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(b Mechelen, 1637; d Mechelen, 1709).

Flemish sculptor. He was a pupil of Maximilaan Labbé (fl c. 1629) and Lucas Faydherbe and became a master sculptor of the Mechelen Guild of St Luke in 1662. He worked almost entirely in wood and, unusually, coloured his own figures, which perhaps accounts for their exceptional synthesis and unity. He is best known for his confessionals, including those in SS Pieter en Pauwelkerk (1683–4), St Janskerk (1692) and St Katelijnekerk, all in Mechelen, and for his many refined yet powerful depictions of Christ as a Man of Sorrows in both stone (e.g. c. 1688; Mechelen Cathedral) and oak (e.g. early 1690s; Antwerp, Klooster van de Zusters Apostelinnen). His small ivory crucifixes with elegant elongated figures of Christ in attenuated poses recall those by Faydherbe. He is documented as the teacher of Cornelis van der Veken (c. 1657–1740; presumably a relation) in 1671...


Anna Menichella

[Gianantonio; Giovanni Antonio]

(b Pavia, 1683–1686; d Broni, Apr 18, 1749).

Italian architect. He trained from 1700 to 1707 with the Milanese architect Giuseppe Quadrio and successfully completed his studies to become “engineer and architect.” His first assignments were as land surveyor for the Collegio Borromeo in Pavia and various commissions for the local aristocracy and religious orders. He also taught architecture in Pavia for a long time. Veneroni’s only consistently acknowledged work is the Palazzo Mezzabarba (1726–1732; now the town hall), Pavia, which was erected for the counts Giuseppe and Gerolamo Mezzabarba. The building is in the form of a long parallelepiped, with two separate entrances on the front; a wide staircase is situated in a block that juts out at right angles to the rear. Thoenes suggested that the original project was organized around two courts corresponding to the twin entrances and that this scheme was not fully realized. The façade is distinguished by the elegant ornament at the windows and the symmetrical portals, surmounted by wide balconies. One of the portals leads to a scenographic entrance hall with three aisles, the other to a blind wall. A giant order of pilasters divides a rhythmical sequence of round-headed windows. These forms are reminiscent of the work of Francesco Borromini, and their unexpected presence in Lombardy has led to speculation as to their source. Both Arslan and Thoenes suggested that they were derived from Roman prototypes, although Wittkower classed the Palazzo Mezzabarba as a work of the Italian Rococo. In ...


Ana María Buchón Cuevas

[ Vergara el Romano ]

(b Alcudia de Carlet, Valencia Nov 19, 1713; d Rome, July 1761).

Spanish sculptor, active also in Italy . He belonged to a family of Valencian sculptors, including his father Manuel Vergara (c. 1682–c. 1761/2), his uncle Francisco de Vergara the elder (1681–1753) and his cousin Ignacio Vergara . His cousin José Vergara was a painter. He learnt the rudiments of sculpting from his father, but his main teachers were his uncle Francisco and Leonardo Julio Capuz (1660–1731). He also studied drawing at the private academy of the painter Evaristo Muñoz (1671–1737). At the age of 20 he qualified as a master carpenter in Valencia, which enabled him to freely practise his profession.

Very little is known of Vergara’s activity in Valencia, as works there that were attributed to him by Orellana y Mocholí have disappeared, except perhaps for a recumbent figure of Christ, which may possibly be identified with a figure in the convent of S José. Vergara is known to have executed the main altarpiece and two side altarpieces for the hermitage of S Vicente de la Roqueta, but only a 19th-century engraving depicting one of the side altarpieces survives. Outside the city of Valencia, Vergara executed the main altarpiece, a sculptural group of the ...


Ana María Buchón Cuevas

(b Valencia, Feb 6, 1715; d Valencia, April 4, 1776).

Spanish sculptor . He came from a Valencian family of artists, including his father Franciso de Vergara the elder (1681–1753) and his cousin Francisco Vergara Bartual , both sculptors, and his brother José Vergara , a painter. Ignacio Vergara is considered to be the best Valencian sculptor of his time, and together with his brother he exerted a strong influence on Valencian art, due in part to their decisive contribution to the founding of the artistic academies of S Bárbara and S Carlos.

