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Article

( Ludwig )

(b Offenbach am Main, Oct 29, 1905; d London, July 5, 1989).

German typographic designer and teacher active in England . Following an early apprenticeship with a firm of metalworkers, from 1924 to 1928 he studied with the typographical designer Rudolf Koch (1876–1934) at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Offenbach, and later in Pforzheim, where he trained as a goldsmith. In 1929–33 he taught lettering at the Staatliche Hochschule für Bildenden Künste in Frankfurt and at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Offenbach. He designed book jackets, posters, trademarks and jewellery, as well as tapestries and metalwork (Offenbach am Main, Klingspor Mus.) in a manner rooted in medieval styles. He designed his first new typeface, Hyperion, in 1932. On a trip to London in that year he met Stanley Morison, who commissioned from him a new typeface for the Monotype Corporation (Albertus, 1935–7; bold and light versions, 1940). His other type designs include Tempest (1936), Pegasus Roman (1938) and Decorata (...

Article

Wols  

Philip Cooper

[ Schulze, Alfred Otto Wolfgang ]

(b Berlin, May 27, 1913; d Champigny-sur-Marne, nr Paris, Sept 1, 1951).

German painter, draughtsman, photographer and illustrator . In 1919, when his father was appointed head of the Saxon State Chancellery, the family moved from Berlin to Dresden. The following year Wols started taking violin lessons, showing a precocious musical talent. Having finished his studies at a grammar school in Dresden in 1931 he was too young to take the Abitur examination and so decided to abandon it. Fritz Busch, the conductor of the Dresden Opera, then offered to get him a post as a first violinist with an orchestra. Instead he worked for a few months in the studio of the photographer Gena Jonas in Dresden while also spending time as a garage mechanic.

In 1932 Wols travelled to Frankfurt am Main to study anthropology under the German ethnologist Leo Frobenius, a friend of the family, at the Afrika-Institut, though without his Abitur the plan was short-lived. He then moved to Berlin and entered the ...

Article

Wojciech Włodarczyk

(b Wilno [now Vilnius, Lithuania], June 15, 1927; d Zakopane, March 23, 1957).

Polish painter and writer . He produced his first paintings under the supervision of his mother, the graphic artist Krystyna Wróblewska (b 1904). In 1945–52 he studied painting at the Academy of Fine Arts, Kraków, in the studios of Zygmunt Radnicki (b 1894), Zbigniew Pronaszko, Hanna Rudzka-Cybisowa (b 1897) and Jerzy Fedkowicz (b 1891). At the same time he studied the history of art and became involved in art criticism, publishing his exhibition reviews and polemical articles in cultural journals. From 1950, Wróblewski worked at the Academy of Fine Arts, Kraków. He exhibited from 1946 at exhibitions significant for contemporary Polish art, including the exhibition Sztuki nowoczesnej (‘Modern art’; Kraków, Pal. A., 1948) and the Wystawa młodej plastyki (‘Young plastic arts exhibition’) at the Arsenal, Warsaw (1955). Although during the 1940s Wróblewski produced only abstract compositions, he had a strong tendency towards realism, using a simple, but often ambiguous style. In ...

Article

Dominik Bartmann

(b Eberswalde, March 10, 1927).

German painter . He studied at the Kunstschule in the orangery of the castle of Eutin. In 1947 he went to the Hochschule für Bildende Künste, Hamburg, and studied graphic art. He extended his training by another semester to work under Willem Gremm. In 1951 he was offered a teaching post at the school, which he held until 1961. In 1963 he became Professor for the Graphic Arts and Painting. Between 1951 and 1952, under the instruction of Emil Nolde and Oskar Kokoschka, he produced prints after their originals. In 1957 he created a series of Tachist paintings, for example S111/57 (tempera; see Jensen, 1979, pl. 12), but he destroyed most of them later. Towards the end of the 1950s he produced his first figurative prints and paintings. In the beginning their subjects were events from more recent German history, for example the set of lithographs 20 July 1944 (1959...

Article

Lija Skalska-Miecik

(b Kraków, Jan 15, 1869; d Kraków, Nov 28, 1907).

