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Hannes Etzlstorfer

(b Innsbruck, July 15, 1657; d Innsbruck, November 18, 1720).

Austrian painter. After studying with his father, Michael Waldmann I (c. 1605–58), he learnt fresco-painting from Egid and Johann Paul Schor in Innsbruck. He may have travelled to Italy during his journeyman years but from 1684 is recorded as a citizen of Innsbruck. He married a rich brewer’s daughter and was appointed to the city council in 1692. The same year he finished an altarpiece for Brixlegg Pfarrkirche, St Anthony with the Infant Jesus, and SS Erasmus and Maximilian (now Innsbruck, Tirol. Landesmus.). Taking the ideas of Egid Schor as his starting point, Waldmann here moves from an originally sharply delineated approach to freer compositions. This closeness to Late Baroque conventions of form is evident in Waldmann’s altarpiece for the Servitenkloster in Rattenberg, St Nicholas of Tolentino Kissing the Wounds of Christ (1700; Innsbruck, Tirol. Landesmus.).

E. Egg: Kunst in Tirol, 2 (Innsbruck, Vienna, Munich, 1972), pp. 172, 174...

Article

Mark M. Salton

(b Florence, 1697; d Florence, ?1765).

Italian medallist. One of the most characteristic exponents of Florentine Baroque medallic art, he was apprenticed to Jacopo Mariani and Giovanni Bottari, then studied sculpture under Giovanni Battista Foggini. In 1720 he became a pupil of Massimiliano Soldani, medallist and die-engraver at the Florentine Mint. Grand Duke Cosimo III de’ Medici appointed Weber as Soldani’s successor (1722), a position he held until late in life. From 1743 to 1749 he made plaquettes, snuff boxes, medals and similar items for the Doccia porcelain manufactory. According to his autobiography (1753) he engraved over 250 coin dies for the mints of Florence and Lucca but, while no coins with his signature have been recorded, most portraits on these 1722–65 coinages are probably by him. In an inventory (1753; Vannel and Toderi) of his medals he records 23 pieces. Others, originating after 1753, can probably be added, such as ...

Article

Christian F. Otto

Benedictine monastery at Weingarten, a small town 6 km north of Ravensburg in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, noted for its Baroque church. The Benedictines established themselves on the site in 1056; their huge church was consecrated in 1182, and, despite damage by several fires, it survived until replaced by the Baroque building (begun 1715; consecrated 1724). When secularized in 1802, the monastery had jurisdiction over a territory of 306 sq. km with a population of 11,000 and received a yearly income of 120,000 guilders. In 1922 the Benedictines reoccupied part of the monastic complex.

In 1684 Caspar Moosbrugger, at the invitation of Abbot Willibald Koboldt, established the basic design: a domed crossing set between a long nave with wall-piers and a similar choir of almost equal length. In 1715, during the abbacy of Sebastian Hyller, Franz Beer prepared a new version of this scheme, but he left the project early in ...

Article

Christian F. Otto

(b Kronach, 1671; d Mainz, 1745).

German architect and engineer . He was educated in the Jesuit Academia Ottoniana in Bamberg, and in 1692 began a military career that took him, as an officer in the corps of engineers, on campaigns through much of Europe. Lothar Franz von Schönborn, Prince Bishop and Elector of Mainz, engaged him in 1704, appointing him Director of Military Construction c. 1712 and entrusting him with the design, rebuilding and construction of fortifications in Mainz and forts at Philippsburg, Drusenheim, Forchheim, Kronach, Rosenberg, Kehl and Erfurt. Welsch’s advice was also sought for other fortifications, such as those at Würzburg and Königshofen. In these many projects he offered unusual but effective solutions.

The clever use of site conditions that Welsch showed in his fortifications probably paved the way for his architectural career, and the six months he spent during 1714 working with Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt in Vienna must have heightened his sense of architectural design. His first large-scale work, the Schloss (designed ...

Article

Hermann Maué

(b Altenburg, Dec 16, 1661; d Gotha, Dec 3, 1739).

German medallist . He trained in Dresden as a die-cutter with Ernst Caspar Dürr ( fl 1683–92) and as an engraver with a man named Pieler. In 1686 he became a die-cutter at the Mint of the House of Schwarzburg in Sondershausen, becoming Court Medallist to the House of Saxe-Gotha in 1688. He refused the post of die-cutter in Berlin offered to him in 1703. Although he remained in Gotha, he received the title of Royal Prussian Court Medallist. In 1699 he received an Imperial privilege that permitted him to strike medals in his own house and was intended to protect his work against unauthorized imitation. In his workshop he trained numerous apprentices, including his three sons and his eldest daughter, as expert die-cutters. More than 1300 medals were produced in this workshop, among them a series of 214 portraits of Roman and Holy Roman Emperors, about 100 satirical medals, numerous pieces for members of the European royal families (e.g. ...