Vergara studied sculpting with his father and learnt drawing at the private academy of the painter Evaristo Muñoz (1671–1737). From an early age he manifested signs of his artistic talent, completing his first cycle of works for the chapel of S Rita in the church of the former convent of S Agustín in Valencia before the age of 17. On 30 September 1744 he became a master of the guild of carpenters in Valencia; a credential that was necessary for him to be able to freely exercise his profession as a sculptor. In or about the same year, Vergara executed one of his most famous works, the doorway of the Palacio del Marqués de Dos Aguas in Valencia, designed by the Valencian painter and engraver, Hipólito Rovira y Brocandel. For the same palace, Vergara later completed other works, including the ...


Iris Kockelbergh

(b Mechelen, bapt June 4, 1700; d Mechelen, April 21, 1754).

Flemish sculptor. He was the son of a joiner and was apprenticed to the sculptor Jan-Frans Boeckstuyns. He later worked in Antwerp with Michiel van der Voort I, Johannes Claudius von Cock and Willem Ignatius Kerricx. In 1720 he was in the Brussels workshop of Pieter-Denis Plumier. On returning to Mechelen after Plumier’s death in 1721, he assisted van der Voort with the elaborate carved wooden pulpit (1721) for the monastery of Leliëndael; this pulpit (now Mechelen Cathedral) was to prove a decisive influence on his own pulpits.

Around 1732 Verhaegen worked for the Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekerk at Ninove, where his carved wooden panels of the Life of St Cyprian and the Life of St Cornelius show him to be a master of relief sculpture. His monumentally plastic Baroque confessional (1736) for the same church is the most remarkable of its kind in the southern Netherlands (for illustration ...


Nicola Smith

(b Lecce, ?1639; d Hampton Court, London, June 15, 1707).

Italian painter, active in England. His first patrons were the Jesuits, for whom he worked in his native Lecce and in Naples. He is then said to have spent some years travelling through Italy to France, where he settled in Toulouse. By 1671 he was in Paris, where he met Charles II’s ambassador Ralph Montagu, later 1st Duke of Montagu, who invited him to England. Verrio first worked for Henry Bennet, 1st Earl of Arlington, but he was soon in the employ of the King, for whom he painted an easel picture, Charles II’s Sea Triumph (c. 1673–5; London, Hampton Court, Royal Col.), before being entrusted with the decoration of the state rooms at Windsor Castle (1675–c. 1684), which were being rebuilt by the architect Hugh May. In this scheme, full-blooded Baroque interior decoration of the sort that had developed in Italy and France was introduced to England by the combined efforts of May, Verrio and the carver ...


(b Lisbon, Oct 4, 1699; d Lisbon, Aug 13, 1783).

Portuguese painter, draughtsman and etcher. He was the leading painter of the 18th century in Portugal. His mature work is in the 17th-century Italian late Baroque manner, which he had absorbed during his studies in Rome and transmitted into the late 18th century in Portugal. He readily found patronage from John V, who was developing closer cultural and political links with Rome and profiting from the newly discovered Brazilian gold.

Vieira Lusitano first went to Rome in 1712 as the protégé of Rodrigo Aires de Sá e Meneses, Marquês de Fontes e Abrantes, the Portuguese Ambassador Extraordinary to the Holy See. He studied under Benedetto Luti (1666–1724), a follower of Carlo Maratti, and the more Rococo Francesco Trevisani. It was in Rome that he acquired his nickname ‘Lusitano’. After his return to Lisbon in 1719, he became a member of the Irmandade de S Lucas (Brotherhood of St Luke) and received commissions from ...


Zilah Quezado Deckker

(fl 1728–46 d before Feb 1747).

