, and later colonized under Emperor Augustus (22 bc), it soon also became a Christian bishopric. In 1025 the city was in the possession of Umberto Biancamano, the feudal lord under Rudolf, King of Burgundy, and founder of the ruling family of Savoy. It was the birthplace of St Anselm (c. 1033/4–1109), who became Archbishop of Canterbury in 1093.

Of the Roman remains, the Porta Praetoria, the theatre, bridge and Arch of Augustus are best preserved and bear testimony to Aosta’s importance as a Roman Imperial city; there are also ruins of the Roman forum. From the period of St Anselm, two important monuments survive: the cathedral, dedicated to St John the Baptist, and the Benedictine abbey of S Orso, the latter with important 11th-century frescoes and 12th-century cloister capitals. The 12th-century mosaic pavement in the cathedral represents the ...

Article

Apameia  

Jean Ch. Balty and Janine Balty

[Lat. Apamea; Arab. Afāmiya, Fāmiya; now Qal‛at al-Muḍīq]

Hellenistic and Roman city in northern Syria, on a plateau on the south-west tip of Jebel Zawiye overlooking the valley of the Asi (formerly the Orontes). It was founded in 300–299 bc by Seleukos I Nikator (reg 301–281 bc) on the site of an ancient Bronze Age capital; it was one of the four great cities known as the Tetrapolis. The disastrous earthquake of 15 December ad 115 carried away most of the original buildings, but in many places there remain powerful courses, solidly anchored on rock, of the Hellenistic walls, eloquent testimony to their 7 km circuit of the city. The Apameia that the excavations of a Belgian archaeological expedition brought to light from 1928 onwards is essentially a Roman city, capital of the province of Syria Secunda from c. ad 415. Apameia contributed greatly to the cultural life of the empire and a famous school of Neo-Platonic philosophy existed there from the 2nd to the 4th century ...

Article

Seton Lloyd

[Arab. ‛Aqarqūf; anc. Dur Kurigalzu]

. Site in Iraq of the ancient capital city of the Kassites, which flourished c. 1400–1157 bc (see also Mesopotamia, §I, 2). The ruins of ancient Dur Kurigalzu are 15 km west of modern Baghdad, at the point where an outcrop of soft limestone marks the northern extremity of the alluvial plain. The eroded core of its Ziggurat (now partly rest.) is visible from the highway leading west to Ramūdī and the desert crossing to Jordan. The mud-brick fabric of its structure is reinforced with deep layers of reed-matting and faced on all sides with kiln-baked brick.

Iraqi excavations at Aqar Quf in 1942–5 under Taha Baqir led to the discovery of a complex of temple buildings at the foot of the ziggurat itself. A Kassite dynasty ruled Babylonia from the 16th century to the 12th century bc, apparently maintaining the ancient civic and religious traditions of Mesopotamia. The architecture of this temple precinct was therefore characteristic of the period (...

Article

Franz Rickert

Roman and Early Christian city at the east end of the plain of the Veneto, c. 90 km north-east of Venice and 5 km from the Adriatic coast. Founded as a Roman colony in 181 bc, it received full town status in 89 bc and became the regional capital of Venetia et Histria. It was strategically sited on the River Natissa, which was navigable to the sea, and at the intersection of routes leading north-west over the Alps and north-east to the Balkans. Written sources indicate that several emperors, including Constantine the Great, had a residence in Aquileia; from ad 294 to the 5th century it also had its own mint. In 313 it became a bishopric and in 381 it was the venue of a council before which followers of Arianism were tried. Civil wars and the invasions of the Huns (452) and the Lombards (568) led to the migration of most of the population and the transference of the see to Grado....

Article

Arausio  

T. F. C. Blagg

[now Orange]

Roman town in south-west France, 7 km east of the river Rhône. It is famous for its theatre and triumphal arch. The Roman colony of Arausio was founded c. 35 bc for veterans of the 2nd Gallic Legion beside the Saint-Eutrope Hill, probably a stronghold of the native tribe of the Tricastini, which Strabo (IV.i.12) described as the most Romanized in southern Gaul. The Roman city included most of the hill, the regular street grid beginning at the foot of its steep northern slopes. The alignment of the streets was continued in the road system that divided the territory into equally sized plots of land allocated to each colonist. This is attested by the remarkable discovery in a limekiln near the theatre of fragments of three cadastral surveys carved on marble tablets (Orange, Mus. Mun.), the earliest set up in the city’s record office in ad 77, the second and most informative probably made in the reign of Trajan (...

Article

Ardabil  

Abbas Daneshvari

[Ardabīl; Ardebil]

City in Azerbaijan in north-west Iran c. 180 km east of Tabriz, situated on the eastern slopes of Mt Sabalan, an extinct volcano, and with a population of c. 222,000. Founded in the pre-Islamic period, it flourished after the Arab conquest in the 7th century, often serving as the capital of Azerbaijan. It was sacked by the Mongols in 1220 and was subsequently overshadowed by Tabriz, but its partial recovery was marked by the erection of a new congregational mosque in the early 14th century. Now ruined, this consisted of a rectangular hypostyle prayer-hall with a square domed ‘sanctuary’ in front of the mihrab.

Ardabil became one of Iran’s holiest cities under the Safavid family dynasty (reg 1501–1732), which was descended from a local mystic, Shaykh Safi al-Din Ishaq (d 1334). Through the patronage of the Safavid shahs, his tomb and the associated hospice (khānaqāh) became an important shrine. The main buildings are clustered around a rectangular paved courtyard. On the north side is the Jannatsaray (...