Article

Ivo Kořán

(b Plzeň, Dec 13, 1697; d Jan 1769).

Bohemian sculptor . His father, Kristián Widman (d 1725), was the sculptor of the Marian column (1681) in Plzeň and another (1713–14) in Písek. The sculptures of the latter, which is the more refined of the two, were probably the work of Lazar Widman, who was his father’s apprentice but considerably surpassed him as an artist. In the 1730s he probably worked on statues for the bridge in Plzeň, and certainly on the Marian column (1740) in Stříbro. His oeuvre is extensive: in 1727 he made decorations for the palace chapel in Dolní Lukavice and worked for the counts of Vrtba. In 1735–8 he decorated their church in Žinkovy; around 1740, the palace chapel in Křimice; and in 1745, the cour d’honneur, the park and village green. The statues there represent the highest point of his early work: their form is clear, the movement graceful and the drapery cut into dramatic folds. Their subjects—Amazons and exotic slaves—are as unusual as the materials: alabaster, bone and marble. Of these there remain some small carvings of Bacchanalian scenes, the figures of ...

Article

Hannes Etzlstorfer

( Lukas Leopold )

(b Kaliningrad [Königsberg], bapt Sept 27, 1630; d Lubiaź [Leubus], Aug 26, 1706).

German painter. The son of the painter Peter Willmann ( fl 1627; d 1665), he trained in the Netherlands in the early 1650s, making contact with Rembrandt and his circle. However, the element of characteristically Counter-Reformation pathos in Willmann’s work seems to derive from studying Rubens and van Dyck. Willmann’s skill as a landscape painter also derives from Dutch models. Around 1653 (or even later) Willmann tried to establish himself as an artist in Prague. However, the artistic dominance of Karel Škréta prevented him from making his mark, so he moved to Berlin, where he found employment at the court of Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg, in 1657–8. He may have returned briefly to Prague, but following his conversion to Catholicism in 1660–61, he settled finally at Lubiaź Monastery near Wrocław, where he married in 1662. From here he had a wide field of work open to him in the service of the Cistercian monasteries and the nobility of Silesia, Bohemia and Moravia over a period of four decades. He also worked for other religious orders, painting for instance an altarpiece for the Premonstratensians at Strahov Monastery in Prague....

Article

(b Deggendorf, May 8, 1710; d Hildesheim, April 11, 1781).

German painter and sculptor. Formerly thought to be the brother of Johann Christian Thomas Winck, he in fact acquired his surname from a stepfather. Nor was he the grandfather of the sculptor Friedrich Carl Franz Winck (1796–1859). He probably started his training in Augsburg—his antecedents lie in south German late Baroque—and may have served his apprenticeship and journeyman years in Holland. He was in Mannheim in 1743 and then worked in Hildesheim, providing an allegorical ceiling painting (1743–4, 1752–3; destr.) for the renovated Rittersaal in the cathedral, and in Brunswick, where he executed a stucco relief for the main gable of the opera house (1747–8; destr. 1864).

Winck married in 1753 in Hildesheim and executed commissions for its prince-bishop during the following years. The Legend of St Clement (c. 1755–8) on the ceiling of the chapel of Schloss Liebenburg (Goslar) is one of his most mature works. Although it is painted on a flat ceiling, perspective is used to give the illusion of a vault, with standing figures from scenes relating to the saint’s life encircling his apotheosis in the centre of the picture and forming the edge of the apparent vault. The apse is painted with illusionistic architectural features, and the altarpiece shows the ...

Article

Pál Voit

(b Imst, Tyrol, Oct 24, 1667; d Pacov, Bohemia, May 12, 1732).

