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Krystyna Sroczyńska

[pseud. Ptaszek ]

(b Warsaw, June 15, 1764; d Warsaw, April 20, 1826).

Polish painter, printmaker and teacher. He trained as a master builder and then from 1780 studied under André Lebrun (1737–1811) in the school of painting at the Royal Castle in Warsaw, as well as under Jakub Monaldi and Simon Bogumił Zug. In 1785 Vogel produced several watercolour copies of vedute of Warsaw by Bernardo Bellotto, which laid the foundations of his future career. He also became Bellotto’s first successor in the field of veduta painting. From 1785 Vogel painted over 100 vedute of the capital and its environs (e.g. Panoramic View of Warsaw from Praga, 1816; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.), many of which, because of their detail and precision, were later used to reconstruct monuments destroyed during World War II. From 1787 until 1800, on the recommendation of Stanislav II Poniatowski, who appointed him his Government Illustrator, and later, on his own initiative, Vogel made several trips around Poland, painting views of castles and their ruins, and of large and small towns mainly in the Wisła River basin. From ...


Dario Succi

(b Angarano di Bassano, March 30, 1740; d Rome, Sept 22, 1803).

Italian engraver and porcelain manufacturer ( see fig. ). In 1760 he entered the famous copperplate printworks of Giambattista Remondini in Bassano and, under the guidance of Antonio Baratti, learnt the art of engraving and etching. During this early period he engraved, signing himself Jean Renard, four Rustic Capricci after Giovanni Battista Piazzetta, the Four Parts of the World after Jacopo Amigoni, the Four Ages of Man after Andrea Zucchi and the portrait of Giambattista Morgagni. On the invitation of Francesco Bartolozzi, who had noted his talent during a visit to Bassano, he moved to Venice in 1762 and was thus able to refine his technique while maintaining his connection with the Remondini concern as a technical consultant and commercial adviser.

In Venice, Volpato engraved four landscapes after Francesco Zuccarelli, six landscapes after Marco Ricci, four religious scenes after Amigoni, the Four Seasons and six Flemish Scenes after Francesco Maggiotto, as well as various portraits, including those of the ...


Fransje Kuyvenhoven

(b Amsterdam, bapt July 10, 1768; d Rome, Sept 4, 1839).

Dutch painter and printmaker, active in Italy. He studied from 1783 at the Stadstekenakademie in Amsterdam and subsequently with the wallpaper painter Jurriaan Andriessen. The financial aid of the Amsterdam art collector D. Versteegh (1751–1822) enabled him to depart in 1788 for Rome to obtain further training in landscape painting. Voogd’s works from his first Roman years are primarily drawings with coloured wash in the typical late 18th-century linear style; an expressive example is River Landscape near Narni (1789; Haarlem, Teylers Mus.). Owing to the absence of Dutch colleagues in Rome, Voogd spent much of his time with the Franco-Flemish and German artists’ colonies there. Internationally famous landscape painters, such as Nicolas-Didier Boguet, Johann Christian Reinhart and Johann Martin von Rohden, were among his close friends, and the work of the last, in particular, is often mistaken for that of Voogd. It is apparent, from one of the infrequent letters that Voogd sent to Versteegh in the Netherlands, that he made numerous drawings of Rome and its environs (Tivoli, Lake Albano, Castel Gandolfo, Lake Nemi etc). Some of these drawings, executed mostly in pencil and black chalk, consist of motifs taken directly from nature, such as trees and rocks; others portray views. Both categories are represented in Amsterdam (Hist. Mus. and Rijksmus.). Voogd claimed that his great exemplar, in addition to nature, was Claude Lorrain; from shortly after ...


Vivian Atwater

French family of engravers. Nicolas-Joseph Voyez (b Abbeville, 1742; d Paris, 1806) studied in Abbeville with Jacques-Firmin Beauvarlet, one of the engravers who were helping, through reproductive engravings, to popularize Netherlandish Baroque paintings in France. Both Nicolas-Joseph and his brother François Voyez (b Abbeville, 1746; d Paris, ...


(b ?Thaldorf, Württemburg, 1706; d Venice, 1780).

German engraver and print publisher, active in Italy. The pupil of Jacopo Amigoni, he was one of the leading mid-18th-century reproductive engravers active in Venice. As well as publishing engravings after such leading painters as Canaletto, he also worked on a two-volume set of engravings, Delle antiche statue greche e romane...


