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(b Melbourne, Aug 31, 1936).

Australian jeweller and teacher . In 1976 she graduated from the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology with a Diploma of Art in gold- and silversmithing. From 1979 she lived in Sydney, where she taught jewellery and design at Sydney College of the Arts. Her early work is predominantly made in stainless steel, generally in sheet form using rivet construction. In the late 1970s she began to experiment with surface textures: hammering, abrading and painting the metal. The origins and symbolism of body adornment became a dominant and continuing concern in her work, and her jewellery was reduced to such basic formal elements as bibs (e.g. Bib for an Ostrich, c. 1982 (Protection Factor 5.6), 1982; Canberra, N.G.) and discs using not only steel but also lead, stone, wood and feathers. From the mid-1980s she began to produce work that questions ‘the contextual qualification of meaning’, as described in her ‘Work Statements’ (...


Shearer West

English family of painters and illustrators . Richard Westall (b Hertford, 1765; d London, 4 Dec 1836) was apprenticed in 1799 to John Thompson, a heraldic engraver in London. The miniaturist John Alefounder (d 1795) advised Westall to take up painting, and in 1784 he exhibited a portrait drawing (untraced) at the Royal Academy. He became a student at the Royal Academy Schools in 1785, an ARA in 1792 and an RA in 1794. He exhibited over 300 works at the Royal Academy and 70 at the British Institution, including such large watercolours as Cassandra Prophesying the Fall of Troy (exh. London, RA 1796; London, V&A), which are painted in violent and sometimes excessive colours. Others, such as The Rosebud (1791; New Haven, CT, Yale Cent. Brit. A.), tend towards a Rococo prettiness. His principal expertise was book illustration. He was employed by John Boydell, Thomas Macklin and ...


John B. Turner

[ Anna ] ( Jacoba )

(b Leiden, April 28, 1936).

New Zealand photographer of Dutch birth. Inspired by the Family of Man exhibition, which she saw in 1957 in Amsterdam, and Johan van der Keuken’s book, Wij Zijn 17 (We are seventeen) in 1956, Westra documented her classmates at the Industrieschool vor Meisjes in Rotterdam, where she studied arts and craft teaching. Holidaying in New Zealand in 1957 she was captivated by the relaxed lifestyle of the indigenous Maori people and stayed to photograph them. Encouraged by assignments from the Maori Affairs Department’s magazine Te Ao Hou (The New World) in the early 1960s, her work, at first romantic, became increasingly insightful as she documented contemporary Maori life. In 1964 Westra was at the centre of a public controversy when the government ordered the pulping of one of her primary school bulletins, Washday at the Pa (e.g. Wheeee! Baby Erua is all gurgles as… ). This essay on the life of a rural Maori family living in a dilapidated farmhouse was deemed by her critics, especially the Maori Women’s Welfare League, to reinforce stereotypes of Maori as backwards and unambitious....


Anne Kirker

(b Auckland, Nov 2, 1903; d Auckland, Sept 19, 1984).

New Zealand painter and teacher . A student at the Elam School of Fine Arts, Auckland, from 1923, she later taught there between 1934 and 1963. Her predilection for figure compositions was encouraged by Archibald Fisher (1896–1959), whose meticulous attention to draughtsmanship and tonal modulation of form left their distinctive mark on her work. White drew on three main areas for her subject-matter: the Bible, allegory and contemporary social issues. ...


Jim Barr and Mary Barr

(b Te Puke, NZ, July 12, 1946).

New Zealand painter and printmaker . In 1967 she graduated in fine arts from the University of Auckland and trained as a teacher. The following year she moved to Paremata near Wellington, and in 1971 moved south to Dunedin to work full-time as an artist. The relationship between her painting and printmaking was always important to her development. In both she presented flat, simplified frontal images, as in Jerry at the Paekak Pub (1971; Lower Hutt, Dowse Mus.). The legacy of Rita Angus was central to her work, and she was frequently grouped with the New Zealand painter Don Binney (b 1940) and Michael Smither as an artist exploring realist concerns in a regional context. She was keen to make her images widely accessible through her silk-screen prints; in these she often simplified further the architectural and landscape forms of her environment. The birth of her son led to the inclusion of family imagery in works such as the screenprint ...


Robert Smith

(b Sydney, April 7, 1939; d Thirroul, nr Wollongong, June 15, 1992).