Austrian architect. In 1695 he entered the Carmelite Order as a lay brother and was known as Brother Athanasius. He subsequently joined his compatriot Johann Martin Rass (1640–94) in Prague. Rass, who was also a lay brother, had directed (1679–96) the construction in Prague of the church of St Joseph, to the designs of Jean Baptiste Mathey. From Prague, Rass took Wittwer to Linz, where they began building a church for the Carmelites, completed by Wittwer after Rass’s sudden death. The building contractor was Johann Michael Prunner, who was also responsible for building Wittwer’s centralized church for the Carmelite nuns of Linz and to whom many of Wittwer’s works were later attributed. At Linz, Wittwer closely followed the domed construction of the Order’s church in Vienna and derived its undulating west façade from the work of Borromini. At Győr, Wittwer modelled his Carmelite church on the longitudinal oval structure of Donato-Felice Allio’s church for the Salesian nuns in Vienna. The plans (...

Article

Bernt von Hagen

(b Munich, Dec 11, 1652; d Munich, April 9, 1716).

German painter . Apprenticed to his father, the painter Jonas Wolff ( fl 1651–80), and to Balthasar Ableither (1613–1705), he was initially influenced by Johann Heinrich Schönfeld and Johann Carl Loth. He then turned towards Italian High Baroque painting, although he is not known to have travelled to Italy. In 1680 he was appointed court painter to Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria in Munich, and to the Bishop of Freising. He painted mainly altarpieces, all over Bavaria and Upper Austria, but also accepted commissions for decorative work (triumphal arches etc.) and designs for sculptures. The work of this earlier period is exemplified by the Assumption of the Virgin (1691; Indersdorf, Klosterkirche St Maria), much in the style of Federico Barocci.

By 1693 Wolff had almost freed himself of the ‘foreign manner’. In his ‘high period’, 1693–1708 (Waagen), his works are balanced: the figures have a markedly three-dimensional quality, for instance in the ceiling pictures (...

Article

Kerry Downes

(b East Knoyle, Wilts, Oct 20, 1632; d London, Feb 25, 1723).

English architect . The leader of the English Baroque school, he was the creator of St Paul’s Cathedral, London, completed in his lifetime, and remains the most famous architect in English history ( see fig. ).

Needless confusion persists over the year of Wren’s birth because a previous child called Christopher, his father’s first name, had been born but immediately died in November 1631. From his father, who was the rector of East Knoyle, a rural parish, Wren acquired his interest in numbers, structures and mechanical contrivances, as well as his loyalty to the monarchy in politics and support of the episcopacy and the sacraments in religion. The Wren family remained steadfastly—and in some cases heroically—royalist and episcopalian throughout the Civil War and the Interregnum, the periods that coincided with most of Wren’s teens and twenties respectively. After five years at Westminster School, London, and three of private study, in 1649...

Article

(b Antwerp, March 30, 1697; d The Hague, July 19, 1742).

Flemish sculptor . He was the son of the Antwerp sculptor Albertus Xavery (1664–1728), who was probably his first teacher. Xavery entered the studio of Michiel van der Voort I, where he remained until moving in 1719 to Vienna, from where he travelled to Italy. He returned in 1721 and settled in The Hague, where, in 1725, he became a member of the Confrerie Pictura, the painters’ guild. In the same year he married Maria Christina Robart, and the couple had two sons: the painter Frans Xavery, who became a master in 1768, and the painter Jacob Xavery IV (1736–after 1779). In 1729 Jan Baptist Xavery became Court Sculptor to Prince William IV of Orange Nassau. In the early years of his career Xavery was strongly influenced by Jacob Marot, as may be seen in his portrait of Prince William IV (marble, 1733; The Hague, Mauritshuis), which is fluently sculpted and sparsely embellished. Later, Xavery’s style became more elaborate, as may be seen in the ...

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Article

Mario Buhagiar

(b 1710; d 1773).

Maltese painter . He was arguably Malta’s greatest native-born painter and one of the most gifted 18th-century artists south of Rome. He belonged to an artistically talented family, and his father, Pietro Paolo Zahra (1685–1747), was a popular stone-carver and a distinguished architect. Nothing is known of his upbringing but his surviving letters make it apparent that he received some sort of education, while his fluency in the late Baroque suggests a knowledge of the work of Francesco Solimena and a probable period of study in Naples. Another important influence was the work of Mattia Preti, to which he had easy access in Malta. The full impact of the Neapolitan Baroque is fully realized in the splendid Virgin of the Rosary (Tarxien, Parish Church) and the Miracle of St Vincent Ferrer (Valletta, Dominican Priory). His masterpiece, however, was the ceiling decoration of the chapter house of Mdina Cathedral, which he painted in oil on canvas stretched on a wooden framework. Completed in ...

Article

Bernard Aikema

(b Este, nr Padua, Dec 6, 1631; d Venice, April 12, 1722).