Portuguese architect. He worked first as a naval carpenter, then became a military engineer before rapidly climbing the hierarchy within the field of official architecture. He was highly regarded as Royal Architect (from 1734), if not prominent as an original designer; his expertise lay in the organization and execution of the large-scale building works undertaken by King John V. Vieira’s first recorded work is the Palace of Vendas Novas, near Évora, built in 1728 for John V in celebration of the alliance of Spain and Portugal through the intermarriage of the Braganza and Bourbon royal families. The initial sketches for the palace were by an unknown hand, possibly either Antonio Canevari or João Frederico Ludovice, although the execution was by Vieira. It was built in an incredibly short space of time—from April 1728 to January 1729; work proceeded 24 hours a day, with 2000 workmen, lit at night by 10,000 faggots. The undistinguished building is a severely plain rectangular volume in rendered brickwork 100 m long, with a porticoed front facing south across an enormous parade ground. It suffered much damage during its later use as an artillery school in ...


Joshua Drapkin

(b Montpellier, June 18, 1716; d Paris, March 27, 1809).

French painter, draughtsman and engraver. He was one of the earliest French painters to work in the Neo-classical style, and although his own work veered uncertainly between that style and the Baroque, Vien was a decisive influence on some of the foremost artists of the heroic phase of Neo-classicism, notably Jacques-Louis David, Jean-François-Pierre Peyron, Joseph-Benoît Suvée and Jean-Baptiste Regnault, all of whom he taught. Both his wife, Marie-Thérèse Reboul (1738–1805), and Joseph-Marie Vien fils (1762–1848) were artists: Marie-Thérèse exhibited at the Salon in 1757–67; Joseph-Marie fils earned his living as a portrait painter and engraver.

After spending his youth in various forms of employment, including work as a painter of faience and as an assistant to the artist Jacques Giral, Vien travelled to Paris and entered the studio of Charles-Joseph Natoire in 1740. Three years later he won the Prix de Rome and in 1744 went to the Académie de France in Rome. His participation in the energetic reappraisal of form, technique and purpose taking place in French art from the mid-1740s onwards is well demonstrated by paintings executed before and during his time in Italy. These include the ...


Christian F. Otto

Pilgrimage church overlooking the River Main, near Banz, Franconia, Germany ( see fig. ). The original chapel was built in 1457 on the site where, in the 1440s, a young shepherd had had visions of the 14 helper saints. According to medieval legend, the helper saints acted as intercessors in times of plague and epidemics. The chapel became an increasingly popular place of pilgrimage, and in 1735 the abbot Stephan Mösinger of the Cistercian monastery at Langheim proposed a larger and more imposing building. Projects were submitted several years later. Gottfried Heinrich Krohne’s plan of 1739 was for a centralized church extended by a small choir where the shrine was to be placed, an impractical design that would not have accommodated processions or provided enough space for visitors to view the shrine. Another proposal of 1737 by Johann Jakob Michael Küchel, who had worked under Balthasar Neumann at Bamberg, placed the shrine beneath a vast dome flanked by spacious transepts....


Juan J. Luna

(b Barcelona, April 12, 1678; d Barcelona, Jan 19, 1755).

Spanish Catalan painter. He was the most significant figure in Catalan painting from the end of the 17th century to the first half of the 18th. He trained with P. B. Savall and J. B. Perramón in Barcelona. The arrival of the Archduke Charles (later Charles VI) of Austria in Barcelona in 1703 as a pretender to the throne during the War of the Spanish Succession (1702–13), accompanied by such Italian artists as Ferdinando Galli-Bibiena, acquainted Viladomat y Manalt with artistic trends in Italy. He experienced problems with the artists’ guild in Barcelona because of his refusal to participate in the traditional work system. Despite this, his workshop–academy became a centre for the training of numerous painters, sculptors and engravers. Viladomat y Manalt was principally a religious painter, and his oil paintings include Christ Appearing to St Ignatius of Loyola (c. 1711–20; Barcelona, Jesuit Convent) and St Augustine and the Holy Family...


