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Helen M. Strudwick, Claude Vandersleyen, Dimitris Plantzos, William A. Ward, William H. Peck, Dominic Montserrat, John Baines, Gay Robins, J. Ruffle, Lise Manniche, Rosemarie Klemm, Jean-Luc Chappaz, Joachim Śliwa, Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood, Ann Bomann, R. G. Morkot, Peter Lacovara, Delia Pemberton, Rita E. Freed, Philip J. Watson, Robert S. Bianchi, Henry G. Fischer, Jaromir Malek, S. Curto, Nadine Cherpion, James F. Romano, Karol Mysliwiec, Richard A. Fazzini, Edna R. Russmann, Eleni Vassilika, updated by Dimitris Plantzos, Edda Bresciani, Claude Traunecker, T. G. H. James, W. J. Tait, J. H. Taylor, Dorothea Arnold, Jack Ogden, Jean Vercoutter, Carol Andrews, Donald P. Ryan, E. Finkenstaedt, Paul T. Nicholson, Rosemarie Drenkhahn, Willemina Z. Wendrich, Robert Anderson, Barbara G. Aston and Morris Bierbrier

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Helen M. Strudwick, Claude Vandersleyen, Dimitris Plantzos, William A. Ward, William H. Peck, Dominic Montserrat, John Baines, Gay Robins, J. Ruffle, Lise Manniche, Rosemarie Klemm, Jean-Luc Chappaz, Joachim Śliwa, Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood, Ann Bomann, R. G. Morkot, Peter Lacovara, Delia Pemberton, Rita E. Freed, Philip J. Watson, Robert S. Bianchi, Henry G. Fischer, Jaromir Malek, S. Curto, Nadine Cherpion, James F. Romano, Karol Mysliwiec, Richard A. Fazzini, Edna R. Russmann, Eleni Vassilika, updated by Dimitris Plantzos, Edda Bresciani, Claude Traunecker, T. G. H. James, W. J. Tait, J. H. Taylor, Dorothea Arnold, Jack Ogden, Jean Vercoutter, Carol Andrews, Donald P. Ryan, E. Finkenstaedt, Paul T. Nicholson, Rosemarie Drenkhahn, Willemina Z. Wendrich, Robert Anderson, Barbara G. Aston and Morris Bierbrier

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Eleni Vassilika

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Ann Bomann

[Yahoudeh; Yahûdîyeh; Yahoudiyé; Yehūdīyah], Tell el- [Arab.: ‘Mound of the Jews’; Egyp. Nay-ta-hut; Gr. Leontopolis]

Egyptian site 31 km north of Cairo near Shibin el-Qanatir in the Nile Delta. It was excavated by Heinrich Brugsch, Edouard Naville, F. Ll. Griffith and Flinders Petrie in the late 19th century and early 20th, and by Shehata Adam in the 1950s. Although occupation of the site may have commenced during the Early Dynastic Period (c. 2925–c. 2575 bc), the earliest evidence dates from the Middle Kingdom (c. 2008–c. 1630 bc) and the Second Intermediate Period (c. 1630–c. 1540 bc). Two cemeteries include graves dating from the 12th Dynasty (c. 1938–c. 1756 bc) to the Greco-Roman Period (332 bcad 395). The ‘Hyksos Camp’ is a rectangular earth enclosure with rounded ends measuring c. 515×490 m, with a gateway in the eastern face. This enclosure consists of an inner vertical mud-brick wall, faced on the exterior by an inclined bank, or glacis, of plastered sand with a ditch beyond; no wall surmounted the bank. One theory is that, because of its similarity to Syro-Palestinian fortifications of the period, it was built by Near Eastern immigrants for military purposes. However, a more accepted interpretation is that it had a religious function, owing to certain parallels with cultic earthworks at Heliopolis and Mendes. Inside the enclosure on the north-east, the existence of a temple of ...

Article

C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky

[Pers. Tappa-yi Yaḥyā]

Site in the province of Kirman in south-east Iran, which has provided a sequence for the archaeology of the area from the early 5th millennium bc to the Parthian or Sasanian period in the early centuries ad ( see Iran, ancient §I 2. ). The site is a mound 19.8 m high with an almost circular base 187 m in diameter. It was excavated by C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky of the Peabody Museum, Harvard University, from 1967. The finds are in the Archaeological Museum in Tehran and at the Peabody Museum, Harvard University.

Neolithic (Period VII, c. 4900–c. 3900 bc) and Chalcolithic (Periods VI–V, c. 3800–c. 3300 bc) remains include numerous houses with spacious storage facilities, a large number of clay figurines of sheep or goats and some stone figurines; one female figurine of chlorite was found in a storage magazine, resting face down and associated with numerous stone and bone tools. Carved chlorite vessels (made from locally quarried stone), a miniature human head and a large alabaster ram are particularly fine examples of 5th-millennium ...

