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Article

Nelly Perazzo

(b Buenos Aires, May 13, 1929; d 1994).

Argentine painter, sculptor and draughtsman. He studied architecture at the University of Córdoba in Argentina from 1948 to 1951 but later decided to devote himself to painting, in which he was self-taught. Like other artists working in New York, where he settled in 1958 on being awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship, he reacted against Abstract Expressionism, in his case by developing a highly personal vocabulary and by incorporating sculptural elements within spaces hollowed out from the canvas support. These geometrical or enigmatic objects are presented as agents of revelation, emblems resonant with ancient significance, bringing together geometry, mathematics and astronomy in order to penetrate the secret labyrinths of the unconscious. Supreme Astrolabe (1973; New York, Guggenheim) is a good example of his extraordinarily rich work, as minutely detailed as that of a goldsmith. In other constructions he explored a psychologically intimate sense of space, as in Trapped Angel III (acrylic on canvas and wood, ...

Article

(b Medellín, April 19, 1932).

Colombian painter and sculptor. After attending a Jesuit school in Medellín he was sent to a school for matadors in 1944 for two years. He first exhibited in 1948 in Medellín with other artists from the region and provided illustrations for the Sunday supplement of the daily paper El Colombiano at this time. His discovery of the works of Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros and José Clemente Orozco inspired paintings such as Woman Crying (1949; artist’s priv. col., see 1979 exh. cat., p. 25). After studying at the San José high school in Marinilla, near Medellín, from 1949 to 1950 and then working as a set designer, he moved to Bogotá in 1951. A few months after his arrival he had his first one-man show there at the Galería Leo Matiz in 1951, at which time he was working under the influence of Gauguin and Picasso’s work of the ‘blue’ and ‘rose’ periods. In ...

Article

Roberto Pontual

(b São Paulo, Feb 22, 1894; d São Paulo, Dec 18, 1955).

Brazilian sculptor. He first studied at the São Paulo Liceu de Artes e Ofícios and in 1913 left for Rome, where he stayed for six years and completed his studies with Arturo Dazzi (1881–1966). During this period he fell under the influence of Emile-Antoine Bourdelle and especially of the Symbolist sculpture of Ivan Meštrović. On his return to São Paulo in 1919 the innovative force of his work immediately caught the interest of the young intellectuals and artists who shortly afterwards brought Modernism into being in Brazil with the Semana de Arte Moderna in 1922 in São Paulo. Although he returned to Europe in 1921, before this took place, Brecheret contributed several works to the event, including some on a religious theme such as Head of Christ (bronze, 1920; U. São Paulo, Inst. Estud. Bras.), characterized by an extreme simplification of the figure and by a geometric stylization that prefigured Art Deco. In ...

Article

Brian Austen

(Hicks)

(b ?Sheffield, 1785; d Port of Spain, Trinidad, Nov 1846).

English sculptor, designer and architect. In 1810 he exhibited at the first Liverpool Academy Exhibition and showed models and drawings there in 1811, 1812 and 1814. These included designs for the restoration of the screen in Sefton church, Merseyside, and for a chimney-piece for Speke Hall, Liverpool, and two drawings of Joseph Ridgway’s house at Ridgmont, Horwich, Lancs. Bridgens designed furniture and furnishings in Gothic and Elizabethan styles for George Bullock. In 1814 he moved to London with Bullock, using his address at 4 Tenterden Street, Hanover Square, and prepared designs for Sir Godfrey Vassal Webster (1789–1836) for improvements to Battle Abbey, E. Sussex, and similarly for Sir Walter Scott’s home, Abbotsford House, at Melrose on the Borders. Two chair designs for Battle Abbey were published in Rudolph Ackermann’s Repository of Arts in September 1817, and Bridgens was also involved in the design of chairs supplied to Abbotsford House in ...

Article

Ricardo Pau-Llosa

(b Havana, Oct 10, 1947).

Cuban sculptor, active in the USA. She arrived in the USA during the 1960s and in 1979 obtained an MFA at the University of Miami. She worked primarily in three formats: wall-hanging constructions, free-standing sculpture, and installations situated in corners like stage props. Using mixed media, often wood and found objects, she focused on the objective representation of personal dreamed images, reminiscent of the assemblages of Joseph Cornell and Marisol (e.g. Next Room (Homage to R.B.), mixed media, 1986; see 1987–1988 exh. cat., p. 259). Brito exhibited widely throughout the USA, in both one-woman and group exhibitions.

Plagens, P. “Report from Florida: Miami Slice.” Art in America [cont. as A. America & Elsewhere; A. America] 74, no. 11 (Nov 1986): 26–39.Pau-Llosa, R. “The Dreamt Objectivities of María Brito Avellana.” Dreamworks 5, no. 2 (1986–1987): 98–104.Fuentes-Pérez, I., Cruz-Taura, G., and Pau-Llosa, R. Outside Cuba. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1987. Published in conjunction with the exhibition of the same name, shown at New Brunswick, NJ, Rutgers U., Zimmerli A. Mus. New York, Mus. Contemp. Hisp. A.; Oxford, OH, Miami U., A. Mus.; and elsewhere; 1987–1989, pp. 258–261....

Article

Nelly Perazzo

(b Avellaneda, nr. Buenos Aires, May 11, 1930).