Richard John

( Rome )

In 1746 Cardinal Alessandro Albani acquired a vineyard between the Via Nomentana and the Via Salaria, with the intention of providing a suitable setting for his collection of ancient sculpture (see Antiquarian revivals in Rome, §2 ). From 1758 he was assisted in this collection by his librarian, the antiquary and Neo-classical theorist Johann Joachim Winckelmann. Carlo Marchionni, who had previously worked for the Cardinal at Anzio and Castelgandolfo, was commissioned to design the main palace (for discussion and illustration see Marchionni, Carlo), which was constructed between 1755 and 1762. The result is a late essay in the Roman Baroque. The massive central block in nine bays consists of an open ground floor loggia of compressed Serlianas flanked by banded Ionic pilasters (see Italy, fig. ). Above, the piano nobile is articulated by plain Corinthian pilasters flanking windows with rusticated surrounds surmounted by combined segmental and triangular pediments. The loggia is continued at reduced height and stepped back to create single-storey lateral galleries. In the architecture of the palace only the horizontality and lack of central emphasis of the main block foreshadow the values and interests of Neo-classicism. These are strongly evident, however, in the interiors, decorated and painted by Anton Raphael Mengs (especially the ...


Marjorie Trusted

(b Argul, Asturias, 1663; d Madrid, after 1728).

Spanish sculptor. He moved to Madrid in 1686 and probably worked initially with Pedro Alonso de los Rios ( fl late 17th century). By 1687, however, he had set up his own workshop. His first known work is the polychromed wooden head of St Paul, signed and dated 1707 (Valladolid, Mus. N. Escul.). The accomplished realism of this piece, in particular the swirling carving of the beard, is characteristic of Villabrille’s style. Other documented works are the wooden statue of St John the Baptist (c. 1717) in Badajoz Cathedral, two stone statues on the Toledo Bridge in Madrid, St Isidore and St Mary de la Cabeza, an official commission of 1723 and the stone statue of St Ferdinand (1726) in the portal of the Madrid Hospice of St Ferdinand (now Madrid, Mus. Mun.). Luis Salvador Carmona, who was at this time apprenticed to Villabrille, assisted him on the three stone pieces. Other works attributed to Villabrille on the basis of style include a figure group of the ...


Maria Concepción García Sáiz

(b Mexico City, c. 1644; d Mexico City, 1714).

Mexican painter. He worked in a decorative Baroque style, based on the primacy of light and colour over accuracy of form. In 1675 he painted the altarpiece of the church of S Rosa de Lima, Huaquechula, Puebla, and subsequently worked until 1681 on the altarpiece of the church of S Rosa de Lima, Azcapotzalco. On several occasions between 1683 and 1686 he produced paintings for Mexico City Cathedral, including the Apotheosis of St Michael, the Woman of the Apocalypse, the Church Militant and Triumphant and the Triumph of the Eucharist (all in situ). In 1686 he worked on the triumphal arch dedicated to the Conde de la Monclova, Melchor Portocarrero and Lasso de la Vega. This was followed by the Apotheosis of the Eucharist in the Cúpula de los Reyes, Puebla Cathedral, and a new version of the Church Militant and Triumphant for Guadalajara Cathedral. In 1691 Villalpando painted a series on the ...


(bapt San Vittore, nr Roveredo, Grisons, Dec 27, 1645; bur Munich, Sept 9, 1713).

Swiss–Italian builder and architect, active in Germany. His father, Bartolomeo Viscardi (1599–1654), was summoned to Munich by Elector Maximilian I of Bavaria in 1630 and worked in the Innviertel area and in Lower Bavaria from 1634. Giovanni Antonio completed his apprenticeship in the building trade, at that time strongly influenced by Italian architectural models, in the Swiss canton of Grisons. He is first mentioned in documents in connection with the construction in 1674 of the pilgrimage church at Altötting, Lower Bavaria, where he acted as clerk of works for Enrico Zuccalli. It must have been on Zuccalli’s recommendation that Viscardi eventually went to Munich in 1677. In 1678 he was appointed court master mason and in 1685 court architect. His first years in office were taken up with small-scale but varied duties for the court building office, but he was ousted in 1689 after disputes with Zuccalli and had to make his way as an independent architect until ...


(b Turin, 1702; d Turin, Oct 19, 1770).

Italian architect and writer. He was the last of the three great masters of Piedmontese Baroque, and he achieved a reconciliation of the ideas of his predecessors Guarino Guarini and Filippo Juvarra in developing an architecture of immense creativity, particularly for churches. Vittone was the only one of the three to be born in Piedmont; most of his work was built outside Turin, however, and it remains generally less well known than that of Guarini and Juvarra.