Article

Keith Pratt

Chinese Neolithic culture, c. 5000–c. 3000 bc, first discovered in 1921 by the Swedish archaeologist Johan Gunnar Andersson (1874–1960). It is named after the site at at Yangshao cun in Henan Province, and is the earliest known Neolithic culture in China. The Yangshao culture is centered on the Wei River valley and covers a large area from ...

Article

C. A. Burney

Site in north-western Iran, 32 km south-west of Tabriz. This settlement mound is 16.5 m high and extends over c. 8 ha. A long Chalcolithic (4th millennium bc) sequence and Early Bronze Age (3rd millennium bc) levels were excavated by Charles Burney between 1960 and 1962. Finds are in the Archaeological Museum in Tehran.

The Early Bronze Age sequence consisted of 14 Early Trans-Caucasian II levels with round houses (circles) of relatively flimsy mud-brick construction with wattle-and-daub roofing; these houses tended to become larger and more densely located in successive levels, and the bigger ones had a central post. There was often a high threshold, and the standard kitchen fittings—bin, working surface and hearth—were invariably immediately to the right of the door. Pottery with intricate incised decoration was found in enormous quantities in the circles and their surrounding courtyards. Each circle had its range of storage vessels, smaller jars, bowls and lamps. The decoration is predominantly geometric, with patterns derived from woodworking or textiles, perhaps kilims, consistent with a nomadic tradition. Animals and birds also occur in profusion but are too stylized to be readily recognizable. Parallels lie in Trans-Caucasia, and the pottery belongs to a sub-tradition of Early Trans-Caucasian culture within this zone. It may have been brought by an intrusive Indo-European element from the north. There followed five Early Trans-Caucasian III levels with rectangular buildings and undecorated pottery. The surface of the mound bore extensive traces of burning....

Article

David Stronach

[Pers. Yārīm Tappa]

Site in the fertile Gurgan plain of north-eastern Iran, 125 km east of the Caspian Sea. The mound is 20 m high, but it is now reduced to little more than half its original size (diam. 180 m) by river erosion and is distinguished by its tall cliff-like southern face. It was this exposed section that indicated that Yarim Tepe could well expand what was known of the long history of settlement in north-eastern Iran, from the 6th millennium bc to the early centuries ad (see Iran, ancient §I 2., (i) ). The site was excavated by Stronach in 1960 and 1962, and most of the finds are in the Archaeological Museum in Tehran.

The sequence begins with the establishment of an Early Chalcolithic settlement (Yarim I) in the late 6th millennium bc. The pottery is straw-tempered, slipped and painted. After a gap of almost 1500 years (during which there is just enough evidence from the vicinity to indicate a local use of finely painted, grit-tempered ...

Article

R. M. Munchaev and N. Ya. Merpert

Group of six mounds containing remains of settlements dating from the 6th to the 1st millennium bc, situated near the town of Tall ‛Afar in northern Iraq. Three of these, Yarim Tepe I, II and III, were investigated by a Soviet expedition led by R. M. Munchaev from 1969 to 1980. Finds have been distributed between the Iraq Museums in Baghdad, the Mosul Museum and the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow.

Yarim Tepe I, which belongs to the Hassuna culture of northern Mesopotamia (6th millennium bc), covers an area of approximately 2 ha on the banks of a stream. The mound rises 5 m above the level of the plain, and the archaeological deposits are 6.5 m deep, within which 12 levels have been identified. Architectural remains have been recorded from the earliest levels upwards. The houses are rectangles composed of a series of rooms used as living-quarters or workshops. In the larger houses there are up to 15 rooms. The walls of the houses are made up of clay slabs, and the floors were coated with clay or gypsum. Within the rooms there were round, oval and rectangular ovens as well as granaries and areas for drying grain. Kilns for firing pottery, the remains of workshops where tools were produced and round constructions possibly used as shrines were also discovered. Child burials were found under the floors of some houses....

Article

J. D. Hawkins

[Turk.: ‘inscribed rock face’]

Great open-air sanctuary (c. 1500–1200 bc) of the Hittite capital city Hattusa ( see Boğazköy ), c. 1.5 km north-east of the ruins of the city in central Turkey. Yazılıkaya is a rocky outcrop forming two chambers (A and B) open to the sky. These were closed off by a gradually developing series of buildings that evolved from a simple wall to more elaborate structures designed to provide the natural sanctuary with the gatehouse and entrance courtyard of the typical Hittite temple. Excavation has revealed more than one remodelling.

The main chamber A was entered through the gatehouse and courtyard with a left turn, which would have disclosed the natural gallery, its rock walls sculptured with two files of figures (on the left male figures advancing right, on the right female figures advancing left). The processions converge in a central scene at the back of the gallery, where two sets of main figures, three on the left and four on the right, confront each other. The figures of both files have been numbered consecutively from the left: the left file has 42 figures, the right 21....