Argentine painter and sculptor. He studied in Buenos Aires at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes Manuel Belgrano and at the Escuela Superior de Bellas Artes Ernesto de la Cárcova, leaving in 1951, and then worked as a researcher for the Centro de Investigaciones de Comunicación Masiva, Arte, y Tecnología in Buenos Aires. He played a leading role in the second wave of artists using geometric abstraction in Argentina, painting asymmetric compositions from 1957 and later making reliefs of plastic, painted wood, and aluminum. As a sculptor he often worked with repeated elements, such as plastic or metal rods with which he created a continuous rhythm describing an apparently curved space. He also used sheets of transparent acrylic to make monumental parallelepipeds and boxes, over which he placed bands of color to create superpositions, coincidences, and dissonances that produce an effect of criss-crossing forces in movement as the observer changes his or her position, as in ...

Article

Veerle Poupeye

(b St Ann, 1917).

Jamaican painter and sculptor. A self-taught mystic and visionary, unknown until the late 1960s, he drew his artistic inspiration from a very personal interpretation of two Afro-Christian Jamaican cults, Rastafarianism and Revivalism. His imagery developed through meditation and techniques similar to the automatism of the Surrealists. The curious limestone formations found in Jamaica frequently served as a source of inspiration, as in Bush Have Ears (1976; Kingston, N.G.). He also made ritual objects, such as carved wooden staffs and decorated musical instruments. During the 1970s he worked in close collaboration with his son Clinton Brown (b 1954), who also received substantial critical acclaim.

V. Poupeye-Rammelaere: ‘The Rainbow Valley: The Life and Work of Brother Everald Brown’, Jamaica Journal, 21/2 (May–June 1988), pp. 2–14G. Mosquera: ‘Everald Brown’, Ante América (exh. cat. by G. Mosquera and others, Bogotá, Banco de la República, 1992), pp. 25–30V. Poupeye: Caribbean Art...

Article

Cecilia Suárez

(b Quito, Sept 8, 1939).

Ecuadorean painter, graphic designer, sculptor, installation artist, architect and teacher. He studied architecture at the Universidad Nacional de Bogotá, Colombia. He worked for the Graham Foundation and the National Endowment for the Arts, Washington, DC, and received a grant to attend the Center for Advanced Visual Studies at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, where he worked with György Kepes. Later he became a professor at the arts faculty of the Universidad Central, Quito. Bueno worked first in graphic design before going on to experiment with the incorporation of technology into art, using laser beams, mechanical pumps, plastic, glass and such elements as water, fire and air, for example in 49 Tubes, exhibited at the Bienal de Arte Coltejer in Medellín in 1972. He also combined visual art with music in such works as Flame Orchards, with music by Paul Earls, which won joint first prize with Kepes in the same exhibition. Exploration into ecological and environmental art led him to experiment with the idea of an aerial view of the urban landscape incorporating military camouflage sheets....

Article

Manuel Rojas Sotelo

(b Bogotá, Sept 8, 1933; d Paris, Jan 8, 1982).

Colombian sculptor. One of the first modern female sculptors in Colombia, Bursztyn introduced industrial materials and an anti-aesthetic language into a conservative art scene. Bursztyn, a descendent of Polish Jewish migrants who settled in the Colombia before the outbreak of World War II, lived in the country during the advent of the so-called violencia política (political violence) that began in 1948 in Colombia and continues to this day. Bursztyn studied at the Art Students League in New York City (1952–4), and later in Paris in the studio of Belorussian sculptor Ossip Zadkine at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière (1956–8). During these years, Bursztyn had a romantic relationship with Jorge Gaitán Durán, a leftist poet and critic living in Paris, and the founder of the journal Mito, who would also influence the magazine Les Temps modernes established by Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, and Maurice Merlau-Ponty. In the early 1960s Marta Traba, the Argentine Colombian critic, described Bursztyn’s formal and conceptual approach as anarchist, though it might better be characterized as anarcho-feminist, highlighting the struggle against the patriarchy as a key component in anarchist opposition to state oppression. Between ...

Article

Jorge Luján-Muñoz

(b Guatemala City, Sept 16, 1781; d Guatemala City, Nov 21, 1845).

Guatemalan painter, printmaker, and medallist. He entered the mint in 1795 as an apprentice engraver but on the recommendation of its director, Pedro Garci-Aguirre, also became Master Corrector at the Escuela de Dibujo de la Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País, Guatemala City, in 1796, holding the post until 1804. He continued working at the mint until 1809 and demonstrated outstanding skill both as a medallist and engraver of coins and as an engraver and etcher. He returned to the mint in 1823 as second engraver, remaining in the post until his death.

Despite the quality of his work as a printmaker and medallist, Cabrera gained artistic recognition especially as a miniature painter, working mostly in watercolour on ivory in a meticulous technique. He produced some miniatures on religious themes and others of birds, but the majority, measuring no more than 50 mm in height or width, were portraits of members of the Guatemalan aristocracy and bourgeoisie. It is not known exactly how many he produced, but from the middle of the 1830s he began to number them, starting from 500; the highest known number of the approximately 200 authenticated miniatures is 745. Although he suffered some illness, he was most productive during the last five years of his life. An evolution can be discerned from his earliest works, dating from ...