Australian painter, sculptor and printmaker . He was already preoccupied with art while at Scots School in Bathurst, for which he painted several murals c. 1955–6 on sporting themes; he later studied intermittently at the Julian Ashton School in Sydney (1957–9). He was awarded the Italian Travelling Scholarship in 1959 and spent some time in Italy before arriving in London in mid-1961, where he achieved fame when the exhibition Recent Australian Art, at the Whitechapel Art Gallery, included some of his latest works. His earlier work had shown the effects of sources such as Rembrandt, Honoré Daumier and William Dobell, but by this time he was painting in a boldly sensuous style of his own, emphasizing formal qualities and replete with erotic allusion. These elements were subsequently developed in his art, though becoming increasingly figurative, deployed to symbolize human estrangement and aspects of alternative lifestyle, while owing something to the work of Francis Bacon and the French ...


Jim Barr and Mary Barr

(b Te Kaha, NZ, May 6, 1936).

Maori wood-carver, painter and teacher . As a member of the Whanau-a-Apanui tribe he was educated in the rural community of Te Kaha until he began teacher training in 1955 at Wellington Teachers College. He was quickly selected as an art specialist as a result of the Department of Education’s determination to develop Maori and Western European culture in schools. Whiting and other young Maori artists, supported by Gordon Tovey, the national arts and crafts adviser, were able to explore traditional and contemporary Maori art. In the late 1960s, encouraged by Pine Taiapa, he began working on marae (communal centres), carving and restoring buildings. Whiting’s innovative use of themes and materials placed art at the centre of the revitalization of Maori communities. From the 1970s Whiting was the leading authority on the restoration of Maori buildings, as well as working with local communities on new buildings like those at the Takahanga ...


Richard Apperly

(b London, Oct 12, 1882; d Sydney, Sept 20, 1973).

English architect and teacher, active in Australia . He was apprenticed in 1900 to C. E. Kempe, a stained-glass designer, and later that year to the architect J. S. Gibson. Wilkinson studied architecture at the Royal Academy, London, from 1902 to 1906, winning the Academy’s Silver and Gold Medals and subsequently travelling in England, France, Italy and Spain. He joined the staff of the School of Architecture, University College, London, serving as an assistant professor from 1910 to 1918. He held a commission from 1914 to 1918 in the London University Officer Training Corps, and in 1918 he was appointed as Australia’s first Professor of Architecture, at the University of Sydney. Dean of the Faculty of Architecture there from 1920 to 1947, he was a witty, erudite and influential teacher, discouraging ‘fads’ and stressing the importance of correct orientation for buildings and rooms. He designed various buildings on the university campus, the Physics Building (...


Patrick McCaughey

(b Melbourne, Jan 23, 1927; d Melbourne, April 22, 1982).

Australian painter . He studied at the National Gallery Art School in Melbourne, attending private classes at the George Bell Art School (1943–7). His earliest paintings and drawings were nearly all studio-based compositions, including portraits, nudes and figure compositions, often reflecting an early and lasting enthusiasm for Daumier. He also studied the art of Australian artists such as Hugh Ramsay, whose influence can be seen in Head of a Boy (c. 1945; see McCaughey, 1980, p. 10).

From 1952 to 1957 Williams studied part-time at the Chelsea School of Art and the Central School of Arts and Crafts in London. He painted, drew and etched the street-life of London and was particularly attracted to music halls, which he also painted, for example The Metropolitan (gouache, 1952–4; see McCaughey, 1980, p. 70). In London, Williams became very familiar with modern and contemporary art through frequent visits to museums and also through handling the works that passed through the picture framing shop where he worked. When Williams returned to Australia in ...


John Maidment

(b Hobart, April 21, 1890; d Brighton, Victoria, March 27, 1980).

Australian architect . Articled initially to Frank Heyward in Hobart in 1910, he transferred to Alexander North in Launceston, with whom he was in partnership in Melbourne between 1913–20. Williams absorbed important elements of North’s Arts and Crafts philosophy, particularly the patronage of local craft workers, yet was given freedom to develop a personal style. Williams’s early church designs thus have distinctive elements including obliquely placed towers, triangular buttressing and bellcotes surmounted by spikes; their planning influenced by Ralph Adams Cram’s Church Building. Williams’s work further developed in the 1920s and 1930s when he became Australia’s most sought-after church architect, with work in all Australian states; he was Diocesan Architect at the dioceses of Bathurst and Grafton. His preferred material was brick with occasional use of reinforced concrete. Williams developed a clearly identifiable free Gothic synthesis, characterized by simplicity, freedom from period references and unencumbered wall surfaces, comparable with British contemporaries such as Sir Edward Maufe. His work often included a tower and his façades often incorporated a masonry cross and tiled roofs. His interiors were notable for their generous planning, careful lighting and furniture of impeccable design, while also making provision for climatic extremes, such as ventilating panels and shading from direct sunlight....