[Jean Frédéric Waldeck, Comte de ]

(b Prague, March 17, 1766; d Paris, April 30, 1875).

French painter and printmaker of German–Bohemian origin, active in Mexico. After studying in Paris under Jacques-Louis David, Pierre-Paul Prud’hon and Joseph-Marie Vien he travelled to Chile and then to Mexico, where he was employed by an English mining company in Tlalpujahua to draw machinery to be used in extracting minerals. He became more interested, however, in drawing archaeological ruins. While in Mexico he declined the offer of two posts: that of directing the first lithographic press in 1826, shortly before its installation by the government, and the presidency of the Academia de S Carlos in Mexico City. He did, however, publish Colección de antigüedades que existen en el Museo Nacional.

Waldeck continued to publish his illustrations after returning to Europe, where he settled in Paris. In 1866 he was involved in a polemic in the newspapers with Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc over the merits of using photography as archaeological evidence.

Colección de antiqüedades que existen en el Museo Nacional...


David Alexander

(b Thirsk, Yorks, March 6, 1726; d London, May 9, 1765).

English printmaker and draughtsman. He was apprenticed c. 1741 to the engraver and printseller John Tinney (d 1761) and must have worked on the many topographical plates that Tinney issued. In 1747 he designed and engraved a satire entitled The Beaux Disaster, but much of his earlier signed work was for the book trade, taken from his own drawings. His skill as an etcher gave an unusual degree of freedom to his work. Five Shakespearian subjects designed and engraved by Walker and sold by Tinney appeared on 15 January 1754; these show Walker’s great ability in handling figures, also seen in his charming groups for drawing books, such as The Complete Drawing Book (2nd ed.; London, 1757). In his last five years Walker was in demand as an engraver of large singly issued prints; he engraved five for John Boydell, which were published in 1763–5 and exhibited in ...


Edward J. Nygren

(b London, Oct 23, 1769; d Cheshunt, Herts, Nov 17, 1859).

English painter and engraver. He was the most important animal painter of his generation. Many of his dynamic compositions depict horses, dogs or wild animals in agitated emotional states, the sense of movement being reinforced by vigorous brushwork and strong colours. With their sweeping landscapes and dramatic skies, his canvases epitomize Romanticism. Not content to excel merely as an animal painter, Ward also produced portraits, landscapes and genre and history paintings of varying quality. A prolific artist, he was a frequent exhibitor at the British Institution and at the Royal Academy, London.

Ward was trained as an engraver by his brother William Ward (1766–1826) and John Raphael Smith and was in great demand as a mezzotinter at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th when he translated into prints works by William Beechey, John Hoppner, Thomas Lawrence and others. He began working in oil around ...


(bapt Zurich, Oct 16, 1678; d Zurich, Sept 20, 1714).

Swiss painter and etcher. She received her first lessons in Zurich, from Johannes Sulzer (1652–1717), under whose direction she painted a Self-portrait at the Age of Twelve (1691; Zurich, Ksthaus), in which the portrait on the easel beside her is of Sulzer. From 1692 to 1695/6 she studied with Joseph Werner II in Berne, then set up as a miniature painter in Zurich. Soon her reputation grew and earned her commissions from all over Europe, especially from Germany, England and the Netherlands. From 1699 to 1702 she was employed at the court of Solms-Braunfels, then returned to Zurich, where she continued to paint mainly allegorical and idyllic pastoral subjects (none of which survive) and miniature portraits. An elegant silverpoint drawing of the Ideal Head of a Woman (1711; Berlin, Altes Mus.) shows a profile drawn in the manner of antique busts but with finely delineated hair and a lively expression; it resembles contemporary French drawings. Her sister ...


(b Paris, Aug 28, 1718; d Paris, Jan 12, 1786).

French government official, writer, collector and amateur painter and engraver. He was the son of Nicolas-Robert Watelet, Receveur-général des Finances in Orléans, and in 1740 inherited his father’s lucrative post, as well as the family fortune. In his youth he travelled in Germany and to Vienna, Naples and Rome; in the latter city he lodged with the Painter to the King, Jean-Baptiste Pierre. By the late 1750s Watelet’s country house near Paris, Le Moulin-Joli, had become a meeting-place for intellectual society, being frequented, among others, by the Comte de Caylus, the Marquis d’Argenson, the poet Jean-François Marmontel (1723–99), the Abbé Jacques Delille (1738–1813) and the Marquise de Pompadour. With their encouragement Watelet published in 1760 L’Art de peindre, a long didactic poem on the principles and techniques of painting, which won him election in 1760 to the Académie Française.