He came from a family of small merchants, and his introduction to architecture probably came from his uncle, the architect Gian Giacomo Plantery (1680–1756). His first works were minor: the high altar (c. 1730; attrib.) in the sanctuary of S Ignazio (1725), Lanzo, a small church perhaps designed by Plantery; a wall (1730; destr.) separating the courtyard from the garden at Guarini’s unfinished Palazzo Carignano, Turin; and the parish church of S Maria della Neve (...


(b Antwerp, Jan 3, 1667; d Antwerp, Dec 6, 1737).

Flemish sculptor. He was possibly an apprentice of Jan Cosyns but later moved to the studio of Pieter Scheemakers the elder and became a master in the Antwerp Guild of St Luke in 1690. Between 1690 and 1693 he travelled in Italy, visiting Rome and Naples. In 1700 he married Elisabeth Verberckt (aunt of the sculptor Jacques Verberckt), and they had five children, one of whom, Michiel van der Voort II (1704–after 1777), was also a sculptor and painter. The majority of his commissions were for religious works, generally church furnishings in various materials. His memorial statues were classical and simple, and he drew on the knowledge he had acquired in Rome of Hellenistic statues. Other influences were Michelangelo and Rubens. The memorial to Humbert Guillielmus de Precipiano, Bishop of Mechelen (1709; Mechelen Cathedral) is traditional in design, but the marble figure of the Bishop is a penetrating portrait. The tomb of the Bishop’s brother, ...


Vivian Atwater

French family of engravers. Nicolas-Joseph Voyez (b Abbeville, 1742; d Paris, 1806) studied in Abbeville with Jacques-Firmin Beauvarlet, one of the engravers who were helping, through reproductive engravings, to popularize Netherlandish Baroque paintings in France. Both Nicolas-Joseph and his brother François Voyez (b Abbeville, 1746; d Paris, ...


Annie Scottez-De Wambrechies

(b Hautpoint, Oct 17, 1644; d Lille, June 18, 1720).

French painter. He trained in Paris as a pupil of Claude François (Frère Luc). In 1660 he left for Italy to complete his artistic education in Venice and Rome, where he copied the works of Raphael in particular. On his return to Paris he obtained a stipend from Louis XIV thanks to Charles Le Brun, whom he assisted at the château of Versailles. After a duel, however, he was obliged to take refuge in Constantinople (now Istanbul). He apparently accompanied Charles-Henri-François-Olivier, Marquis de Nointel, French ambassador to the Porte, around the Orient c. 1670–79. In 1681, after his return to Paris, he was received (reçu) as a member of the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture on presentation of his Allegory of the Marriage of the Dauphin (Paris, Louvre). In 1693 he executed the Incredulity of St Thomas, the altarpiece (or ‘May’) commissioned each year by the goldsmiths’ corporation for Notre-Dame, Paris. The success of his ...


(b Chemnitz, 1689; d Copenhagen, Dec 5, 1765).

German painter. He trained (1705–11) in Leipzig under the painter David Hoyer (1670–1720); in this studio he probably came into contact with Jan Kupecký, whose assistants, burdened with work during a visit to Leipzig, had appealed to Hoyer for help. Kupecký’s influence remained discernible in Wahl’s palette and style. After travelling for some years in Germany he settled in Hamburg, where, as well as painting the local nobility, he began his long connection with the Danish royal family. In 1721 he painted an informal portrait (Hillerød, Frederiksborg Slot) of the Danish painter Hendrick Krock (1671–1738) and subsequently executed for the Danish royal family several portraits (1723–4), all of which were despatched from Hamburg. In 1727 Wahl was appointed court painter to Frederick IV (reg 1699–1730). Inspired by Hyacinthe Rigaud’s portraits of Louis XIV of France, Wahl depicted Frederick IV (Schleswig, Schleswig-Holsteinisches Landesmus.) in the grandiose image of a military commander. After the accession to the throne of ...