Megan Tamati-Quennell

(b Ruatoki, Bay of Plenty, NZ, 1928).

Maori sculptor. His tribal affiliation is Tuhoe/Takimoana, Te Arawa/Tarawhai. He was the first Maori to graduate with honours in sculpture at the Elam School of Fine Arts, University of Auckland (1953). Like many other Maori artists, he pursued a career in art education, enrolling at Auckland Teachers’ College in 1954. Between 1975 and his retirement in 1989 he worked as an education officer for the Department of Education in Auckland and as Director of Te Mauri Pakeaka Cross Community Arts Programme. Wilson was widely acknowledged as one of the most influential artists of the Maori art movement that emerged in the 1950s. Working first in realistic figurative forms made from clay, wood, stone and metal, he moved increasingly towards a stylized multi-media form incorporating aspects of traditional Maori symbolism: he considered that ‘myths and legends have a store of inspiration for us … the more we look the more is revealed’. After ...


Howard Tanner

(b South Creek, NSW, Feb 14, 1881; d Richmond, Victoria, Dec 16, 1955).

Australian architect and writer. He was articled (1899–1904) to Sydney architects Kent & Buden and attended evening classes at Syndey Technical College, where he was President of the Architectural Students Society, graduating in 1904; his student exercises favoured Art Nouveau. He then undertook further study and travel in England, Europe and North America (1905–10) that introduced him to the Georgian Revival, led by Edwin Lutyens in England, and the Colonial and Roman Revivals, promoted by McKim, Mead & White in the USA. Seeking a new architecture free of all Victorian trappings, Wilson was convinced by his overseas studies of the relevance to the Australian climate of Mediterranean arcades, shuttered openings and garden schemes. On his return to Sydney in 1910, he spent some months drawing the surviving examples of late Georgian architecture in Australia; these studies, which were published in 1924 as Old Colonial Architecture in New South Wales and Tasmania...


Jane Clark

( Herbert )

(b Aston, Warwicks, Oct 22, 1854; d Eltham, Victoria, Oct 13, 1914).

Australian painter of English birth. He studied at the Royal Academy and South Kensington Schools (1870–82) in London and arrived in Melbourne on 1 January 1883 to work on the land for 18 months. He joined the life classes at the National Gallery of Victoria (1884–7), while employed as a lithographic draughtsman, and returned to Europe in 1887–8 to attend the Académie Julian in Paris. Back in Australia, he exhibited with the Victorian Artists’ Society and painted with the Heidelberg school artists, based at Eaglemont from October 1889 to June 1890. He was nicknamed ‘the orderly colonel’ for his organized habits. He leased the south end of the Heidelberg mansion ‘Charterisville’ from September 1890, painting prolifically, teaching and accommodating numerous fellow artists. The critic Sidney Dickinson named him, with Arthur Streeton, as a leader of ‘the “Heidelberg School” … for out-of-door painting’ (‘Two exhibitions of paintings’, ...


Ian J. Lochhead

(b Christchurch, June 6, 1878; d Christchurch, Nov 28, 1947).

New Zealand architect . Articled to the Christchurch architect Frederick Strouts (1834–1919) in 1893, he went to England in 1901, working for the Housing Division of the London County Council and subsequently for R. W. Schultz and Leonard Stokes. Returning to New Zealand in 1906 he entered partnership with Samuel Hurst Seager. In 1909 he began independent practice in Christchurch, establishing his reputation with large Arts and Crafts style houses. After 1920 he increasingly favoured a Colonial Georgian style for houses, most notably at Bishopscourt (1926), Christchurch. A confirmed traditionalist, Wood was an accomplished designer in Gothic Revival and classical styles. Christ’s College Dining Hall (1922–5), Christchurch, a confident exercise in English collegiate Gothic, exemplifies his commitment to European traditions. St Barnabas (1925), Fendalton, St Paul’s (1930), Tai Tapu, and St Barnabas (1932), Woodend, reveal his feeling for authentic Gothic forms and sensitivity to materials, whether traditional or modern. His commercial buildings show a progression from the stripped classicism of the Public Trust Building (...


(b Taranaki, April 11, 1911; d 1998).