Article

Abbas Daneshvari

[Ardistāni; Ardestān]

Iranian town in the province of Isfahan, just east of the road from Natanz to Na’in. It occupies an ancient site and preserves the ruins of a Sasanian fire-temple, but the most important monuments date from the medieval period, when Ardistan was a flourishing agricultural centre, renowned for its silk. By the 10th century the town was fortified and had five gates. Its congregational mosque, which now has a four-iwan plan, was first built during this period; a tunnel-vaulted arcade in the south-west corner with a fragmentary kufic inscription and polylobed piers can be attributed to the 10th century, when similar work was done on the Friday Mosque at Isfahan (see Islamic art, §ii, 5(i)(a)). In 1158–60 the mosque was remodelled on the orders of Abu Tahir Husayn ibn Ghali ibn Ahmad by the master Mahmud ibn al-Isfahani known as al-Ghazi (see Islamic art, §ii, 5(i)(b)). The domed bay in front of the mihrab and the adjacent qibla iwan date from this rebuilding and are notable for their original decoration, which includes three stucco mihrabs, brickwork highlighted in red and white and plaster decoration in purple, yellow, white and blue. In ...

Article

W. Iain Mackay

Peruvian city and capital of the department of Arequipa. The city (population in 1996 c. 680,600) is situated on the River Chili in a fertile valley in the foothills of the Andes and on the slopes of a volcanic range. Earliest settlement dates back to the Early Horizon (c. 900–c. 200 bc), and there have been archaeological finds at San Juan de Siguas, Santa Isabel de Siguas (to the north), and in the Vítor Valley (to the west of Arequipa). The Lupaca people first settled in the area around what is now Arequipa c. ad 800–1200. The site of Churajon lies about 30 km from Arequipa; substantial agricultural systems and terracing characterize the region. In drier areas there are numerous petroglyphs, notably at Toro Muerto. By the 1350s provincial Inca settlements had been established near the present-day city. Arequipa would have been a tambo (Quechua: ‘road-side inn’) on the route between the highlands and the coast. The Spaniards founded the city of Villahermosa de Arequipa (or Villa Hermosa de la Asunción) on ...

Article

Arezzo  

Frank Dabell

[anc. Arretium]

Italian city and diocese in Tuscany, c. 75 km south-east of Florence. Set on a small hill on the plain between the upper Arno and Valdichiana valleys, it stands on one of the principal ancient routes between Rome, Florence and Emilia-Romagna. A flourishing town in antiquity, it also contains many fine works of art from the Gothic and Renaissance periods. In Etruscan and early Roman times, Arezzo owed part of its prosperity and fame to bronze, earthenware and gold products (the latter industry still thrives today). By the 5th century bc Arezzo was walled and had become one of the 12 most important Etruscan towns. Examples of characteristic black-glazed pottery from this period survive, as do some exceptional bronze statues, including the Chimaera (early 4th century bc) and a later Minerva (both Florence, Mus. Archeol.), which were discovered in 1553 and 1541 respectively and appropriated by Cosimo I, Grand Duke of Tuscany, for whom they helped legitimize the importance of the art of Etruria/Tuscany. Linked to Rome by the Via Cassia, Arezzo became a Roman municipium during the Republican period, and its fame as a centre for pottery grew with the production of a variety of red-glazed vases, known as ...

Article

Argos  

Pierre Aupert

Principal city in the Argolid, southern Greece. It was built around the Larissa and Aspis hills dominating the Argive plain, about 8 km from the sea, and flourished throughout Classical antiquity. The modern town occupies the site of the ancient city. Argos was a major power in the Peloponnese from the Bronze Age. Rivalry with Sparta culminated in King Pheidon’s victory in the 7th century bc, which made Argos pre-eminent in Greece. After Pheidon’s death, however, Sparta and the rising power of Corinth held Argos in check. Argos was included in the Roman province of Achaia in 146–5 bc. Polykleitos was the most famous of several renowned Argive sculptors (the ‘Argive school’) of the High Classical period (c. 450–c. 375 bc). Argive architecture, although firmly within the Hellenic tradition, had various distinctive local characteristics and took many innovative forms, especially under the early Roman Empire. Excavations in and around Argos were made by the Dutch archaeologist ...

Article

Århus  

Axel Bolvig

[Aarhus]

Danish city and port in the east coast of Jutland. Recent excavations have dated its foundation to the period preceding the 9th century. Six runic stones in the neighbourhood indicate its importance about ad 1000. A bishop from Århus, which was probably without a real diocese at this time, participated in a meeting in Reginsburg in 948. A re-organization of the entire church in Denmark was undertaken c. 1060 and this finally established the diocese of Århus. It was then that a cathedral was erected outside the ramparts. The crypt of this church was excavated in the 1950s and has been shown to be the oldest in Scandinavia. The so-called Åby crucifix (c. 1050; Copenhagen, Nmus.) and the Golden Altar in Lisbjerg church (c. 1140; Copenhagen, Nmus.) show the importance of the diocese at that time.

During 12th and 13th centuries many churches were built of granite ashlar not only in the diocese but throughout Jutland. It was at this time that a new cathedral complex dedicated to St Clemens was started inside the ramparts occupying a large part of the commercial town. The old cathedral was subsequently handed over to the Dominicans. Like the seaport of Ribe on the west coast of Jutland, Århus has very few churches, while the inland cathedral towns of Viborg, ...