In 1763 Watelet, accompanied by his mistress, Mme Marguerite Le Comte, and by his former teacher, the Abbé Copette, made a journey to Italy, where they were official guests of the King of Sardinia, the French Embassy and the Académie de France in Rome. The trip was commemorated by the publication in ...


Sonja Weih-Krüger

(b Innsbruck, bapt May 29, 1733; d Vienna, May 11, 1771).

Austrian painter, draughtsman and etcher . After training in Innsbruck and Vienna, he worked for Elector Johann Friedrich of Mainz, producing ten overdoors for his palace in Mainz, besides landscapes, architectural views and naval and maritime scenes. Joining the pupils of Jean-Georges Wille in Paris in 1759–63, he transferred his ambitions to drawing and printed graphics, practised copying Dutch and Flemish works and developed a masterly etching technique, which he applied to his own drawings. His landscape series, mostly comprising six or twelve small-format etchings, in only a few cases dated or signed on the plate, were published by Wille, François Joullain, Gabriel Huquier, Prevost, François Chéreau I and Basan & Poignant, sometimes in several editions. Visiting Rome in 1763–4, Weirotter met Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717–68) and Henry Fuseli; he then returned to Paris. In 1767 he was appointed professor of landscape drawing at the Vienna Akademie, through the mediation of his friend Jacob Mathias Schmutzer (...


Emma Barker

(b ?Strasbourg, 1711; d Strasbourg, Oct 24, 1751).

French draughtsman and engraver . He was a resident of Strasbourg, whose work has received little attention from the Paris-orientated historians of 18th-century French engraving. However, he trained in Paris under Jean-Baptiste de Poilly and his most important work, the Représentation des fêtes données par la ville de Strasbourg pour la convalescence du Roi (iff, xiii, nos 29–39), was in large part executed by the celebrated Paris engraver Jacques-Philippe Lebas. This commemorative volume, ‘invented, drawn and directed’ by Weis, records the elaborate celebrations on the occasion of Louis XV’s visit to the city in 1744. It consists of 11 double-spread folio prints, which combine a minutely detailed description of the buildings of the city with a strong pictorial sense. Weis’s name also appears on the Good Mother (1744), one of a series of prints made in Paris with false attributions to Jean-Siméon Chardin, but the bulk of his work, produced in Strasbourg, consists of prints of topographical subjects and contemporary events. His son, also called ...


Klára Garas

[ Pascha ]

(b Hessendamm, nr Wolfenbüttel, Oct 16, 1723; d Salzdahlum, Aug 6, 1803).

German painter, engraver, sculptor and administrator . He began his career as a pattern writer, then became a professional soldier. During this time he trained as a draughtsman, painter and copyist. From 1756 he was employed at the Fürstenberg porcelain factory as a painter and model draughtsman. He continued his artistic training on trips to other German cities (e.g. Nuremberg, Ansbach, Düsseldorf) and to the Netherlands, where he was also occasionally active as an art dealer. He was engaged by Charles I, Duke of Brunswick, and he took up residence in Salzdahlum; he was appointed gallery inspector of the Duke’s collection in Salzdahlum in 1789. With his wide variety of functions—as an artistic adviser, a modeller of porcelain works and miniature busts and as a painter—he played an important role in artistic life in Brunswick. In 1795 he became a member of the Preussische Kunstakademie in Berlin.

Weitsch’s principal talent was as a landscape painter. He painted mostly landscapes with ruins and animals in the Dutch style. His contemporaries praised his truth to nature in the depiction of local scenes: he produced a series of landscapes for ...


Shearer West

English family of painters and illustrators . Richard Westall (b Hertford, 1765; d London, 4 Dec 1836) was apprenticed in 1799 to John Thompson, a heraldic engraver in London. The miniaturist John Alefounder (d 1795) advised Westall to take up painting, and in 1784 he exhibited a portrait drawing (untraced) at the Royal Academy. He became a student at the Royal Academy Schools in 1785, an ARA in 1792 and an RA in 1794. He exhibited over 300 works at the Royal Academy and 70 at the British Institution, including such large watercolours as Cassandra Prophesying the Fall of Troy (exh. London, RA 1796; London, V&A), which are painted in violent and sometimes excessive colours. Others, such as The Rosebud (1791; New Haven, CT, Yale Cent. Brit. A.), tend towards a Rococo prettiness. His principal expertise was book illustration. He was employed by John Boydell, Thomas Macklin and ...