Article

Yortan  

Donald F. Easton

Site near Gelembe, north-west Turkey, which flourished in the Early Bronze Age, c. 2700–2400 bc. Yortan was excavated in 1900–01 by Paul Gaudin, who concentrated on the extramural cemetery where he uncovered 107 burial jars each containing at least one contracted burial and associated grave goods. The finds are in the British Museum in London, the Musées Royaux d’Art et d’Histoire in Brussels and the Louvre in Paris.

The pottery from Yortan has an outstanding range of shapes, including globular jars with flaring collar-neck, globular jugs with rising spout (sometimes cut away above the handle), bird-shaped jugs ( see fig. ), ‘teapots’, carinated bowls and triple jars with one over-arching basket handle. Many vessels, especially smaller ones, have three small feet. Kâmil distinguished three successive classes, of which only Class C was wheel-made. Class A, the most numerous, has a well-burnished but crumbly fabric, which is generally black or grey but sometimes red or brown. It often has incised, incised-and-white-filled, or white-painted decoration. Common designs include chevrons and horizontal bands containing zigzags, wavy lines, dashes or lozenges, while plastic ornament comprises warts, crescents, parallel bars and fluting. The fabric of Class B is harder and finer, but less burnished. The fine, hard-fired ware of Class C is light grey or light red, with no burnish and little decoration; the clay may have come from a different source....

Article

J. H. Taylor

Small, undecorated tomb of an Egyptian noble and his wife. It was discovered in the Valley of Kings (KV 46) at Thebes in 1905. The tomb had suffered superficial plundering but most of the contents were recovered intact (Cairo, Egyp. Mus., and New York, Met.). The collection is important for the light it throws on the funerary equipment of the nobility at the height of the New Kingdom (c. 1540–c. 1075 bc) and the styles of furniture and decorative art current at that time.

Yuya and Tuya were the parents of Queen Tiye, the wife of Amenophis III (reg c. 1390–c. 1353 bc). Yuya, perhaps of Asiatic extraction, came from Akhmim in Upper Egypt, where he held important religious offices. He was also God’s Father (i.e. father-in-law of the pharaoh), Master of the Horse and King’s Lieutenant of Chariotry. His wife Tuya was in charge of the female personnel of the temples of Amun and Min....

Article

V. Ya. Petrukhin

Site of Neolithic petroglyphs (before mid-2nd millennium bc) on the sloping granite banks of the River Vyg, which flows into the White Sea in Karelia. Vladislav I. Ravdonikas (1894–1976) discovered Zalavruga 1, with around 200 carvings, in 1936, while research by Yury A. Savvateyev from 1963 led to the discovery of a cliff with a further group of images (Zalavruga 2, with around 500 rock-carvings). The petroglyphs were made using pecking technique and are mostly in outline, with rare examples in low relief. Elk, deer and water-fowl are faithfully rendered. The most unusual images are scenes showing the hunting of a white whale from a boat and hunters on skis pursuing elk. The compositions cover large surfaces of rock, forming a kind of panel, and are similar in style to the nearby panel at Besovy (or Chortovy), which has around 300 images of large fish and water-fowl and smaller elk and human figures....

Article

Mary S. Lawton

[Cheng-chou ; Chengchow]

Capital of Henan Province, China. Archaeological excavations since 1950 in the drainage basin of the south bank of the Yellow River have produced evidence that this was a centre of Shang culture (c. 1600–1050 bc ).

The area has been identified by some archaeologists with the second Shang capital, Ao, which according to the ancient annals (e.g. Liu Xin’s San Tong li pu (a calendar) and the Zhushu jinian (Bamboo Annals)) was founded by the Shang ruler Zhongding (reg c. 1568– c.1558 bc), but on the basis of archaeological evidence is generally dated to the 15th century bc. Around 1300 bc it seems the capital was transferred to Yin, near modern Anyang (see 1968 exh. cat.). Findings support the hypothesis that for some time Zhengzhou and Anyang may have been occupied contemporaneously. During the Zhou period (c. 1050–256 bc ) the area was first called Guyang and then known as Dantu. While serving as the capital of the state of Wu during the Three Kingdoms period (...

Article

Susan Langdon

[now Ayios Vasilios]

Site of an Early and Late Bronze Age town in the Corinthia of southern Greece, midway between Argos and Corinth. Excavations at the Zygouries Hill in the Kleonai Valley were conducted by Carl Blegen in 1921–2 for the American School of Classical Studies, revealing an important sequence of Bronze Age settlements. The Early Helladic (eh) phase (c. 3600/3000–c. 2050 bc) was the most abundantly represented, with at least ten houses of mud-brick on stone socle construction arranged close together on narrow streets. The rectangular, flat-roofed, two- and three-roomed structures with fixed central hearths provided one of the first definitive examples of Early Bronze Age domestic architecture. Contemporary graves yielded a broad variety of eh pottery, small gold, silver and bronze ornaments, numerous figurines and stone tools. Like its neighbours Tiryns, Asine, Lerna and Ayios Kosmas, Zygouries suffered a severe destruction at the end of ...