New Zealand painter . He resolved to become a painter in the early 1930s, when the influence of early modernism was only just beginning to trickle down to colonial New Zealand. He had little formal training, but early paintings such as Artist’s Wife (c. 1937; Auckland, C.A.G.) show the influence of Paul Cézanne, absorbed through reproductions. Similarly, the examples of R. N. Field, arriving from Europe, and Helen F. V. Scales (1887–1985), returning from there, were crucial. Field’s paintings released him from naturalistic colour, while Scales’s showed him how to deploy this released colour for spatial effects.

From the 1950s Woollaston began to increase the scale of his paintings, developing the gestural and apparently spontaneous approach that marked his mature style. Dispensing with detail, his broad handling drew greater attention to the logic by which his paintings were constructed. In works such as Above Wellington (1.76×2.74 m, 1986...


Rory Spence

(b Sydney, May 29, 1933).

Australian architect . He was a trainee in the New South Wales Government Architect’s Branch in 1950–54 while studying at the University of Sydney, where he graduated in 1955. He continued as a design architect for the government until 1963, except for 18 months (1956–7) spent in Europe, including a period working for Chamberlin, Powell & Bon in London. Woolley achieved early recognition as the project architect for the Fisher Library (1957–62), University of Sydney, and the NSW State Office Block (1960–64), Sydney. Both are modernist, largely glass-walled buildings that drew inspiration from the work of Mies van der Rohe, but sun-shading was incorporated in their façades by the projection of floor slabs. In 1961 Woolley began to design a series of low-cost house types for the speculative housing market, principally for the firm of Pettit & Sevitt, and these provided radically improved models for suburban housing. His own ...


Geoffrey R. Edwards

(b Melbourne, 1948).

Australian glass artist . He studied architecture at the University of Melbourne and graduated in 1972. Largely self-taught in the production of glass, he was active in the development of various kiln-working techniques applied to architectural glass. Following his first exhibition of autonomous glass panels in 1976, Wright was awarded numerous church and public commissions including a vast wall of glass (1976) for the Reception Centre at the Royal Zoological Gardens in Melbourne; a set of windows (1987) for the new Parliament House in Canberra; and a window cycle (1988) for the St James’s Anglican church in Sydney. Wright’s compositions are notable for their rhythms, juxtaposed fields of loose pattern and simple, organic imagery that often alludes to the processes of germination and growth. Many of the artist’s smaller, autonomous panels are assembled from mechanically fastened sections of glass with contrasting surface treatments and textures. A series of exhibition pieces made reference to medical X-ray images and incorporated fused motifs and figures with cloudy abstract passages of chemically treated glass....


Donald Langmead

( William )

(b London, 1822; d Adelaide, Aug 5, 1886).

Australian architect of English birth. In the 1830s he was articled to the Borough Surveyor’s office in Bermondsey, London, later becoming government clerk of works at Yarmouth. After some years working as a civil engineer in Canada, he emigrated to South Australia, arriving in May 1849. Shortages of resources induced by the eastern colonies’ gold-rush frustrated his attempts to start a practice until 1853. His best-known works came from partnerships. With E. J. Woods (1837–1913) he produced the Town Hall, Adelaide (1863–6); and with Woods and E. A. Hamilton, the General Post Office (1867–72). Facing each other in the city’s centre, the massive neo-Renaissance piles that vied for prominence were broadly detailed in local stone. In a park in north Adelaide the latter partnership also built the imposing but restrained Brougham Place Congregational Church (1860–72). Reminiscent of St Philip’s (1710–25), Birmingham, by Thomas Archer, it was more austerely puritan in detail....


Wally Caruana

(b Arnhem Land, 1930; d Arnhem Land, Dec 31, 1990).

Australian Aboriginal painter . He was the ceremonial leader of his clan, the Murrungun Djinang. He saw his art as a means to bridge the cultural gaps between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. While he worked within the parameters of the pictorial styles of central Arnhem Land, he was also an innovator, experimenting with various techniques. Wunuwun became disenchanted with market demands for individual bark paintings: the epic dramas of Murrungun Djinang cosmology were too panoramic in scope to be captured on a single sheet of bark, and he increasingly painted in series and occasionally used canvas. His work is characterized by finely drawn naturalistic images, although it relies heavily on conventional symbolism and clan designs. His major works include Banumbirr, the Morning Star (natural pigment on canvas, 1987; Canberra, N.G.), a comprehensive statement on the relationships between the seasons, human and spiritual life and the individual. In 1988 Wunuwun undertook his most ambitious project, the series ...


Jennifer Sanders