David Blayney Brown

(b London, 1645; d London, 1703).

English engraver and draughtsman . He was trained by David Loggan as a line-engraver and portrait draughtsman. Although he drew a self-portrait when he was 16 and his first print (before 1666) was a portrait, much of White’s early work was topographical. In 1671 he drew and engraved a bird’s-eye view of the London Royal Exchange. In his notebooks George Vertue claimed that White also drew ‘many buildings’ for Loggan, perhaps for his views of Oxford and Cambridge, Oxonia illustrata (1675) and Cantabrigia illustrata (1688), and for John Slezer’s Theatrum Scotiae (1693), to which Loggan also contributed.

White established himself as one of London’s leading line-engravers of portraits, working after contemporary artists including Lely, Kneller, John Riley, Mary Beale and Michael Dahl. He also worked from his own drawings, taken from life; these were drawn in Loggan’s manner, using black lead on vellum, sometimes with the face lightly tinted in brown wash. Between ...



David Alexander

(b c. 1750; d London, May 28, 1814).

English miniature painter and engraver . He exhibited portraits (1783–1808) at the Royal Academy, London, but is best remembered for his stipple engravings, notably the large Cornelia (1792), after Joshua Reynolds’s portrait of Lady Cockburn and her Children (exh. RA 1774; London, N.G.), and Mrs Parkyns (1795) after John Hoppner. Wilkin also published a delightful series of Portraits of Ladies of Rank and Fashion (1797–1803) in five parts of two prints each, ‘executed in a manner to unite the Higher Finishing of Painting with the Spirit and Freedom of Drawing’; these were after Hoppner but ‘the Difficulty that attends getting Mr Hoppner’s Pictures’ delayed the work and obliged Wilkin to use three paintings of his own. His sons Frank Wilkin (1800–42) and Henry Wilkin (1801–52) were portrait painters who also exhibited at the Royal Academy.

O’Donoghue; Thieme–Becker Gentleman’s Magazine...


Patrick Conner



Geoffrey Ashton

(b Leeds, June 21, 1721; d London, June 6, 1788).

English painter, etcher and scientist. He was the 14th child of Major Wilson, a wealthy York clothier whose house was decorated by a French artist, Jacques Parmentier (d 1730). His father’s business failed and Wilson moved to London, where he became a clerk and began to study painting, possibly with Thomas Hudson. In 1746 and 1748–50 he was in Dublin, where he practised successfully as a portrait painter. On his return to London he settled into Godfrey Kneller’s old house in Great Queen Street and built up a lucrative portrait practice, which was probably patronized chiefly by Yorkshiremen in London. One of these, Sir John Savile, later Earl of Mexborough, may have introduced him to Edward Augustus, Duke of York (1739–67), who in 1773 appointed Wilson painter to the Board of Ordnance, though he painted little after 1769.

Wilson was one of the leading portrait painters in England during the 1750s. Like Reynolds, he made dramatic use of Rembrandtesque chiaroscuro, although his intention may have been to hide the weakness in his drawing rather than to emphasize the mystery of his sitters. He exhibited little: four portraits at the Society of Artists (...


(b Eichstätt, Dec 19, 1738; d Munich, Feb 2, 1797).

German painter and etcher. After a five-year apprenticeship to the painter of sculptures Anton Scheidler ( fl 1745–after 1775) in Eggenfelden and short stays in Augsburg and Freising, he returned to Eichstätt and trained for a further year with the sculpture painter Jacob Feichtmayr ( fl 1735–67). From 1759–60 he was in Munich, first as assistant to Johann Michael Kaufmann (1713–?86), then as theatre painter at the electoral court, working to the designs of Lorenzo Quaglio, among others. His designs for the Elector’s Gobelins factory were recorded in a series of large-format oil paintings. In 1769 he became court painter.

Winck is regarded as the most heavily employed fresco painter in Munich in the later 18th century. His first major fresco (Starnberg, St Joseph) was completed in 1766; in the same year he worked at St Remigius, Raisting (nr Weilheim), and from 1767 in St Johann Baptist, Inning, but none of these early works have survived intact. His most important early work (...