Polish painter, pastellist, decorative artist, illustrator, writer and theatre director . He was the son of the Kraków sculptor Franciszek Wyspiański (1836–1902) and studied at the Kraków School of Fine Arts, mostly under Władysław Łuszczkiewicz (1828–1900) and Jan Matejko. In 1889 Wyspiański and Józef Mehoffer, the school’s most talented students, were appointed to complete Matejko’s painted decorations for St Mary, Kraków, a task that prompted Wyspiański’s interest in both decorative painting and stained glass. In 1890 he travelled in Italy, Switzerland, France and Germany, and also to Prague. In 1891 he continued his training in Paris, where he remained with intervals until 1894, studying at the Académie Colarossi under Joseph Blanc, Gustave Courtois (1852–1924) and Louis Auguste Girardot (b 1858). Wyspiański also worked independently in Paris, studying paintings in the museums and fascinated by contemporary art. Through Władysław Ślewiński, he met Paul Gauguin and members of the Nabis....

Article

John E. Bowlt

(Yevgeniyevich) [ Iacovleff, Alexandre ; Jacovleff, Alexandre ]

(b St Petersburg, June 13, 1887; d Paris, May 1938).

Russian painter, graphic artist and designer . His initial training in 1905–13 was at the Academy of Arts, St Petersburg, where he studied principally under Dmitry Kardovsky. From 1909 Yakovlev contributed regularly to national and international exhibitions, and he was a member of both the World of Art group and the Union of Russian Artists. He was awarded an Academy scholarship for study in Italy and Spain in 1914–15, an experience that left an indelible mark on his stylistic evolution, as is clear from his recourse to Italian Renaissance devices and motifs in paintings such as his portrait of the Mexican artist Roberto Montenegro and The Violinist (both 1915; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.)

Just before the October Revolution of 1917 Yakovlev and his close friend Vasily Shukhayev were regarded as the representatives of a new classicism in Russian art, and, in fact, the graphic clarity and materiality of their drawings and paintings bring to mind the contemporary poetry of Anna Akhmatova and Mikhail Kuzmin, leaders of the Acmeist movement (...

Article

Jeremy Howard

( Mikhaylovna )

(b Petrovsk, Saratov province, 1893; d nr Karaganda, Kazakhstan, 1938).

Russian painter, printmaker and illustrator. She studied at the school of painting, drawing and sculpture run by Mikhail Bernshteyn and Leonid Shervud in St Petersburg (1911–14), where she was influenced, through her contact with the progressive artist Mikhail Le-Dantyu (1891–1917) and the writer Il’ya Zdanevich (1894–1975), by the principles of Neo-primitivism espoused by Mikhail Larionov. Her most productive and original contribution to Russian art started immediately after the 1917 Revolution when she founded the Today (Segodnya) collective of artists in Petrograd (St Petersburg) with the aim of producing lubok-style four-page children’s books created from linocuts and popular prints, for example her illustrations for Walt Whitman’s O Pioneers (Pionery, 1918; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.). Although Today ceased its activities when Yermolayeva left for Vitebsk (now Viciebsk) in the autumn of 1919, she continued to illustrate children’s books after 1925 for the newly created Detgiz publishing house. She drew on the formal principles of Russian signboard painting in her illustrations for ...

Article

Juliana Nedeva-Wegener

(b Samokov, June 8, 1895; d Sofia, Nov 28, 1971).

Bulgarian printmaker, graphic designer, illustrator, bookbinder, art historian, theorist, critic and teacher . He is considered to be the founder and leading representative of 20th-century Bulgarian graphic art, who in the 1920s developed his own style in the spirit of the national tradition, but with a contemporary western European outlook. In 1919 he graduated from the National Academy of Arts (Natsionalna Hudozhestvena Academia), Sofia. In 1922–4 he studied at the State Academy of Graphic Art and Book Decoration, Leipzig, where he made an in-depth study of graphic techniques. After his return to Bulgaria, he was engaged in a variety of activities, including ex-libris, illustration, bookbinding and the design of postage stamps and banknotes. From 1924 until his death he was a professor of graphic and decorative arts at the National Academy of Arts. His output of graphic art was prodigious and included woodcuts (Basilica of St Sofia, 1925; e.g. Sofia, N.A.G.), coloured mezzotints (...