Italian painter . His first teacher was Giacomo Pedrali (d 1660), whose influence, however, is not discernible in Zanchi’s work. At an early age he travelled to Venice to study under Matteo Ponzone (1580/90–1664). The latter’s style, which was influenced by Tintoretto, played a limited role in his development; the influence of Francesco Ruschi ( fl 1643–56), originally from Rome and also active in Venice, Vicenza and Treviso, was more important during the artist’s formative years. The plasticity of the figures and the hard, almost metallic fall of the folds in the drapery that characterize his first known works, a series of etched frontispieces for opera librettos (earliest 1655: La Statira by G. F. Busenello), are certainly indebted to Ruschi. The few paintings by Zanchi that can be dated to the 1650s, such as the Entry into Jerusalem (Padua, Casa di Pena; ex-S Marta, Venice), also display similarities to Ruschi but at the same time betray a great interest in the early work of Luca Giordano and in Giovanni Battista Langetti, who had come from Genoa and worked in Venice. In the following years Zanchi adopted their stylistic traits, characterized by a strongly accentuated realism, dramatic chiaroscuro effects and a preference for violent subjects. He soon became a prominent representative of the ...

Article

N. A. Yevsina

( Petrovich )

(d 1727).

Russian architect and painter . He worked first in the Ukraine, and in 1701 he was invited to Moscow to enter the service of Peter I, Tsar and Emperor of Russia. He also superintended icon painting in Russia (from 1707). His principal work is the church of the Archangel Gabriel (1701–7), known as the Menshikov Tower, in Moscow. Its composition is based on the traditional ‘octagon on cube’ pattern, comprising two superimposed cubes surmounted by three octagonal stages. The building, which surpassed in height the hitherto tallest structure in the city, the bell-tower of Ivan the Great (1505–8) in the Kremlin, was topped by a dome, a gilded spire and the figure of an angel, also gilded (top storey destr. 1723). West European Baroque forms prevail in the architectural and artistic embellishment of the exterior and interior. Richly moulded decoration and sculptural motifs with angels’ heads together make up an emotionally complex, somewhat capricious picture. It is likely that Zarudny was involved in the building of the church of St John the Warrior (...

Article

Franz Matsche

(b Reutte, Tyrol, July 8, 1708; d Reutte, July 8, 1783).

Austrian painter . Trained initially by his father, Paul Zeiller (1658–1738), he subsequently studied in Italy (1723–32) with Sebastiano Conca and at the Accademia di S Luca in Rome, and with Francesco Solimena in Naples, then at the Kaiserliche Akademie in Vienna. From 1733 to 1743 he was a regular collaborator on Paul Troger’s frescoes, contributing mainly architectural frameworks painted in the style of the Bolognese quadraturisti. He retained such frameworks in his own paintings throughout his life, even in south Germany where this was generally unusual. Troger’s influence on the style of Zeiller’s figures and on his iconographic repertory was such that his first independent works in Austria (after 1738–9) are difficult to distinguish from Troger’s own.

This influence persisted during Zeiller’s activity (from 1744) in Bavaria and Swabia, where he executed numerous and at times extensive frescoes in monastery chapels, convents and village churches, and occasionally altarpieces. In his principal works, the large dome fresco (...

Article

N. A. Yevsina

( Grigor’yevich )

(b Moscow, 1686/8; d St Petersburg, Sept 28, 1743).

Russian architect, teacher and theorist . He was a pupil of Domenico Trezzini (from 1710) and then his assistant at the Ministry of Municipal Affairs in St Petersburg. He supervised the completion (1719–22), to plans by Niccolò Michetti, of the Yekaterinental Palace at Reval, where he also carried out the elaborate decoration of the White Hall and laid out the park. His Hall for Glorious Ceremonials (1725; destr.), designed to house relics of Russia’s victories in the Northern War, combined Neo-classical and Baroque features. Working in the German–Dutch style of Baltic Baroque, Zemtsov designed the church of SS Simeon and Anna (1730–34) on Mokhovaya Street and the cathedral of Prince Vladimir (1741–7; built by Pietro Trezzini, b 1710; now on Dobrolyubov Prospect). These all played an important role in the townscape of the city. While echoing the traditional Russian pattern of a church linked to a refectory and with a belfry surmounting the west entrance, Zemtsov proposed for the interiors an unusually spacious basilica with a long nave, aisles and a transept. In his design for the cathedral of the Trinity (...