Article

Sergey Kuznetsov

( Dmytriyevych ) [ Zamiraylo, Victor Dmitriyevich ]

(b Cherkasy, Kiev province, Nov 24, 1868; d Novy Petergof, Leningrad Region, Oct 2, 1939).

Ukrainian painter, printmaker and illustrator . He studied at the Kiev Drawing School (1881–6) under Mykhailo Murashko (1844–1909), who encouraged the independent development of his talents and taste without the pedantry of academicism or of the Wanderers. The influence of Gustave Doré is evident in his work of this period. From 1888 he participated in the exhibitions of the World of Art group, the Moscow Fellowship of Artists and the Union of Russian Artists. In Kiev he worked with Mikhail Vrubel’ on the restoration of the wall paintings in the church of St Cyril (1883–4) and on the decoration of the cathedral of St Vladimir (1885–90; initially on the basis of designs by Viktor Vasnetsov). In 1907–14 he produced the panels Battle at Kerzhenets and Subjugation of Kazan’ for the Kazan’ Station in Moscow to designs by Nicholas Roerich. In his easel works he used predominantly sepia, occasionally adding touches of watercolour, and he made extensive use of lamp-black. In ...

Article

G. Jansen

(b Kralingen, June 13, 1866; d Bussum, Jan 8, 1947).

Dutch sculptor. He received his first artistic training in Amsterdam, first in the form of drawing lessons from painter and illustrator Bernard Willem Wierink (1856–1939) and later at the Quellinusschool under the direction of engineer Emmanuel Constant Edouard Colinet (1840–90) and at the School for Applied Arts. There he became friendly with, among others, Joseph Mendes da Costa; through the society Labor et Ars he met Gerrit Willem Dijsselhof, Jan Eisenlöffel, H. P. Berlage, K. P. C. de Bazel and J. L. Mathieu Lauweriks. In the company of these young artists, who disliked the traditional styles, his attention was directed particularly to ancient Egyptian and Assyrian art.

In 1893 Zijl was invited by Berlage to collaborate on his building (destr. 1964) for De Algemeene life insurance company on the Damrak, Amsterdam. For this building and particularly for the Koopmansbeurs (1898–1903), Amsterdam, also by Berlage, he developed a style that can be seen as the high point of his career. This so-called ‘architecture sculpture’ is always considered as a subsidiary to the architectural concept of the whole, therefore contributing to the ...

Article

Lenka Bydžovská

(b Vadin, near Havlíčkův Brod, Nov 5, 1890; d Prague, Oct 12, 1977).

Czech painter and illustrator . He studied painting in Prague, first in private schools, then at the School of Applied Art (1907–9). In autumn 1907 he made his first, brief visit to Paris. Shortly after his return he succeeded for the first time in expressing his own inner world, infused with a new melancholy, in a small pastel Valley of Sadness (1907; painted version, 1908; both Prague, N.G.), which he looked upon as his talisman throughout his life. His early work ranged from flat and linear painting in the Gauguin tradition, via remarkable collages made from coloured foil, to rhapsodic Expressionism, as in Antichrist (1909; Prague, N.G.). Several self-portraits of 1908–9 bear witness to his quest for himself and to his penchant for self-stylization.

Zrzavý’s emphasis on the symbolic and psychic roots of his artistic work brought him into the Sursum group, which in 1910–12 attracted the second Symbolist generation in Bohemia, including ...

Article

Sjarel Ex

(b Zaandijk, May 28, 1885; d Wassenaar, Sept 27, 1977).

Dutch designer and typographer . After working in the tradition of the Arts and Crafts Movement, he came into contact in 1917 with De Stijl, which fundamentally changed the course of his work. Through Vilmos Huszár and Jan Wils, he met H. P. Berlage, for whom he worked as a draughtsman, and international artists working in typographic design, such as Kurt Schwitters, El Lissitsky and Jan Tschichold. His international importance is based on typographical works, such as those he made between 1923 and 1930 for NKF, the Dutch cable works, and for PTT, the Dutch postal service. His advertisements, inspired by Dada, often used a wide range of typography and could be read as messages, poems or advertising slogans, while being appreciated simply as designs. Zwart was also active as an interior designer; his most successful work in this field was the kitchen (1938) that he designed for the ...